March 30, 2017

Developments in Operations Technology - Review Notes

Operations Technology Chapter from Chase Aquilano Jacobs Book

Much of the recent growth in productivity has come from the application of operations technology. In services this comes primarily from soft technology—information processing. In manufacturing it comes from a combination of soft and hard (machine) technologies.

Development in Technologies

Hardware technology developments  have generally resulted in greater automation of processes. Labor-intensive tasks originally performed by humans are getting more and more automated. Examples of these hardware technologies are numerically controlled machine tools, machining centers, industrial robots, automated materials handling systems, and flexible manufacturing
systems. These are all computer-controlled equipments and machines  that can be used in the manufacturing of products.

Software-based technologies are being used in the design of manufactured products and in
the analysis and planning of manufacturing activities. These technologies include computer aided design and automated manufacturing planning and control systems.

Hardware Systems

Numerically controlled (NC) machines are comprised of (1) machine tool used to turn, drill, or grind different types of parts and (2) a computer that controls the sequence of processes performed by the machine. NC machines are now in use many industries. In more recent models, feedback control loops determine the position of the machine tooling during the work, constantly compare the actual location with the programmed location, and correct as needed. This is often called adaptive control.

Machining centers represent an increased level of automation and complexity relative to
NC machines. Machining centers not only provide automatic control of a machine, they
may also carry many tools that can be automatically changed depending on the tool required
for each operation. In addition, a single machine may be equipped with a shuttle system so
that a finished part can be unloaded and an unfinished part loaded while the machine is
working on a part.

Industrial robots are now used as substitutes for workers for many repetitive manual activities
and tasks that are dangerous, dirty, or dull. A robot is a programmable, multifunctional
machine that may be equipped with an end effector. Examples of end effectors include a
gripper to pick things up, or a tool such as a wrench, a welder, or a paint sprayer.  Advanced capabilities have been designed into robots to allow vision, tactile sensing, and hand-to-hand coordination. In addition, some models can be “taught”a sequence of motions in a three-dimensional pattern. As a worker moves the end of the robot arm through the required motions, the robot records this pattern in its memory and repeats it on command.

Automated materials handing (AMH) systems improve efficiency of transportation, storage, and retrieval of materials. Examples are computerized conveyors and automated storage
and retrieval systems (AS/RS) in which computers direct automatic loaders to pick and place
items. Automated guided vehicle (AGV) systems use embeddedfloor wires to direct driverless vehicles to various locations in the plant. Benefits of AMH systems include quicker
material movement, lower inventories and storage space, reduced product damage, and
higher labor productivity.

The individual pieces of automation can be combined to form manufacturing cells or
even completeflexible manufacturing systems (FMS).A manufacturing cell might consist
of a robot and a machining center. The robot could be programmed to automatically insert
and remove parts from the machining center, thus allowing unattended operation. An FMS
is a totally automated manufacturing system that consists of machining centers with automated loading and unloading of parts, an automated guided vehicle system for moving parts
between machines, and other automated elements to allow unattended production of parts.
In an FMS, a comprehensive computer control system is used to run the entire system.

A FMS is in operation in the Cincinnati Milacron facility in Mt. Orab, Ohio, for over 20 years. In this system, parts are loaded onto standardized fixtures (these are called “risers”), which are mounted
on pallets that can be moved by the AGVs. Workers load and unload tools and parts onto
the standardized fixtures at the workstations shown on the right side of the diagram. Most
of this loading and unloading is done during a single shift. The system can operate virtually
unattended for the other two shifts each day.  The system is capable of producing hundreds of different parts.

Software Systems Computer-aided design (CAD) is an approach to product and
process design that utilizes the power of the computer. CAD covers several automated technologies, such ascomputer graphics to examine the visual characteristics of a product and
computer-aided engineering (CAE )to evaluate its engineering characteristics. Rubbermaid
used CAD to refine dimensions of its Tote Wheels to meet airline requirements for checked
baggage. CAD also includes technologies associated with the manufacturing process design, referred to as computer-aided process planning (CAPP).CAPP is used to design the
computer part programs that serve as instructions to computer-controlled machine tools,
and to design the programs used to sequence parts through the machine centers and other
processes (such as the washing and inspection) needed to complete the part. These programs
are referred to as process plans. Sophisticated CAD systems are also able to do on-screen
tests, replacing the early phases of prototype testing and modification.

CAD has been used to design everything from computer chips to potato chips. Frito-Lay,
for example, used CAD to design its O’Grady’s double-density, ruffled potato chip. The problem in designing such a chip is that if it is cut improperly, it may be burned on the outside
and soggy on the inside, be too brittle (and shatter when placed in the bag), or display other
characteristics that make it unworthy for, say, a guacamole dip. However, through the use
of CAD, the proper angle and number of ruffles were determined mathematically; the
O’Grady’s model passed its stress test in the infamous Frito-Lay“crusher”and made it to
your grocer’s shelf.

CAD is now being used to custom design swimsuits. Measurements of the wearer are fed
into the CAD program, along with the style of suit desired. Working with the customer, the
designer modifies the suit design as it appears on a human-form drawing on the computer
screen. Once the design is decided upon, the computer prints out a pattern, and the suit is
cut and sewn on the spot.

Automated manufacturing planning and control systems (MP&CS)are simply computerbased information systems that help plan, schedule, and monitor a manufacturing operation.
They obtain information from the factory floor continuously about work status, material
arrivals, and so on, and they release production and purchase orders. Sophisticated manufacturing and planning control systems include order-entry processing, shop-floor control,
purchasing, and cost accounting.


All of these automation technologies are brought together under computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM). CIM is the automated version of the manufacturing process, where the three
major manufacturing functions—product and process design, planning and control, and the
manufacturing process itself—are replaced by the automated technologies just described. Further, the traditional integration mechanisms of oral and written communication are replaced
by computer technology. Such highly automated and integrated manufacturing also goes
under other names:total factory automation and the factory of the future.
All of the CIM technologies are tied together using a network and integrated database. For
instance, data integration allows CAD systems to be linked to computer-aided manufacturing (CAM),which consists of numerical-control parts programs; and the manufacturing planning and control system can be linked to the automated material handling systems to facilitate
parts pick list generation. Thus, in a fully integrated system, the areas of design, testing, fabrication, assembly, inspection, and material handling are not only automated but also integrated with each other and with the manufacturing planning and scheduling function.

An early adopter of a new technology has the benefit of being ahead of the competition, but
he or she also runs the risk of acquiring an untested technology whose problems could disrupt
the firm’s operations. There is also the risk of obsolescence, especially with electronics-based
technologies where change is rapid and when the fixed cost of acquiring new technologies or
the cost of upgrades is high. Also, alternative technologies may become more cost-effective
in the future, negating the benefits of a technology today.

There could also be risks in applying a new technology to a firm’s operations. Installation
of a new technology generally results in significant disruptions, at least in the short run, in
the form of plantwide reorganization, retraining, and so on. Further risks are due to the delays and errors introduced in the production process and the uncertain and sudden demands
on various resources.

Firms may lack the organizational culture and top management commitment required to
absorb the short-term disruptions and uncertainties associated with adopting a new technology. In such organizations, there is a risk that the firm’s employees or managers may
quickly abandon the technology when there are short-term failures or will avoid major
changes by simply automating the firm’s old, inefficient process and therefore not obtain
the benefits of the new technology.

In many cases, a firm may invest in a particular technology only to discover a few years
later that changes in some environmental or market factors make the investment worthless.
For instance, in environmental issues auto firms have been reluctant to invest in technology
for making electric cars because they are uncertain about future emission standards of state
and federal governments, the potential for decreasing emissions from gasoline-based cars,
and the potential for significant improvements in battery technology.

One more revision of the writeup has to be made.

Full material from the book

Updated  2 April 2017, 9 December 2011

Brand Building - Subject Update


The Power Of Consistent Branding That Tells A Story

American Marketing Association


Build Your Brand as a Relationship
Mark BonchekCara France
MAY 09, 2016, Harvard Business Review

How Social Media Is Changing the Way Industries Approach Branding

Digital or Die: The Choice for Luxury Brands

2015 A to Z Blogging Challenge Post

Brands are Promise Marks

Brands are psychology and science brought together as a promise mark as opposed to a trademark. Brands convey a uniform quality, credibility and experience.

Now building brands has become a lot less expensive and smart brands can take advantage of new tools and rocket up there globally, very fast.
(The article indicates further links to various brand building activities)

Three Benefits of a Brand

A new product must have practical benefit. If that benefit is due to an invention (means, the customer is getting that benefit for the first time), there is an instant support for the product from people who were experiencing the need for the benefit but unable to satisfy the need.

Campaigns that carry an emotional element that helps consumers identify with the brand leave a deeper impression than those solely focused on practicality.

In addition to a practical benefit and an emotional benefit, consumers are now looking for a societal benefit. They want to know there’s a purpose behind the product. When brands listen to what their consumers are saying, they gain valuable insight to help direct their marketing strategies. In this way, consumers actually help shape the brand or co-create the brand

10 resolutions to make for your brand in 2015

Marc Pritchard, Global Marketing and Brand Building Officer
Learn Brandbuilding from him through various YouTube videos

Past Articles by Narayana Rao on Branding

Managing Product Lines and Brands

Branding Strategy and Brand Equity

Brand Positioning

Updated  2 April 2017, 10 December 2015

March 29, 2017

Organizational Design and Culture - Review Notes

There are two parts in this chapter by Luthans

One is Organization Theory and Design. Two is  Organizational Culture

Organization Theory


Chester Barnard defined a formal organization as a system of consciously coordinated activities of two or more persons. Barnard gave the opinion that authority really should come from the bottom up, rather than top-down bureaucratic approach.  It was Barnard's contention that the existence of a cooperative system is contingent on the human participant's ability to communicate,  come out with a common purpose, and their willingness to serve and strive toward a common purpose. The human beings play the most important role in the creation and perpetuation of formal organizations.

Apart from the role of the people in forming organizations and in working toward common goals as members of the organization, there is a division of labor in the organizations and therefore an organization is viewed as a system made of interacting parts. Open systems concept of organizations bring into picture the effect of environment on organizations. Organizations need information processing ability to take proper decisions that have less uncertainty.  Contingency approach to organization argues that organizations have to change in response to internal changes as well as external environment changes to adjust and survive.

In contrast to contingency approach, ecological approach to organization survival contends that there are drastic changes in external environment and only those organization fit to survive in the changed state of nature survive and other organizations die.


Every organization has a culture.  What is culture? It is behavior exhibited by members of an organization. The culture is shaped by values (ideas,which are presently actively promoted in the organization) and beliefs (presently not actively promoted - but are in the memory of the members of the organization). Defined this way, an organization may not have a uniform culture. There can be subcultures. An organization's culture is strong when more people display similar behavior.

Luthans gives the following six as important characteristics agreed by many scholars

1. Observed behavioral regularities.
2. Norms
3. Dominant values
4. Philosophy
5. Rules
6. Organizational climate

Organizational culture is the outcome of a system of shared meaning held by members that distinguishes the organization from other organizations. The system of shared meaning is a set of characteristics. According to the existing research, there are seven primary characteristics that, in aggregate capture the essence of an organization's culture.

1. Innovation and risk taking: The degree to which employees are encouraged to be innovative and take risks.
2. Attention to detail: The degree to which employees are expected to exhibit precision, analysis, and attention to detail.
3. Outcome orientation: The degree to which management focuses on results or outcomes rather than on the techniques and processes used to achieve those outcomes.
4. People orientation: The degree to which management decisions take into consideration the effect of outcomes on people within the organization.
5. Team orientation: The degree to which work activities are organized around teams rather than individuals.
6. Aggressiveness:The degree to which people are aggressive and competitive rather than easygoing.
7. Stability: The degree to which organizational activities emphasize maintaining status quo in contrast to growth.
(Reference for the 7 item model: C.A. O'Reilly III, J. Chatman, and D.F. Caldwell, "People and Organizational Culture: A Profile Comparison Approach to Assessing Person-Organization Fit," Academy of Management Journal, September 1991, pp. 487-516.

J.A. Chatman and K.A. Jehn, "Assessing the Relationship between Industry Characteristics and Organizational Culture: How Different Can You Be?" Academy of Management Journal, June 1994, pp. 522-553)

Organizational culture is conceptualized to have three components. One is the behavior. This the same behavior that we are studying in this subject of organizational behavior. While this behavior is the result of cognitive aspects (Perception and attribution, personality and attitudes,  Motivational needs and activities, positive psychology related aspects), dynamic aspects (communication, decision making processes, conflict management,  use of power and political activities, and group behavior) and management practices (job design, goal setting, supervision and control). The culture perspective advocates that values and belief lead to behavior in a more stable way.

Values are explicitly stated by organizations. But, members of an organization assess the organization's value by the behavior exhibited by leaders of the organization. Organization members have an understanding of the organization's values and this can be captured by talking to members. Then the organization members have an aspirational values which they feel their organization must espouse.  Beliefs are formed in people due to long period of living, education and experience. They also have an effect on behavior. Managers of an organization try to communicate new value system that is required to attain the goals of the organization and then try to demonstrate appropriate behavior so that many in the organization accept the values as relevant and also being practiced by the top leaders. As more members of the organization accept the relevance as well as adherence to new values by the top leaders, the values become shared values and influence the organization's behavior. Then the climate in the organization changes. Organizational climate is the perception of outsiders regarding their encounters with the organization and its members. Change in values, change in behavior and its results are likely to change beliefs over a period of time.

Updated  1 April 2017.  15 May 2016,  9 July 2014, 5 June 2014, 4 December 2011

March 25, 2017

The Chief Supply-Chain-Management Officer - The New COO

The Chief Supply-Chain-Management Officer

Supply-chain management as an activity started only two decades ago. It started as a hotch-potch of a handful of disciplines that were not systematically linked.  However, in global companies,  separately handling the different aspects of SCM components, such as purchasing and warehousing, started to become expensive and ineffective. The challenge of cost reduction resulted in the rise of strategic sourcing and collaborative relationships with suppliers. CEOs thus looked for SCMOs who knew how to achieve cost efficiencies and possessed operational and outsourcing expertise. The relationships with the suppliers and distributors led to a chain development in real sense. Today, supply-chain management process links the chain  end to end: Planning, procurement, manufacturing/operations, and logistics are planned  together to devise economical solutions. The SCMO is expected to know all four functions thoroughly. He should be able to plan and to create an environment in which the multiple functions share knowledge and work together smoothly.

Sustainability is rapidly becoming an important concern  for executives who manage this function. Companies are finding that they can create and execute sustainability strategies throughout their supply chains, from suppliers to customers. So more and more SCMOs are being asked by their boards and CEOs to take up sustainability.

SCMOs will continue to pursue low costs  either through strategic or diverse sourcing, both onshore and off. They will need to manage long-distance logistics and transportation, taking into account unpredictable external factors that could have a major impact on costs, such as political instability or the price of oil. SCMOs will have to be technologically savvy and partner with CIOs to invent new ways for their companies to interact with customers and suppliers,

SCMOs will need to be big-picture thinkers who can participate in strategic and operational decisions at the highest level, in the C-Suite Conference Room. Since SCMOs will be active and equal members of the executive team, experience in running a business unit, managing a P&L, and interacting with customers will serve them well.

SCMOs will need experience in organizational design, which is a core management function. International experience will grow more critical in the job,  as global supply chains become more commonplace.

SCMOs will need to understand emerging markets and be ready to develop innovative solutions as some of the current solutions in the developed markets may not work in emerging markets, India being an important one.
HBR March 2011 Issue

March 24, 2017

Evolution of The Quality Management Philosophy and Practice

Till 1800, production of goods and services was primarily done by single person owned or family owned facilities. The quality of the item was negotiated and set by the individual owner-operator who was in turn also responsible for producing the item. This phase, which continued till Taylor's publication of Shop Management, that is the time period up to 1900, is now called the period of ‘Operator Quality Control’. In operator quality control,  controlling and improving quality of the product was aligned with the philosophy of pride in workmanship.

In the early days of factory of production, foreman became the most important managers of the factories. He is responsible for all management activities. So during the early days of factory production,  a second phase of quality management evolved, which is now termed as  the ‘Foreman Quality Control’ period.  Supervisors are now responsible to ensure that quality was achieved. We can imagine that he is doing some inspection. Also, the operator may not be directly talking to the customer now. Foremen or supervisors controlled the quality of the product, and they were also responsible for the shop floor operations.

The next phase of qual­ity is the ‘Inspection Quality Control’. With more complicated prod­ucts and processes it became impossible for the foreman to keep close watch over the quality dimension. Inspectors were assigned to check the quality of a product after processing. Individual product standards were set, and any discrepancies between standard and actual product features was reported. Defective items were set aside as scrap, and few items with minor defects are reworked to meet the specified standard or specification. This practice was picked up by Taylor, and inspection or quality foreman became one of the functional foremen in Taylor's functional foremanship model.  As we know, Taylor's function foremanship model was converted into line and staff model of management and inspection departments were established. They became very big also with plant level quality control or inspection head with many inspectors reporting to him.

In 1924, Wal­ter A. Shewhart of Bell Telephone Laboratories introduced the concept of statisti­cal charts to monitor variability of the process using measurements of product characteristics.  These charts were called process control charts. In the latter half of 1920s, H. F. Dodge and H. G. Romig, also from Bell Telephone Laboratories, proposed acceptance sam­pling plans for inspection. These plans proposed the concept of samples for inspection, thus elimination 100 percent inspection and saving inspection time. It is a productivity improvement innovation in inspection. But, it was stated that sample based inspection will give similar rate of outgoing quality as 100% inspection was giving. Industrial engineers adopted sample inspection plans in their productivity improvement practice. During 1930’s application of acceptance sampling plans was in full flow in industries. In 1929, Walter Shewhart with the help of American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM), American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), American Statistical Association (ASA), and Institute of Mathematical Statistics (IMS) created the joint committee for the development of statistical techniques for application in engineering industries.

Total Quality Management: Focus on Six Sigma - Review Notes

March 23, 2017

A to Z of Management: Theory, Principles, Methods, Techniques, Tools and Practice

A to Z: Management -  Blog Posts by Narayana Rao

Letter "A"

1. Adoption of New Products and Processes
2. April - Management Knowledge Revision
3. Advertising

 Letter "B"

Brand Building Update 2015

Business Firm and Society - The External Environment, Social Responsibility and Ethics - Review Notes
Business Conceptualization - Management Insights from Economics, Engineering Economics, Managerial Economics, Industrial Economics

Letter "C"  -

Culture Change Management Process

Channels of Distribution
Letter "D" -

Distribution Warehouse

Discount Policy

 Letter "E"-

Efficiency Improvement - Need and Role of Industrial Engineering

 "F" -

Finance for Non-Finance Managers

 Letter "G" -

Goal Setting for MBO

Letter "H" -

Human Resource Training - Role of Indicated Reading Lists

 Letter "I" -

Innovation Marketing

 Letter "J" -

Job Design

Job Satisfaction

 Letter "K" -

Knowledge Management Software Packages

Knowledge Management
Letter "L" -

Location of Production Facilities

Leadership Development
Letter "M" -

Market Orientation

Make in India Campaign - Industry Sectors Information

Letter "N" -

Needs and Wants - Marketing Concepts

New Products
Letter "O"

Organizational Sociology


Letter "P"

Product Development


Letter "Q"

Quantitative Thinking for Management


 Letter "R"  -

Relaxation During Work Day - Recovering from Fatigue

Resourcing Projects

Letter "S" -

Six Sigma - Zero Defect Movement Systematized


Letter "T"  -

The Role of Theory in Practice of Engineering and Management


Letter "U"  -

Understanding Marketing Productivity


Letter "V" -

Value Engineering - Recent Developments


Letter "W" -

Work-Methods Science

Waste Elimination

Letter "X"  -

X Reminds me of Theory X

Letter "Y" -

Y Reminds me of Theory Y

Letter "Z"  -

Z Reminds me of Theory Z

Updated 9 August 2018, 23 March 2017

March 20, 2017

A to Z of Top Management Activities, Functions and Challenges - A to Z Blogging 2017 Challenge Theme

Top Management Activities, Functions and Challenges

A distinction between leadership, the leader, and the work of leading. Leadership is the principal dynamic force in organization that stimulates, motivates, and coordinates the organization in the accomplishment of its objectives. A leader is one who accepts responsibility for the success-
ful achievement of the organization's objectives, and is able to get the support of its members in the accomplishment of these objectives. The work of leading is management. It must be done in a
manner that is satisfactory to the group that is being led. Otherwise, the leader will not have its voluntary support.

Every executive should be a leader. The term executive includes, therefore, every employee whose principal responsibility has to do with directing and supervising the work of others. It includes, accordingly, all executive employees from and including the president to the lowest supervisor

Business objectives have been defined as values that the business organization is required or expected to acquire, create, preserve, or distribute. Values can be created only by work. The utility of an 
economic good or service is its ability to provide the customer or the organization with certain values that are needed or desired.  Its principal attributes are those of time, place, form, and possession. 
The creation of customer utilities makes possible the satisfactory accomplishment of the organization's primary service objectives.

Business functions may be classified broadly as managerial and operative. Management is the function of executive leadership.

Managerial functions involve the work of planning, organizing, resourcing, executing and controlling. My posts will describe the activities involved in these functions in A to Z sequence.

The accomplishment of the organization's economic mission requires the provision of various physical factors in performance. What they are depends on the requirements for the effective, economical performance of the particular business functions. The characteristics of the factors that are available may modify the method of performing them, however. They include such items as land, 
buildings, machinery, tools, materials, money, and any other physical implementation of these functions. They are capital items, either current or fixed.

Index for the posts

A to Z: 2017 Blogging Challenge - Top Management Challenge Areas

March 17, 2017

Digital Marketing Adoption by Fortune 500 Companies

December 2016
The Top Sales Strategies Fortune 500 Companies Use
80 percent of Fortune 500 companies are active on Twitter.
sales and marketing automation is one of the sales strategies that Fortune 500 companies use.

Nov 2016
The Technology Behind Fortune Global 500 Companies

The McKinsey View: The State of Digital Marketing & How to Capture Value
Full report on Salesforce State of Marketing 2016 can be downloaded from this web page.

October 2016

Are Fortune 500 and Inc. 500 Companies Using Instagram?

Some 30% of Fortune 500 companies and 22% of Inc. 500 companies have active Instagram accounts- Research from The Center for Marketing Research, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth.

July 2016

Fortune 500 Companies Search for Marketing Tools - July 2016
Email marketing is still very important component of marketing communications and sales

What Marketers Can Learn from Fortune 500 Companies Mastering Instagram

March 2016
Only 17% of Fortune 500 Companies Actively Use Pinterest

The 2015 Fortune 500 and Social Media

June 2015
16% of the Fortune 500 companies had public-facing RSS feeds in 2008
31% of the Fortune 500 companies had public-facing RSS feeds in 2014

March 2015
59% of B2B Fortune 500 Companies Use Marketing Automation

September 2014
University of Massachusetts Dartmouth Center for Marketing Research releases a study of social media adoption among Fortune 500 companies every year

83% of the Fortune 500 have corporate Twitter accounts with a Tweet in the past thirty days. This represents a 6% increase since 2013.

80% of the Fortune 500 are now on Facebook. This represents a 10% increase in the last year alone.

In 2014, 31% of the studied companies had corporate blogs, showing a decrease of 3% in use of this content tool during the past year.

March 2014
Does a Fortune 500 company need a social media strategy?
(as of 2013, over two thirds of all F500 companies maintain active Twitter accounts, and almost as many have Facebook pages)

July 2013

University of Massachusetts Dartmouth Social media activity report of Fortune Magazine’s Fortune 500 list  indicates that
34 percent of this year’s Fortune 500 companies are now actively blogging,
77 percent maintain active Twitter accounts,
70 percent have Facebook pages and
69 percent have YouTube accounts.

May 2012
How Fortune 500 Companies Use Social Media
Lot of statistics of that time

March 15, 2017

A to Z of Digital Transformation of Business - Marketing, Production, Sales, Supply and Service

Digital Transformation - Definition

We define digital transformation as the integration of digital technology into all areas of a business resulting in fundamental changes to how businesses operate and how they deliver value to customers.

Digital Transformation Articles - Collection from Blogosphere

Digital Supply Chain - Design, Management and Transformation


To Lead a Digital Transformation, CEOs Must Prioritize
Laurent-Pierre Baculard
JANUARY 02, 2017

Leaders have to recognize the opportunity of digital transformation and the threat if the organization ignores the opportunity because of disruptive innovations made by others.

They have to plan the new business entity as a separate department within the existing business, or as a separate business that is handled by all existing functions, or a separate division etc. Then they have to organize and provide resources. In the area of human resources, they either have to recruit from outside or develop the internal talent. In developing the internal talent, the leader's personal examples become important. Change requires effort to learn new things and leader's initiatives to learn and implement will become the role model for others in the organization to follow. While in the early days, the leader's personal guidance is required, slowly the leader has to empower people to do activities independently.

Which departments are digital transformation change agents?

Digital departments are now very common, with 81% of companies citing their existence. 40% have a formalized cross-functional workgroup employing four to five full-time employees.

Digital Transformation - 2016  articles

Digital Transformation - CMU Course Page - Syllabus

Digital Transformation in the Age of Customer  - Full Report
Digital Transformation of Industries - World Economic Forum White Paper January 2016
Digital transformation: The three steps to success - MKinsey Article
Using IoT Data to Understand How Your Products Perform
What does ‘digital transformation’ really mean? - Marketing Week Article
6 Predictions About The Future Of Digital Transformation

2016 State of Digital Transformation



Browse 100+ Books on Internet of Things - IoT Books
Business Analytics and Marketing Applications - 2016



Data Analytics - Driving Digital Transformation of Organization

Digital Oilfield of the Future

Digital Printing - Engineering Economic and Cost Analysis

Digital Transformation at Daimler Benz

Digital Transformation Books

Digital Transformation - CMU Course Page - Syllabus

Digital Transformation (DT) is a capstone course integrating the technical and managerial
aspects surrounding increased levels of digitization. As data starts to play a larger role in
managerial decision-making, what are the unique ramifications of these actions for
organizational dynamics? How can new information and communication technologies
(ICT) be deployed across an enterprise? What role does culture, organizational structure
and even adoption patterns play in understanding technology selection, user design and
how to derive value from technology? When analyzing DT, we need to examine change
from two perspectives:
• From a technology perspective: integration of new technologies, normalization of
data, and digitization of business processes.
• From a managerial perspective: new coordination and communication within and
across entities, new organizational forms, changing the information environment
underlying the business, and new incentive structures.
Successful efforts at digitization have to keep both technical and managerial perspectives in
mind. Using a collection of cases, this course will study how the deployment of ICT changes
interactions and processes within organizations, across organizations, within industries,
and across society

Cases discussed in the earlier Term

Case – ITC eChoupal (as a class)
Case – Dubai Port Authority (as a class)
Case –Security Breach at TJX
Case – VW in America
Case – Starbucks Mobile Payments
Case – Threadless, The Business of Community
Case - Project Hugo
Case – Newspapers
Case – Open vs. Closed Ecosystems – Nokia in 2010
Case – TV Disruption – Comcast Corporation

Digital Transformation in the Age of Customer - Full Report

Digital Transformation of Industries - World Economic Forum White Paper January 2016

Digital transformation: The three steps to success - MKinsey Article






Internet of Things - System Components
Internet of Things (IoT) - Very Big Business/Value Opportunity 2025
Introduction to Data Mining





Manufacturing System Digital Transformation and Reengineering








The A-Z of digital transformation


Understanding Your Products Through IoT and Data Analytics
Using IoT Data to Understand How Your Products Perform



What is digital transformation?
What does ‘digital transformation’ really mean? - Marketing Week Article
What is Big Data and What are its Applications? - IBM Experts Explanation




Articles Starting with Numerals

2016 State of Digital Transformation

6 Predictions About The Future Of Digital Transformation

Updated 18 March 2017, 17 June 2016

March 13, 2017

Introduction to the Field of Operations Management - Review Notes

Planned Revision of Operations Management Chapters Starts on 16 March

The goal of operations management is wealth creation.
It is done by supplying quality goods and services effectively and efficiently

Role of Industrial Engineering in Operations Management

Industrial engineering contributes to operations management by increasing the efficiency of operations. Wealth creation round 1 is done by operations managers. Wealth creation round 2 is done by industrial engineers in operations systems.

Wealth creation is continuously done everyday by Shopfloor operators and their managers based on the designs and plans created by operations managers and industrial engineers.

Based on the Chapter 1 Introduction to the Field by Chase, Jacobs, Aquilano 12 Edition

The essence of operations management: creating great value to the customer while reducing the cost of delivering the good or service.

In the context of this book, "operations" refers to the processes that are used to transform the resources employed by a firm into products and services desired by the customers. "Supply" refers to how materials and services are moved to and from the transformation processes of the firm.

Great operations and supply management is essential to the success of the firm doing business in goods or services.

This subject will provide you knowledge of concepts and tools to be  employed by companies around the world to craft effective and efficient operations. Efficiency means doing something at the lowest possible cost.  We can also say the goal of an efficient process is to produce a good or provide a service by using the smallest input of resources.  Effectiveness mean doing the right things to create the  most value for the company. Managers are responsible for effectiveness first. They have to find what customers want and then make arrangement for producing those items. Effectiveness in enhanced by understanding customers' needs and designing products that are acceptable to them.

A business education is incomplete without an understanding of modern approaches to managing operations. Operations management (OM) provides a systematic way of examining organizational processes. OM presents interesting career opportunities and the concepts and tools of OM are widely used in managing other functions of a business.

While marketing uncovers needs of people in general and uncovers needs of people at a particular point and books orders for the goods and services, it is the operations function of a business firm that develops goods and services and produces and delivers them to customers at the place where they desire the delivery.

Other Explanations of Operations Management

MIT's Explanation of Operations Management.

Operations Management deals with the design and management of products, processes, services and supply chains. It considers the acquisition, development, and utilization of resources that firms need to deliver the goods and services their clients want.

University of Strathclyde, Glasgow

Operations management is a value-adding area of an organisation concerned with innovation, production and distribution of goods and services to customers whilst ensuring that the use of organisational resources remains efficient and effective.

Chase, Jacobs, Aquilano - Earlier Editions

In this chapter in the book, the time frame of management decisions is discussed along with the different types of transformation processes. Services are compared to goods production with emphasis on the primary inputs, resources, the primary transformation functions, and the typical desired outputs in a variety of service and operations examples. Value-added services are also discussed along with their benefit to external customers.

Operations management is identified within the organizational chart and its role in the organization is defined. Chapter one presents a concept map and outlines the textbook chapters. The chapters are grouped by the key themes of strategic planning, project management, decision analysis, quality, supply chain management, and e-commerce.

The historical roots of the development of OM are traced from scientific management through the moving assembly line, the Hawthorne studies, and on to today's current manufacturing topics including supply chain management and e-commerce. This chapter concludes with current issues facing OM executives including effectively consolidating the operations resulting from mergers, developing flexible supply chains to enable mass customization of products and services, managing global suppliers, production, and distribution networks, increased commoditization of suppliers, achieving the service factory, and achieving excellent service from service firms.

What is Operations Management?

Operations managemetn (OM) is defined as the design, operation, and improvement of the systems that create and deliver the firm's primary products and services.

Operations management is a functional field of business with clear line management responsibilities. OM is frequently confused with operations research and management science (OR/MS) and industrial engineering. While all three are fields of management, both IE and OR/MS are staff management disciplines while OM is line management field. Operations management uses the tools of IE as well as OR/MS directly as well as indirectly through the project reports prepared by specialists, OM's role is distinct from these two disciplines.

Companies around the world desire effective and efficient operations. Operations managers design and operate the operations systems effectively and efficiently.

What is the difference between effectiveness and efficiency? 

Effectiveness mean doing right things that customers want to the specifications finalized by the organization. This effectiveness can be a daily issue in an organization producing custom products as the customer can keep on changing his requirement. The operations managers have to listen to the customer and agree on the specification and communicate the same to people in their works. Then they have to control the activity so that what is desired is getting produced. Effectiveness activities take significant time of managers. In production shops, a staff activity production planning and control helps production managers in ensuring the delivery of right product in right quantity at right time. So even in effectiveness activities, operations managers use staff specialists.

Efficiency means doing something at the lowest possible cost. Operations managers have to supply the agreed product at the lowest possible cost. They have the responsibility to make their operations efficient. So operations managers have to learn efficiency techniques and methods. Frederick Taylor emphasized efficiency along with effectiveness in his famous paper "Shop management". Industrial engineering is the discipline that emerged to take care of efficiency dimension of operations as a staff management discipline.

In operations management, three categories of decisions are taken.

Strategic (long-term) decisions
Tactical (intermediate-term) decisions
Operational planning and control (short-term) decisions

Strategic issues include what product (sevice) shall we make? How will we make the product? (technology decision) Where do we locate the facility or facilities? How much capacity do we build? Intermediate decisions can be thought of as annual plans, material purchase policies, staff levels adjustments and working capital support requirements for inventory financing. Operations decisions are daily machine dispatching decisions.

Chapter outline

Operations Management—A Critical Responsibility of Every Manager
Efficiency Defined
Effectiveness Defined
Value Defined

What is Operations Management?
Operations Management (OM) Defined

Transformation Processes
Transformation Process Defined
Differences Between Services and Goods

OM in the Organizational Chart

Operations as Service
Core Services Defined
Value-Added Serviced Defined

Why is Operations Not Perceived as Important?

Historical Development of OM
Mass Customization Defined
Manufacturing Strategy Paradigm
Service Quality and Productivity
Total Quality Management and Quality Certification
Business Process Reengineering

Supply Chain Management

Supply chain management is the name given to total system approach to managing the flow of information, materials, and services from raw material producers and suppliers through various factories and warehouses to the end customer of a consumer item or capital equipment or service.

A supply chain is a network of supply and operations processes. "Operations" refers to the processes that are used to transform the resources employed by a firm into products and services desired by customers. "Supply" refers to how materials and services are moved to and from the transformation processes of the firm.

From a company point of view Supply Chain manager is the former Works manager. The designation, works managers did not indicate his responsibility for supply chain even though he was handling that function in many companies. Designating his as Supply Chain Manager or as Supply Chain and Works Managers, will make him feel responsible for Supply Chain Design, Strategy and Operations.

Electronic Commerce

Current Issues in Operations Management

Case: Fast-Food Feast


McGraw Hill Operations Management Center

Presentation Slides - Field of Operations Management

Full chapter from Chase's Book

Summaries of all Chapters of Operation Management

Updated updated 16 March 2017,  2 Feb 2015,  3.12.2014, 10.2.2012

MBA Core Management Knowledge - One Year Revision Schedule

March 12, 2017

Productivity - Quotes

“Efficiency is doing better what’s already being done.” –Peter F. Drucker

“Improved productivity means less human sweat, not more.” –Henry Ford

“Productivity is being able to do things that you were never able to do before.” –Franz Kafka

March 11, 2017

Business Analysis - The Function - A Detailed Explanation

Business Analysis is the set of tasks, knowledge, and techniques required to identify
business needs and determine solutions to business problems. Solutions often include a
systems development component, but may also consist of process improvement or
organizational change.

Business analysis is distinct from financial analysis.

IIBA is the professional body promoting business analysis.

The IIBA is an organization that is dedicated to advancing the professionalism of its
members as well as the business analysis profession itself.

This note is based on the  BA Body of Knowledge published by IIBA.

Definition of the Business Analyst Role

A business analyst works as a liaison among stakeholders in order to elicit, analyze, communicate and validate requirements for changes to business processes, policies and information systems. The business analyst understands business problems and opportunities in the context of the requirements and recommends solutions that enable the organization to achieve its goals.

Definition of a requirement
A requirement is:
(1) A condition or capability needed by a stakeholder to solve a problem or achieve an objective.
(2) A condition or capability that must be met or possessed by a system or system component to satisfy a contract, standard, specification, or other formally imposed documents.
(3) A documented representation of a condition or capability as in (1) or (2).

Requirements types

Business Requirements are higher-level statements of the goals, objectives, or needs of the enterprise. They are the reasons why a project is initiated and specify the things that the project will achieve.

User Requirements are statements of the needs of a particular stakeholder or class of stakeholders. They describe the needs that a given stakeholder has and how that stakeholder will interact with a solution. User Requirements serve as a bridge between Business Requirements and the various classes of solution requirements.

Functional Requirements describe the behavior and information that the solution will manage. They describe capabilities the system will be able to perform in terms of behaviors or operations – a specific system action or response.

Quality of Service Requirements capture conditions that do not directly relate to the behavior or functionality of the solution, but rather describe environmental conditions under which the solution must remain effective or qualities that the systems must have. They are also known as non-functional or supplementary requirements.

Assumptions and constraints identify aspects of the problem domain that are not functional requirements of a solution, and will limit or impact the design of the solution.

• Implementation requirements describe capabilities that the solution must have in order to facilitate transition from the current state of the enterprise to the desired future state, but that will not be needed once that transition is complete.

The Body of Knowledge

Body of knowledge will be described under the headings:

• BA Fundamentals
• Enterprise Analysis
• Requirements Planning and Management
• Requirements Elicitation
• Requirements Communication
• Requirements Analysis and Documentation
• Solution Assessment and Validation

BA Fundamentals

BA fundamentals explain what is business analysis and how is it carried out.

Enterprise Analysis

This activity is the collection of pre-project or early project activities and approaches for capturing the necessary view of the business to provide context to requirements and functional design work for a given initiative and/or for long term planning. It is important for those in the Business Analysis profession to understand the organizational environment in which they are working. They should understand how the project, which is being analyzed by him, supports the entire enterprise. Typical Enterprise Analysis activities are listed below. These activities are conducted concurrently and iteratively.

• Creating and maintaining the Business Architecture (understanding the current business architecture)
• Conducting feasibility studies to determine the optimum business solution
• Identifying new business opportunities
• Scoping and defining the new business opportunity
• Preparing the Business Case
• Conducting the initial Risk Assessment
• Preparing the Decision Package

Requirements Planning and Management

The Business Analyst must define the requirements activities that will be performed and how those activities will be performed on a project, in accordance with any existing standards in the organization. It includes identifying key roles, selecting requirements activities, managing the requirements scope and ongoing communication of the requirements gathering status. Proper planning and management of requirements gathering activities ensures the success of the requirements process and requirements deliverables.

Before initiating requirements activities and during the requirements process it is important to consider how the Business Analysis team is going about the requirements activities on a project.

Requirements Elicitation

The requirements serve as the foundation for the solution to the business needs. It is essential that the requirements be complete, clear, correct, and consistent. Leveraging proven means to elicit
requirements will help meet these quality goals.

The scope of the Elicitation work may be a new system or an enhancement to an existing system. The business analysis professional selects the appropriate mean(s) to gather the needed requirements based on the applicability of a technique’s process, key features and strengths and weakness.

Requirements Analysis and Documentation

The objective is to define and describe the characteristics of an acceptable solution to a business problem, so that the project team has a clear understanding of how to design and implement it.
Requirements analysis defines the methods, tools and techniques used to structure the raw data collected during Requirements Elicitation, identify gaps in the information (inform the requirement elicitation team to fill the gaps) and define the capabilities of the solution, which must be documented.

Deliverables from this process will be used by the project team to develop estimates for the time, resources, and budget required to implement a solution or solutions that will fulfill the requirements. The documentation is used to ensure that a consensus between all the stakeholders exists as to the behavior of the solution as it may require the concurrence of important stakeholders. The primary focus of documentation activity is to refine the proposed model of requirements based upon stakeholder feedback and iteratively ensure that  the proposed requirements support the business and user needs, goals and objectives.

Requirements Communication

The Requirements Communication step consists of  activities and considerations for expressing the output of the requirements analysis and documentation to a broad and diverse audience. Some requirements communication is done in parallel with Requirements Gathering and Requirements Analysis and Documentation. But bulk of it is done after requirements are finalized.  It includes presenting, communicating, verifying, and gaining approval of the requirements from the stakeholders and implementers of the project.

An effective business analyst must be able to clearly present the requirements in a format and structure that is appropriate for its intended audience. Business Analysts must understand the options and select the appropriate communication formats for their project. BAs must consider when and where communications need to take place, what communication approach is appropriate for each situation, and how each communication should be presented. Requirements must be “packaged,” reviewed, and approved before the solution is validated to ensure successful implementation.

Solution Assessment and Validation

This knowledge area covers the business analysis tasks necessary to ensure that the solution meets the stakeholder objectives, is thoroughly tested, and is implemented smoothly.

Once a solution design has been agreed upon, the Business Analyst assists the technology team with detailed design work including splitting a large project into phases, reviewing technical design deliverables, and helping to build usability into the application software.

In the case of a purchased solution, they will assist with any package customization decisions that need to be made and with interface requirements. As the solution is built and available for testing, the Business Analyst role involves supporting the Quality Assurance activities. They may help business stakeholders with user acceptance testing, defect reporting and resolution.

The Business Analyst is accountable for ensuring that the solution developed meets the defined needs and should assess project success after implementation. Business analyst is the first person to say that the solution takes care of all the requirements that he has specified.

Business Analysis For Dummies

Kupe Kupersmith, Paul Mulvey, Kate McGoey
John Wiley & Sons, 01-Jul-2013 - 384 pages

March 10, 2017

Personality Traits and Characteristics for Facilitating Creativity

Traits proposed by Torrance

Fluency, flexibility, originality, and ability to sense deficiencies, elaborate, and redefine

Reference: Scientific Views of Creativity and Factors Affecting Its Growth
Author(s): E. Paul Torrance
Daedalus, Vol. 94, No. 3, Creativity and Learning (Summer, 1965), pp. 663-681

Ellis Paul Torrance (1915-2003) developed  the TTCT (Torrance Test of Creative Thinking) uses simple exercises that test divergent thinking and problem-solving skills.

A full TTCT measures five attributes:

Fluency—the number the ideas a person can think of in a given period of time
Flexibility—the range of categories for the ideas participants came up with
Elaboration—the amount of detail in responses
Originality—the rarity of the idea
Openness—resistance to premature closure

1. Innovators normally have a clear vision about what they want to accomplish.
2. Innovators can clearly define the specific objectives and benefits of the emerging project or product.
3. Innovators can present their views effectively to persuade their peers or colleagues.
4. Innovators are capable of getting support not only from their superiors but also from their team members or colleagues.
5. Innovators are bold enough to take calculated risks and to face the unforeseeable impediments, difficulties or setbacks.
6. Innovators are capable of motivating and inspiring people into action, so that every team member
contributes significantly to the project and their cooperation or participation is total.
7. Innovators can influence or mobilize support and required resources to achieve the desired result.
8. Innovators can cope up with interferences such as criticism, tardiness, lack of corporate enthusiasm, disputes over allocation of time and other such resources for projects.
9. Innovators have the willpower to maintain momentum in spite of the decline in early enthusiasm and hard work of their team members.
10. Innovators are capable of ensuring the principle that credits or rewards of success are appropriately shared by the team members.


A chapter having very good content on the topic of personality and creativity   Number of lists of traits are given in this article.

March 6, 2017

The Art and Science of Success - Edward de Bono - Information and Summary

Tactics - The Art and Science of Success - Edward de Bono

Table of Contents

Part I Success

1. Styles and Characteristics of Success

Styles: Creative Style; Management Style; Entrepreneurial Style

Characteristics of Typically Successful Styles:  Energy, Drive and Direction; Ego; 'Can-do'; Confidence; Stamina and Hardwork; Efficiency: Ruthlessness; Ability to Cope with Failure.

Success principles; - Positive attitude; - knowing what you want to do; - make the most of your own talent; - energy, persistence, determination & single mindedness seem important in all cases; - Action i.e take a step & then the next step; - a sense of integrity toward oneself & others; - an expectation of success & the ability to think big; - ability to set goals & targets, & also to have dreams; - creativity & the ability to see things differently & to think new thoughts; - Seizing of opportunities & creation of opportunities; - eagerness & enthusiasm & the willingness to make things happen; One should make the most of one's talent in the pursuit of success by honing it. Do not be trapped into one field by some talent for that field - You can find a use for your talent in growing fields.

2. What stimulates success?

Negative Stimulants: Anxieties

Positive Stimulants: Power and Money; Image Improvement; Status; Making Things Happen; Doing Something Worthwhile

3. How far is success within our control?

Early Environment; Born to Succeed; Key Factors: Expectation.

Can You Copy a Style and Become a Success?: Learning by Copying

What Can We Learn from Images?; Role-playing to Success; Role-living and Success; Spot the Phony; When is Artificial Phony?

Does Luck Leave Success Outside our Control?  Is There Such a Thing as Luck?: Good Luck or Good Judgment?; Looking for Opportunity in Time and Place.

Part II Prepare for Success

4. Focus I

Self-Knowledge: Strengths/Weaknesses; Self-awareness and Self-correction

5. Focus II

Choice of Field: How They Chose What to Do?; Does the Perfect Job Exist?; Be Ready to Change Targets.

Part III Make it A Success

6. Thinking & Doing

How to Generate Ideas?: Create New Ideas; The Creativity of Innocence; The Creativity of Escape

7. Strategy

Design a Strategy: General Strategy; Detailed Strategy; How Rigid Should a Strategy Be?

Why Strategy is More Than a Plan?: How Strategy can Create the Culture of an Organization

8. Decision-Making

How to Make a Decision?: Category Thinkers; Intuition - Magic of the Muse?

9.  Opportunity 

No Standing Still - Types of Opportunity: Opportunity Building,  Opportunity Seeking.

Assessing Opportunity: Is Technical Advancement Always an Opportunity?; New Technology as Opportunity, A High-risk Area?

Opportunism: The 'Me-too' Philosophy.

Niche Strategy: Play Your Own Game

10. Risk

Are Successful People Risk-takers?: Gambler's Risk; The Risk of Innovation.

Courage to Be at Risk - The Difference between Risk and Adventure

Risk Reduction: Work to Make a Decision Work; Learn to Wriggle.

11. Strategy for People as Resources

How to Choose the Best People?; How to Construct a Balanced Team.

Team Motivation: Use People Wisely; Create a Sense of Involvement; display a Sense of Involvement; You Don't Have to be Like; Communicate Goals, How to Communicate.

Getting Rid of People.

12. Tactical Play

Tactics, Communication and Negotiation: How Far Should You Go?; The Game's the Thinking; Image.

Illusion and Bluff in Negotiation: Thinking on Your Feet; The Merit of Surprise.

Gamesmanship: Psyching Your Opponent.

The Proper Place of Tactics


The Lessons; New Horizons.

The Art and Science of Success - Edward de Bono - Summary and Interesting Points

6. Thinking & Doing

How to Generate Ideas?: Create New Ideas; The Creativity of Innocence; The Creativity of Escape

Doers succeed only by thinking and doing. There may be some persons who only think and describe possible products and ways of producing those products. That does not mean that thinking and doing are totally independent activities and does don't think systematically.

Does do think systematically in problems with known ways of solving problems. They also think systematically in problems with no known way of solving it. The second category of problems require intense creative thinking. In the first type of problems also, a bit of creative thinking is employed. But the areas of creative thinking will not be on the solution method itself. In problems where creativity is main component, the solution method itself has to be evolved through creative thinking.

Edward de Bono, author of this book is also author of "Lateral Thinking." He brings into this book two new terms "Creativity of innocence" and "Creativity of Escape."  

Creativity of Innocence

Creativity of innocence is displayed and practiced by people who are entering new areas when they learn only basics of the area and allow themselves a creative entry into the new area, let us say, a business with new products and processes. They come out with new products and processes as they evolved them without being aware of the earlier solutions and solutions methods being used by the existing producers.

Creativity of Escape

Creativity of Escape is brought into picture when the person is fully aware of the present ways of solving a problem but intentionally breaks the existing structures and goes for a new structure. This is what is developed and explained in lateral thinking. The new fact, result or data from the business is not fitting with the existing structure of products or processes to give required returns of growth. So the businessman or the strategic thinker has to break the existing structure into more minute parts and look for ways to create a new structure that provides the needed low cost product, product with more benefits, products with more quality, products with more involvement of customers, etc. etc.

7. Strategy

Design a Strategy: General Strategy; Detailed Strategy; How Rigid Should a Strategy Be?
Why Strategy is More Than a Plan?: How Strategy can Create the Culture of an Organization.

A strategy provides you with a long-term view and hence the ability to take risks or do things which do not make sense in the short term.

Strategy is not only the manipulation of resources but also the development of those resources.

8. Decision-Making

How to Make a Decision?: Category Thinkers; Intuition - Magic of the Muse?

Category thinking relies upon past experience as its input.

10. Risk

Are Successful People Risk-takers?: Gambler's Risk; The Risk of Innovation.
Courage to Be at Risk - The Difference between Risk and Adventure.
Risk Reduction: Work to Make a Decision Work; Learn to Wriggle.

Anyone who takes an initiative or pursues an opportunity is taking some sort of risk.
Risk-taking accompanies innovation.

The capacity for courage is generally thought of as the ability to face up enormous disadvantage ( may be with even very low odds) such as possibility of death in a war.

Any successful person has chosen action as against inaction. In any initiative or opportunity pursuit there is an element of risk.

Updated 9 March 2017

March 2, 2017

Prof. John Adair on Leadership

Professor John Eric Adair (born 18 May 1934) is a British academician. He  is a leadership theorist and author of more than forty books on business, military and other leadership.

Adair was born in Luton and educated at St Paul's School.   He studied at Hull Nautical College and Trinity Hall, Cambridge and obtained his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1959. He  obtained a doctorate from King's College London in 1966. He became a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society in 1966. He worked as a Senior Lecturer at the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst from 1961 to 1967 and later worked for the Industrial Society. He became  Professor of Leadership Studies at the University of Surrey in 1979, a post he held until 1984. Subsequently he worked in various academic institutions in various senior academic positions. He is President of Adair International offering services in the areas of leadership and management.

Book Review by Prof.M.S.Rao – “Develop Your Leadership Skills” by John Adair (Publisher Kogan Page)

Action Centered Leadership - John Adair - Note

Not Bosses But Leaders: How to Lead the Way to Success
Front Cover
John Eric Adair, Peter J. Reed
Kogan Page Publishers, 2006 - Business & Economics - 186 pages

How to Grow Leaders: The Seven Key Principles of Effective Leadership Development

John Adair
Kogan Page Publishers, 01-Oct-2006 - Business & Economics - 184 pages

Develop Your Leadership Skills

John Eric Adair
Kogan Page Publishers, 2007 - Business & Economics - 89 pages

The Three Circles Model
Professor John Adair
Part of Leadership: Proceedings of a
Symposium Held at the Royal
Military Academy Sandhurst, April

John Adair's  Quotes

March 1, 2017

March - Management Knowledge Revision

Sharpen the Saw - The Mental Dimension - Stephen Covey's Explanation

Read, Write, Think, Plan


Henry Fayol

The Engineering Manager who provided the modern description of Industrial Management.
Planning - Organizing - Commanding - Coordinating - Control

Picture Source:


March 1st week  (1 March  to 5 March)

Analyzing Competitors
Strategy of Market Leader

Marketing Strategies for Challenger Firms 
Competitive Strategies for Followers and Nichers

Managing Product Lines and Brands
Marketing Strategy for New Industry Products

Marketing Management for Service Firms
Pricing Strategy and Tactics 

Marketing Channel Management – Important Issues
Managing Wholesaling and Retailing Network

March 2nd week ( 8 to 12)

Marketing Communication: Channels and Promotion Tools

Sales Promotion 
Marketing Public Relations

Sales Process and Sales Training
Direct Marketing

Online Marketing
Marketing and New Product Development

International and Global Marketing
Sales Force Management

March 3 week  (15 to 19)

Developing Enterprisewide or Company Wide Marketing Orientation
Management of Marketing Department and Function

Operations Management  Revision Starts (16 March)

Introduction to the Field of Operations Management
Operations Strategy and Competitiveness - Review Notes

Optimizing the Use of Resources with Linear Programming

29 March
Subject Update: Principles of Management

30 March
Subject Update: Marketing Management

To April - Management Knowledge Revision

Industrial Engineers support Engineers and Managers in Efficiency Improvement of Products, Processes and Systems

One Year MBA Knowledge Revision Plan

January  - February  - March  - April  - May   -   June

July  - August     - September  - October  - November  - December

March - Birthdays - Management Scholars

3 - Lyndall Urwick (1891)
5 - Edgar Schein (1928),  Stuart Anspach Umpleby (1944)
6 - Raymond Gilmartin (1941
8 - Warren Bennis (1925), Nirmalya Kumar (1960)
10 - Kenneth R. French (1954)
14 - T.V. Rao (1946)
15 - Rosabeth Moss Kanter (1943)
16 - Ferdinando Pennarola (1963)
18 - Water A. Shewart (1891)
20 -  Frederick Taylor (1856), Kim B. Clark (1949),  Marshall Goldsmith (1949)
24 - Martin Shubik (1926)
25 - David Meerman Scott (1961)
26 - Larry Page (1973)
29 - Sam Walton (1918)
30 - Arthur White (1924),   Dr. Arno Antlitz (1970)


Updated 3 March 2017,  25 March 2016