December 27, 2018

Creativity Techniques - Individual and Group Based

Creativity is required in research, development, design, and improvement/maintenance.

Creativity is coming up with novel, appropriate solutions to problems/challenges/opportunities.

Creativity and Innovation Techniques

Idea generation: Creativity
Converting ideas into reality: Innovation

Creativity Techniques

Problem Definition - including problem analysis, redefinition, and all aspects associated with defining the problem clearly.
Idea Generation - The divergent process of coming up with ideas.
Idea Selection - The convergent process of reducing all the many ideas into realistic solutions
Idea Implementation - Turning the refined ideas in reality.

Processes - Schemes and techniques which look at the overall process from start to finish.

7 Step Model

Adaptive Reasoning
Advantages, Limitations and Unique Qualities
Algorithm of Inventive Problem Solving
Alternative Scenarios
Anonymous Voting
Assumption Busting
Assumption Surfacing
Attribute Listing


Backwards Forwards Planning
Boundary Examination
Boundary Relaxation
Bug Listing
Bunches of Bananas


Card Story Boards
Cartoon Story Board
Causal Mapping
Cherry Split
Circle of Opportunity
Circle Time
Classic Brainstorming
Cognitive Acceleration
Collective Notebook
Comparison tables
Component Detailing
Concept Fan
Consensus Mapping
Constrained BrainWriting
Contradiction Analysis
Controlling Imagery
Crawford Slip Writing
Creative Problem Solving - CPS
Criteria for idea-finding potential
Critical Path Diagrams


Decision seminar
Dialectical Approaches
Dimensional Analysis
Disney Creativity Strategy
Do Nothing


Escape Thinking
Essay Writing


Factors in selling ideas
False Faces
Fishbone Diagram
Five Ws and H
Flow charts
Focus Groups
Force-Field Analysis
Force-Fit Game
Free Association
Fresh eye


Gallery method
Gap Analysis
Goal Orientation
Greetings Cards


Heuristic Ideation Technique
Hexagon Modelling

Idea Advocate
Idea Box
Ideal Final Result
Imagery for Answering Questions
Imagery Manipulation
Imaginary Brainstorming
Implementation Checklists
Improved Nominal Group Technique
Interpretive structural modeling
Ishikawa Diagram

Keeping a Dream Diary
Kepner and Tregoe method

Lateral Thinking
Listing Pros and Cons

Metaplan Information Market
Mind Mapping
Morphological Analysis
Morphological Forced Connections
Multiple Redefinition

Negative Brainstorming
Nominal Group Technique
Nominal-Interacting Technique

Observer and Merged Viewpoints
Osborn's Checklist
Other Peoples Definitions
Other Peoples Viewpoints

Paired Comparison
Panel Consensus
Paraphrasing Key Words
Personal Balance Sheet
Pictures as Idea Triggers
Pin Cards
Plusses Potentials and Concerns
Potential Problem Analysis
Preliminary Questions
Problem Centred Leadership
Problem Inventory Analysis - PIA
Problem Reversal
Productive Thinking Model
Progressive Hurdles
Progressive Revelation

Quality Circles

Random Stimuli
Rawlinson Brainstorming
Receptivity to Ideas
Reciprocal Model
Reframing Values
Relational Words

Search Conference
Sequential-Attributes Matrix
Similarities and Differences
Simple Rating Methods
Six Thinking Hats
Slice and Dice
Snowball Technique
Soft Systems Method
Stakeholder Analysis
Sticking Dots
Stimulus Analysis
Story Writing
Strategic Assumption Testing
Strategic Choice Approach
Strategic Management Process
Successive Element Integration
SWOT Analysis
Systematic Inventive Thinking

Talking Pictures
Technology Monitoring
Think Tank
Transactional Planning
Trigger Method
Trigger Sessions
Tug of War

Unified Structured Inventive Thinking
Using Crazy Ideas
Using Experts

Value Brainstorming
Value Engineering
Visual Brainstorming
Visualising a Goal

Who Are You
Why Why Why
Working with Dreams and Images

Entries for many of the techniques are available in:

See the chapter on creativity from the book

Handbook of Research on Creative Problem-Solving Skill Development in Higher Education

Zhou, Chunfang
IGI Global, 21-Sep-2016 - Education - 632 pages

Developing students’ creative problem-solving skills is paramount to today’s teachers, due to the exponentially growing demand for cognitive plasticity and critical thinking in the workforce. In today’s knowledge economy, workers must be able to participate in creative dialogue and complex problem-solving. This has prompted institutions of higher education to implement new pedagogical methods such as problem-based and case-based education.

The Handbook of Research on Creative Problem-Solving Skill Development in Higher Education is an essential, comprehensive collection of the newest research in higher education, creativity, problem solving, and pedagogical design. It provides the framework for further research opportunities in these dynamic, necessary fields. Featuring work regarding problem-oriented curriculum and its applications and challenges, this book is essential for policy makers, teachers, researchers, administrators, students of education.

Technology for Creativity and Innovation: Tools, Techniques and Applications: Tools, Techniques and Applications

Mesquita, Anabela
IGI Global, 31-Mar-2011 - Technology & Engineering - 426 pages

It is widely accepted that organizations and individuals must be innovative and continually create new knowledge and ideas to deal with rapid change. Innovation plays an important role in not only the development of new business, process and products, but also in competitiveness and success of any organization.

Technology for Creativity and Innovation: Tools, Techniques and Applications provides empirical research findings and best practices on creativity and innovation in business, organizational, and social environments. It is written for educators, academics and professionals who want to improve their understanding of creativity and innovation as well as the role technology has in shaping this discipline.

Online Tools for Providing Inspiration and Creativity 

Journal of Visual Communication in Medicine
Volume 28, 2005 - Issue 1

Resources for Creativity Teaching

December 10, 2018

Supply Chain Management Under Industry 4.0 - Paper Summaries

What does industry 4.0 mean to supply chain?

Introduction: This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the impact of Industry 4.0 on SCM and aims to provide a thought towards Supply Chain 4.0. The scope of the analysis has been intentionally limited to include only four functions within a supply chain, i.e. procurement, transport logistics, warehouse and order fulfilment. This is presented with respect to the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) of the SCM. It is hoped that the current output will open up future pathways to draw the bigger picture and thus conduct a fuller analysis of these impacts.

Research Method: The research method for this paper is based on review of researcg papers with SCM focus. SCM components and KPIs for each of the components were identified for better understanding of SCM and then the impacts of the changes in technology on each KPI were analysed. The opportunities and threats exhibited in each of the technologies for each of the KPIs were then discussed by linking them with each area of the SCM under study. KPIs are defined in order to obtain quantifiable measures to compare if there are changes over time. The identification of these KPIs is, however, rather complicated because there are no clear boundaries between the levers (buy, storage, sell, move).

 “Buy” lever :  The performance parameters are, for instance: quality standard for the raw materials, reject rate, service level, order accuracy etc.

“Store”:  The performance parameters selected are for instance truck time at the dock, accurate receipts received, time from receiving to pick location, labor hours consumed per order, time from picked order to departure, etc.

“Move” : The KPIs to be analyzed are for instance: truckload capacity, turnaround time, shipment visibility, on-time pickups, on-time delivery, etc.

“Sell”: The KPIs selected are for instance: product availability, customer experience, response time, time to market, etc.

Results and Discussion: The results were created for technologies affecting each KPI, if a technology is affecting KPI then reason behind it is mentioned in form of template. Technology affecting KPIs in warehouse and transportation logistics were presented in form of template. The opportunities and threats with respect to industry 4.0 technologies were also presented in form of template. The aim of this paper is to fill the gap in the implementation of technologies involved in Industry 4.0 within the supply chain, particularly the warehouse, transport logistics, procurement and fulfilment functions. Through the analysis performed, the results showed that the areas which will be most affected by the introduction of Industry 4.0 are the order fulfilment and transport logistics.   Finally, within the procurement function, Industry 4.0 shows 71.43% of opportunities, the remainder being opportunities or threats.

Conclusion: From the analysis performed, it can be seen that the implementation of certain technologies, such as virtual and augmented realities, 3D-Printing and simulation, results will all result in opportunities. On the other hand, big data analytics, cloud technology, cyber security, the IoT, miniaturization of electronics, AIDC, RFID, robotics, drones and nanotechnology, M2M and BI could be opportunities or threats for the organizations. The fact that some technologies can result in both of opportunities and threats is because all the different areas are interconnected, with no clear boundaries between them, depending on where it was analyzed, it could have a positive or negative connotation. The most relevant benefits are increased flexibility, quality standards, efficiency and productivity. This will enable mass customization, allowing companies to meet customers’ demands, creating value through constantly introducing new products and services to the market.

Limitation and future scope: Author calls for empirical research in this area. Due to the fact that the implementation of these technologies will be accompanied by a new environment where people work with machines, he believes that legal aspects, liabilities, insurance and ethics should be considered. The work should be continued with some empirical work and assessment of how companies should digitally integrate their supply chain with real implementation and data.

Summarised  by Kirti Nayal, 1806007 Fellow Research Scholar  2018 Batch

December 1, 2018

Industry 4.0 Bibliographies - Smart Products, Processes, Organizations and Management Areas - Bibliographies

An attempt is being to develop a bibliography network that will provide references to 100,000 articles, books, blog posts, consultant reports and surveys,  white papers, research theses and papers.

Industry 4.0 Bibliographies - Smart Products and Processes Bibliographies

Agriculture 4.0

Animal Husbandry



Engineering 4.0

  • Architecture
  • Automobile Engineering
  • Biotechnology
  • Civil Engineering
  • Communications Engineering
  • Computer Engineering
  • Construction Engineering
  • Diary Engineering
  • Electrical Engineering
  • Electronics Engineering
  • Industrial Engineering
  • Information Technology
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Mining Engineering
  • Production Engineering
  • Sound Engineering
  • Textile Engineering






Industry 4.0

  • Industry 4.0 - Adoption

  • Industry 4.0 - Consultant Reports

  • Industry 4.0 - Employment Issues

  • Industry 4.0 - Government Regulations

  • Industry 4.0 - Implementation Road Map

  • Industry 4.0 - Productivity

  • Industry 4.0 - SMEs

  • Industry 4.0 - Use Cases and Applications


Management Areas

Construction Management
Information Systems
Supply Chain



Smart Products - Design, Manufacturing, Marketing

Smart Products - Various Products

Smart Cities

Technologies for Industry 4.0

  • a) Autonomous Robots,
  • b) Simulations and Forecasting Techniques
  • c) Vertical/Horizontal Software Integration
  • d) Industrial Internet of Things – IoT
  • e) Direct communication between machines
  • f) Internet of Services
  • g) Big data and analytics
  • h) Innovative methods of collecting and processing large amounts of data, including
  • the use of potential activities in the cloud (Clouds)
  • i) Additive Manufacturing
  • j) Augmented Reality – AR
  • k) Virtual Reality – VR
  • l) Cyber-Physical Systems – CPS
  • m) Digital Twin
  • n) Artificial Intelligence,
  • o) Neural Networks
  • p) Cybersecurity
  • q) Mass Customization

University 4.0

November 18, 2018

Servant Leadership and Other Leadership Philosophy Models

Interesting Article

'Servant Leadership' and How Its 6 Main Principles Can Boost the Success of Your Startup

Thomas Smale
Founder of FE International
January 24, 2018

Robert Greenleaf's influential 1970 essay "The Servant As Leader" in 1970.
Adam Grant, professor at the Wharton School of Business, wrote in his  book Give and Take that research shows servant leaders are more productive and more highly regarded by employees. Servant leadership has also been implemented by incredibly successful companies like Whole Foods, UPS and Ritz Carlton.

What are servant leadership's main principles?
Six, identified by author-writer Larry Spears (who established a center on servant leadership),

1. Empathy
2. Awareness
3. Building community
Leader or the organization as a community builder.
Leader (say CEO) builds a community where both employees and customers can thrive (generalized into all stakeholders).
4. Persuasion
5. Conceptualization
6. Growth

Spears' (1998) 10 characteristics of servant leadership are (a) listening, (b) empathy, (c) healing, (d) awareness, (e) persuasion, (f) conceptualization, (g) foresight, (h) stewardship, (i) commitment, and (j) community building. Spears (1998) argued that servant leadership is tied to the character exhibited by leaders in their essential traits.

 Laub (1999), did a Delphi study. In the Delphi process, 60 characteristics of servant leaders were identified and eventually clustered into six key areas: (a) valuing people, (b) developing people, (c) building community, (d) displaying authenticity, (e) providing leadership, and (f) sharing leadership. For Laub (1999), these are the essential behaviors that characterize what servant leaders do and they answer to how servant leaders place the good of those led over their own self-interest.

Patterson's (2003) model of servant leadership includes the following dimensions as the essential characteristics of servant leadership: (a) agapáo love, (b) humility, (c) altruism, (d) vision, (e) trust, (f) empowerment, and (g) service.

Thus Spears' (1998) model of servant leadership focuses primarily on the character exhibited by servant leaders and Laub's (1999) model focuses primarily on the behaviors of servant leaders, Patterson's (2003) model provides includes both the dimensions of character and behavior.

Servant versus Self-Sacrificial Leadership: A Behavioral Comparison of Two Follower-Oriented Leadership Theories

Jeffrey A. Matteson
Regent University

Justin A. Irving
Bethel University

International Journal of Leadership Studies, Volume 2, Issue 1
An online refereed journal sponsored by
Regent University, School of Business & Leadership
1333 Regent University Drive, Virginia Beach, VA 23464

Servant Leadership and Other Models of Leadership  (Adopted essay) - Reference needs to be given

There are measures in place to assess servant leadership. It  is important first to  to understand how it differs from other models.

There have been a multitude of other leadership philosophies, ideas and theories.

Dirk van Dierendonck (2011) noted that servant leadership could be compared to seven other leadership theories: transformational leadership, authentic leadership, ethical leadership, Level 5 leadership, empowering leadership, spiritual leadership, and self-sacrificing leadership.

Transformational Leadership.

Components of a transformational leader are idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration (Varol & Varol, 2012). The transformational leader shows concern for the follower, but does not place an emphasis on serving the follower (Stone, Russell, and Patterson, 2003). In a study conducted by Parolini, Patterson, and Winston (2009), over 500 people in various organizations ranging  from churches and non-profits to corporations and academic institutions. The  study revealed  that the perceived difference between  transformational leaders and servant leaders was the focus on the needs of the individuals instead of the organization. 

Authentic Leadership.

Authentic leadership  grew in popularity with Bob George’s book, Authentic Leadership (2003). Both servant leadership and authentic leadership place a strong value in serving and empowering others. These philosophies focus on establishing relationships with people and rely on follower’s strengths instead of weaknesses (Nayab, 2010; Ladkin & Taylor, 2010; Politis, 2013). The difference between the two styles is the approach. Servant leaders want to do what is right, while authentic leaders are more concerned with being real (Nayab, 2010f; Avolio &Gardener, 2005). There are lists of characteristics for servant leadership that mold the leader in his journey. Authentic leadership does not have a set of attributes specified so far. There are two attributes that Van Dierendock (2011) discussed as an overlap in these philosophies: authenticity and humility.

Ethical Leadership.

Ethical leadership is a normative approach to leading others. The philosophy, according to Brown, Trevino, and Harrison (2005), stresses a standardized viewpoint of appropriate behavior in both actions and relationships. Servant leadership shares many attributes with ethical leadership such as caring for people, trust, integrity, and serving others (Dierendonck, 2011), but they differ from a developmental aspect. Ethical leadership focuses on the correct actions and directives of the leader within the organization, not so much how individuals can meet their goals personally (Brown, et al, 2005). There are three characteristics that these two styles do not share: authenticity, interpersonal acceptance, and providing direction (Dierendonck, 2011).

Level 5 Leadership.

In Jim Collins’ seminal work, Good to Great, he outlined his five levels in his hierarchy of leadership capabilities (2001). The levels are Executive, Effective Leader, Competent Manager, Contributing Team Member, and Highly Capable Individual. The highest level in the hierarchy identifies a leader who represents a balance of humility and professional will, which incorporates sound business results and vision for the future. The lowest level leader uses his talent, knowledge, and skills to make contributions to the organization (2001). The qualities at level 5 overlap with two servant leadership characteristics: humility and providing direction (Dierendonck, 2011). A major factor is the creation on the Level 5 Leadership model was shareholder value in terms of stock value, which is a major difference between this style and servant leadership. Three attributes missing from Level 5 that are seen in servant leadership are authenticity, interpersonal acceptance, and stewardship.

Empowering Leadership.

Empowering leadership is a leadership style grounded in social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) and the core attribute is the employee’s perspective and the leader’s actions (Dierendonck, 2011) to involve others. Self-direction and self-motivation are also key concepts for this philosophy according to Pearce and Sims (2002). There are obvious overlapping traits between servant leadership and empowering leadership. Servant leadership can be thought of  as an elaboration of empowering leadership. When addressing the additional five servant leadership characteristics of Dierendonck’s research of humility, authenticity, interpersonal acceptance, providing direction and stewardship, there is not an overt connection but an indirect expansion of all the traits (2011). The philosophy of servant leadership goes beyond the foundational ideas of this leadership type and encompasses a larger set of traits.

Spiritual Leadership.

Spiritual leadership and servant leadership share the goal to make one’s work meaningful and maximize followers’ strengths (Dierendonck, 2011). The framework of spiritual leadership combines the employee’s experiences with self-transcendence, community, and meaning in a workplace. The leadership style recognizes the experiences can be found in the employee’s organization (Pawar, 2008). The issue is a lack of behaviors associated with this philosophy because most of the research is built around the organization and not the leader (Dierendonck, 2011). There are similarities with the viewpoint of both types of leadership. Both encourage followers to find a sense of self through work and creating a community in the workplace (Fry, 2003). There is a more structured framework, which separates servant leadership from spiritual leadership (Fry et al, 2005).

Self-Sacrificing Leadership.

Charisma, legitimacy, and reciprocity are characteristics of a leader who subscribes to the self-sacrificing model (Choi & Mai-Dalton, 1999). Studies (De Cremer, 2006; De Cremer, Mayer, Schouten, & Bardes, 2009; Van Knippenberg & Van Knippenberg, 2005) reveal that these traits are indeed apparent with these types leaders. The followers of a self-sacrificing leader have a strong willingness to work together, motivated for pro-social behavior, and rate their leaders as effective (2005). Self-sacrificing leadership derives from transformational leadership and has a more organizational focus than a person focus (Matteson & Irving, 2005). The connection this style has with servant leadership is found with Greenleaf’s best test to make sure that those being lead also become servant-leaders themselves. Attributes they share are compassionate goals and supportive environment, but none of the six characteristics mentioned above are overlapping in this style.

All of the leadership models listed above have some similarities with servant leadership, but servant leadership also has unique attributes that allow it to stand on its own as a philosophy. We have to  understand the practical use of the characteristics and themes by studying organizations and situation. where servant leadership has been implemented.

Practice of  Servant Leadership

TD Industries is one of the first companies to actually practice servant leadership within a corporation (Spears, 2005). TD is based in Dallas, Texas and provides heating and plumbing contracts. The founder, Jack Lowe, Sr. read Greenleaf’s writings on the servant as leader and implemented managerial training in servant leadership as a result. Thirty years later, any employee at TD who supervises someone else must attend servant leader training. The fruit of the implementation for TD Industries has been a consistent spot on the Fortune magazine’s 100 Best Companies to Work for in America list (2005). From a corporate standpoint, TD does not stand alone in capitalizing on the benefit of servant leadership. Other large companies such as Synovus Financial, Southwest Airlines, and Popeye’s Louisiana Kitchen hold employee trainings and center their culture on servant leadership (2005).

Many companies that have been influenced in some way by servant leadership chose to focus more on the people that work for them as opposed to the “bottom line”.  These are corporations that make a concerted effort to be really good at what they do with an emphasis on relationship building, which is a characteristic of servant leadership.

Measurement of Servant leadership

Servant leadership has grown in popularity in the past five decades, but researchers have only been able to actually measure the term since around 2006. Measurement instruments such as Page and Wong’s Servant Leadership Profile (2000), Laub’s Organizational Leadership Assessment (2000), and Dennis and Bocarnea’s assessment instrument (2005) proved to be reliable in measuring different characteristics of a servant leader. These tools provide validity to the philosophy and established a foundation of reliability for future research. In an effort to conceptualize and measure the construct of servant leadership, Barbuto and Wheeler (2006) tested 11 dimensions of servant leadership to test “internal consistency, confirm factor structure, and assess convergent, divergent, and predictive validity” (p. 300). Many practical implications were derived from this study. It found a positive relationship between positive outcomes such as employee satisfaction and extra effort on their part. Additionally, the research showed a great infusion of emotional health, wisdom, and service-oriented attitudes (2006).


 Leader self-sacrifice and leadership effectiveness

Choi, Y., & Mai-Dalton, R. R. 1998. On the leadership function of self-sacrifice. The Leadership Quarterly, 9 (4): 475–501. 
Choi, Y., & Mai-Dalton, R. R. 1999. The model of followers'responses to self-sacrificial leadership: An empirical test. The Leadership Quarterly, 10 (3): 397–421. 
Choi, Y., & Yoon, J. 2005. Effects of leaders’ self-sacrificial behavior and competency on followers’ attribution of charismatic leadership among Americans and Koreans. Current Research in Social Psychology, 11 (5): 51–69.
De Cremer, D. 2006. Affective and motivational consequences of leader self-sacrifice: The moderating effect of autocratic leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 17 (1):79–93. 
De Cremer, D., Mayer, D. M., van Dijke, M., & Schouten, B. C. 2009. When does self-sacrificial leadership motivate prosocial behavior? It depends on followers prevention focus. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94 (4): 887–899. 
De Cremer, D., & van Knippenberg, D. 2002. How do leaders promote cooperation?The effects of charisma and procedural fairness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87 (5): 858–866. 
De Cremer, D., & van Knippenberg, D. 2004. Leader self-sacrifice and leadership effectiveness: The moderating role of leader self-confidence. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 95 (2): 140–155. 
De Cremer, D., & van Knippenberg, D. 2005. Cooperation as a function of leader self-sacrifice, trust, and identification. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 26 (5): 355–369. 
De Cremer, D., van Knippenberg, D., van Dijke, M., & Bos, A. E. R. 2006. Self-sacrificial leadership and follower self-esteem: When collective identification matters. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 10 (3): 233–245. 
Den Hartog, D. N. 2015. Ethical leadership. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 2: 409–434. 

Farh, J. L., Zhong, C. B., & Organ, D. W. 2004. Organizational citizenship behavior in the People's Republic of China. Organization Science, 15 (2): 241–253. 
Gardner, W. L., Avolio, B. J., Luthans, F., May, D. R., & Walumbwa, F. 2005. Can you see the real me? A self-based model of authentic leader and follower development. The Leadership Quarterly, 16 (3): 343–372. 
Grant, A. M., & Mayer, D. M. 2009. Good soldiers and good actors: Prosocial and impression management motives as interactive predictors of affiliative citizenship behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94 (4): 900–912. 

Judge, T. A., Piccolo, R. F., & Ilies, R. 2004. The forgotten ones? The validity of consideration and initiating structure in leadership research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89 (1): 36–51. 
Kark, R., & Shamir, B., & Chen, G. 2003. The two faces of transformational leadership: Empowerment and dependency. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88 (2): 246–255. 
Kim, Y. J., Van Dyne, L., Kamdar, D., & Johnson, R. E. 2013. Why and when do motives matter? An integrative model of motives, role cognitions, and social support as predictors of OCB. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 121 (2): 231–245. 

Li, S. L., He, W., Yam, K. C., & Long, L. L. 2015. When and why empowering leadership increases followers’ taking charge: A multilevel examination in China. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 32 (3): 64–670. 
Liang, J., Farh, C. L. C., & Farh, J. L. 2012. Psychological antecedents of promotive and prohibitive voice: A two-wave examination. Academy of Management Journal, 55 (1): 71–92. 
Liu, W., Zhu, R., & Yang, Y. 2010. I warn you because I like you: Voice behavior, employee identifications, and transformational leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 21 (1): 189–202. 
Lord, R. G., & Brown, D. J. 2001. Leadership, values, and subordinate self-concepts. The Leadership Quarterly, 12 (2): 133–152. 
MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., Hoffman, J. M., West, S. G., & Sheets, V. 2002. A comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variable effects. Psychological Methods, 7 (1): 83–104. 
McAllister, D. J., Kamdar, D., Morrison, E. W., & Turban, D. B. 2007. Disentangling role perceptions: How perceived role breadth, discretion, instrumentality, and efficacy relate to helping and taking charge. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92 (5): 1200–1211. 
Morrison, E. W., & Phelps, C. C. 1999. Taking charge at work: Extra role efforts to initiate workplace change. Academy of Management Journal, 42 (4): 403–419.
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Pierce, J. L., & Gardner, D. G. 2004. Self-esteem within the work and organizational context: A review of the organization-based self-esteem literature. Journal of Management, 30 (5): 591–622. 
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Qu, R., Janssen, O., & Shi, K. 2015. Transformational leadership and follower creativity: The mediating role of follower relational identification and the moderating role of leader creativity expectations. Leadership Quarterly, 26 (2): 286–299. 

Schaubroeck, J., Lam, S. S. K., & Cha, S. E. 2007. Embracing transformational leadership: Team values and the impact of leader behavior on team performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92 (4): 1020–1030. 
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Shamir, B., House, R. J., & Arthur, M. B. 1993. The motivational effects of charismatic leadership: A self-concept based theory. Organization Science, 4 (4): 577–594. 
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Tang, T. L. P., & Ibrahim, A. H. S. 1998. Antecedents of organizational citizenship behavior revisited: Workers in the United States and in the Middle East. Public Personnel Management, 27 (4): 529–550. 
Tyler, T. R., & Blader, S. L. 2003. The group engagement model: Procedural justice, social identity, and cooperative behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 7 (4): 349–361. 
Van Dyne, L., Cummings, L. L., & McLean Parks, J. 1995. Extra-role behaviors: In pursuit of construct and definitional clarity (a bridge over muddled waters). Research in Organizational Behavior, 17: 215–285.
Van Dyne, L., & LePine, J. A. 1998. Helping and voice extra-role behaviors: Evidence of construct and predictive validity. Academy of Management Journal, 41 (1): 108–119.
Van Dyne, L., & Pierce, J. L. 2004. Psychological ownership and feelings of possession: Three field studies predicting employee attitudes and organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25 (4): 439–459. 
van Knippenberg, D., & Hogg, M. A. 2003. A social identity model of leadership effectiveness in organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 25: 243–295. 
van Knippenberg, B., & van Knippenberg, D. 2005. Leader self-sacrifice and leadership effectiveness: The moderating role of leader prototypicality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90 (1): 25–37. 
van Knippenberg, D., van Knippenberg, B., De Cremer, D., & Hogg, M.A. 2004. Leadership, self, and identity: A review and research agenda. Leadership Quarterly, 15 (6): 825–856. 

Yaffe, T., & Kark, R. 2011. Leading by example: The case of leader OCB. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96 (4): 806–826. 
Zhang, G., Bai, Y. T., Caza, A., & Wang, L. 2014. Leader integrity and organizational citizenship behaviour in China. Management and Organization Review, 10 (2): 299–319.
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A Literature Review of Self-Sacrificial Leadership

November 17, 2018

Industry 4.0 - Research Papers and Thesis - Bibliography


Additive Manufacturing in 2040: Powerful Enabler - Disruptive Threat
Rand Corporation Report

Additive Manufacturing in Aerospace and Defence Sector
Prakash Panneerselvam
Journal of Defence Studies, Jan - March 2018, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 39-60

Benefits of Mass Customized Products: Moderating Role of Product Involvement and Fashion Inventiveness
Minjung Park, Jungmin Yoo.
Heliyon, 4, 2018

Big Data Challenges in Smart Manufacturing
Big Data Value Association Paper

Business Intelligence in Industry 4.0: State of the art and research opportunities
Fanny-Eve Bordeleau et al.
Proceedings of the 51st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2018
pp. 3944-3953. 

November 12, 2018

4 MILLION PAGE VIEWS OR HITS for Management and Industrial Engineering Blogs

Happy to see that this blog alone is now registering 2.5 million hits.  12 November 2018



10 November 2018

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18 September 2015

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Updated  10 November 2018,   18 Sep 2015, 19 April 2015

October 26, 2018

The Economic Theory of Entrepreneurship - Model - Introduction, Assumptions and Propositions

The Economic Theory of Entrepreneurship - Model - Introduction,  Assumptions and Propositions - Version 1

27 October 2018
Prof. Narayana Rao K.V.S.S.


Economic theory is developed on the basis of four factors of production. The four factors are land, labor, capital and entrepreneurship.  The factors are owned by some or other persons in the economy at a given point of time. In every period of production, these four factors participate and the production output of the period is distributed to them according to the contracts that they make at the beginning of the production period.

Land and capital are tangible assets separate from persons and they can be given to others. Labor and entrepreneurship are attached to persons and their use implies participation of persons.

Entrepreneur enters into a contract with the owners or holders of land, capital and labor and acquires the required amount to participate in his plan of production. Entrepreneur distributes the proceeds of rewards after the production period is over and sales takes place and the consumers pay him the exchange value.  The way entrepreneurship is described or modeled in the economic theory, implies that there is an active credit market through which entrepreneurs acquire other factors of production.

All owners of factors of production have to survive till they get returns from production and exchange process. Hence, we need to assume that there is enough consumption goods stock with the owners of production to consume during the production cycle.

Entrepreneur tasks.

1. Should be able to come out with a production and exchange plan that is feasible at expected value level and satisfies the desires of owners of factors of production and consumers.
2. He must create trust in the owners of factors of production so that they provide their goods and services on credit to him.
3. He must have trust in potential customers so that he gives his produce on credit to them.
4. He must have the ability to collect exchange value  from the customers to whom he sold his produce on credit.

What are the questions to be answered by the economic theory of entrepreneurship?

1. Supply of entrepreneurship services.
2. Demand for entrepreneurship services.
3. Reward to entrepreneurship.
4. Growth and decline of entrepreneurship services
5. Role of entrepreneurship in economic growth of society.

Managerial Tasks of an Entrepreneur

Management theory has application in the economic theory of entrepreneurship.  Entrepreneurs have to undertake managerial tasks to successfully complete the cycle of entrepreneurship. The cycle of entrepreneurship is  -----------  Production and Exchange Plan - Communication of the Plan to  Owners of Factors of Production - Acquisition of Factors of Production - Execution of Production Process - Communication of Product/Service Information in the Market - Selling - Collection of the Exchange Value - Payment to Owners of Factors of Production. 

The Cycle of Entrepreneurship

Production and Exchange Plan - Communication of the Plan to  Owners of Factors of Production - Acquisition of Factors of Production - Execution of Production Process - Communication of Product/Service Information in the Market - Selling - Collection of the Exchange Value - Payment to Owners of Factors of Production.

Bibliography - The Economic Theory of Entrepreneurship

Nash, S. J.,
Thesis title : On entrepreneurship : a critique of the economic theories of entrepreneurship
School of Economics, University of Queensland, 1987-01-01

Formaini, Robert L.
The Engine of Capitalist Process: Entrepreneurs in Economic Theory
Economic and Financial Review, Fourth Quarter 2001, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas

Khalil, Elias
Entrepreneurship and Economic Theory
Munich Personal Repec Archive
October 2016

Rocha Very Caterina
The Entrepreneur in Economic Theory: From an Invisible Man Toward a New Research Field.
FEP Working Papers, No. 459, May 2012
School of Economics and Management, University of Porto.

Gunter, Frank R.
A Simple Model of Entrepreneurship for Principles of Economics Courses
Expanded version of the article published in the Journal of Economic Education, Vol. 43, No. 4, 2012, pp. 1-11.

Tiryaki, Ahmet
Theories of Entrepreneurship: A Critical Overview
Paper avaiable on Web/Internet

Campagnollo, Gilles, & Vivel, Christel
The Foundations of the Theory of Entrepreneurship in Austrian Economics - Menger, Bohm-Bawerk on entrepreneur

October 19, 2018

Self Motivation - Intrinsic Motivation

Self motivation is included by Daniel Goleman as a component of Emotional Intelligence.

Fred Luthans, the noted author of Organization Behavior, writes that intrinsic motives are internally generated. The motivators are presented in the task or job itself and other extrinsic rewards promised by others are not required for the motivation to do the task. The feeling associated with the completion of the task or doing the task itself such as feeling of responsibility, achievement, accomplishment, learnt something,  and feeling challenged etc.


Intrinsic Motivation

A person is intrinsically motivated to engage in behavior if he does it for no apparent reason except the activity itself (Koch 1956, Hunt 1965, Berlyne 1966). Engaging in these behaviors allows him to feel a sense of competence and self-determination (White 1959, de Charms, 1968, Deci 1972a).

Berlyne D.E., Exploration and Curiosity, Science, 1966, 153, 25-33.

Koch, S, "Behavior as "Intrinsically" Regulated: Work Notes toward a Pre-theory of Phenomena called "Motivational."  In M.R. Jones, Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 1956, 4, 42-86


Edward Deci (1975), Intrinsic Motivation, Plenum Press, New York.

Contemporary Theories of Motivation

Basic introduction in one or two lines to each theory is given at the present.

1. Self-Determination Theory

It is based on cognitive evaluation theory.

Employees who feel what they do is within their control and a result of free choice are likely to be more motivated by their work.

2. Goal-Setting Theory

In the late 1960s, Edwin Locke proposed that intentions to work toward a goal are a major source of work motivation.

3. Self-Efficacy Theory

Self-efficacy refers to an individual's belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. The higher your self-efficacy, the more confidence you have in your ability to succeed.

4. Reinforcement Theory

5. Equity Theory/Organizational Justice

6. Expectancy Theory

September 13, 2018

SAP ERP Controlling CO

Detailed information will be posted in due course of time.

First Steps in SAP Controlling (CO)
Ashish Sampat
Espresso Tutorials GmbH, 05-Sep-2015 - 205 pages

 This book offers a comprehensive introduction to SAP ERP Controlling (CO). You will learn the basic fundamentals of the organizational structure, master data, and functions of SAP Controlling, including overhead controlling, product costing, month-end closing, and reporting. If you would like to understand the basic fundamentals of SAP Controlling, with examples based on a case study approach, this book is for you! Using a fictional chocolate manufacturing company case study, you will learn fundamentals based on several day-in-the-life scenarios of various key functions such as cost planning, production controlling, actual costing, and information systems. Get detailed information on how SAP CO integrates with other SAP modules and obtain insight into the different functional areas typically used in manufacturing organizations. Dive into SAP ERP master data elements and get tips on how to maintain consistent and accurate data. Review the various planning methods available and get an overview of cost center planning, including overhead planning and labor cost planning. Understand how SAP Material Ledger can be used to accurately determine costs. Identify how actual costs are booked and absorbed. By using a detailed case study, practical examples, tips, and screenshots the author brings readers new to SAP CO quickly up to speed on the fundamentals.

- Cost center and product cost planning, actual cost flow
- Best practices for cost absorption using Product Cost Controlling
- Month-end closing activities in SAP Controlling
- Examples and screenshots based on a case study approach

Practical Guide to SAP CO-PC (Product Cost Controlling)
Tanya Duncan
Espresso Tutorials GmbH, 29-Jul-2014 - Business & Economics - 236 pages

 Because of its complex integration, Product Cost Controlling (CO-PC) is often regarded as the most challenging module in SAP ERP. In this book, you will learn the most important concepts, business processes, and configuration settings. By concentrating only on the essentials, this book will quickly enable you to use it as a supplementary reference guide for implementing or supporting SAP CO-PC. Screenshots of transactions and configuration are included to illustrate written content. This book also dives into CO-PC integration details with other modules and tips on how to properly configure and implement a highly integrated sub-module. This complete and simplified guide to configuration and business processes for SAP Product Costing covers:

* Introduction to Value Flows in SAP Controlling
* Step-by-Step Examples
* Configuration for Product Costing
* Detailed Month End Closing Processes

Practical Guide to SAP Cost Center Accounting
John Pringle
Espresso Tutorials GmbH, 13-Sep-2017 - 250 pages

 Are you taking full advantage of cost center accounting functionality in SAP (CO-CCA)? This book explains the core (and often underused) functionality in cost center accounting including basic planning, allocation, and reporting functions and delves into more advanced functions such as automatic planning functions, template allocations, accrual calculations, target costing, variance analysis, and marginal costs. Compare and contrast cost center planning in SAP ECC 6.0 and SAP S/4HANA and get up to speed on recent changes.

Explore the period end allocation processes that should be performed in cost center accounting and identify the differences between the different types of cost allocations and the benefits of each. Walk through methods for analyzing cost center costs and identify your options for variance analysis and posting cost center variances.
Dive into a typical manufacturing scenario including master data requirements, integrated planning, month-end processes, and reporting. By using practical examples, tips, and screenshots, the author brings readers quickly up to speed on the fundamentals of SAP Cost Center Accounting.

- Overview of cost center accounting in SAP
- Flow of actual values into cost center accounting
- Cost center planning in SAP ECC 6.0 and SAP S/4HANA
- Most important standard reporting options in SAP CCA

September 7, 2018

Creative Problem Solving - Process of Creative Thinking in Practice

Chapter 10 Mastering Creative Problem Solving
from the book -   Lifelong Creativity: An Unending Quest by Pradip N. Khandwalla

Models of Creative Problem Solving

Stages Models

Graham Walls
William Kirkwood

Simulation Models

Heuristic is mentioned in this model.

Some heuristics that mind uses are: try something counter-intuitive, make the familiar strange, generate hypothesis from an episode or a case, use analogies, account for exceptions, investigate paradoxical incidents, play with ideas, etc. 

'Primary Process' Thinking Models

Ernst Kris

In the primary process thinking many fluid contributions or syntheses take place as during reveries.  Analytical or evaluative activity takes during 'secondary process thinking.

Personality Trait and Emotion-Based Models

 Albert Rothenberg

Kirton Adaptation-Innovation Inventory


Todd Lubart and Isaac Geetz - Emotions play central role

David Carson and Mark Runco - Certain emotions negatively impact creativity

Cognitive Capabilities Models

Michael Mumford  - Creating super categories given some categories

Example: Given chair, couch, lamp and pictures coming out with a super category of furnishings.

Structured Problem-Solving Models

Kepner and Tregoe's Model

Sidney Parnes and Associates

Problem Solving Programme - Five Stages

1. Awareness of the 'mess' or problem situation
2. Fact finding, involving listing down or otherwise discovering all the facts pertinent to the problem situation.
3. Problem finding or fairly precise statement of what the problem is.
4. Idea finding, in which such techniques of divergent thinking as brainstorming are used to come up with a wide range of possible solutions.
5. Solution finding, in which the alternative proposed solution ideas are assessed against criteria of evaluation to generate a small number of feasible solutions.
6. Acceptance finding, or getting system to accept one of the feasible solutions.
7. Implementation of the selected solution, involving thinking through and planning the steps needed to implement the chosen solution

Dennis Brophy


Useful Mechanisms of Convergent Thinking

Clarificatory Mechanisms

Analytical Mechanisms

Synthesis Aiding Mechanism

Optimizing Mechanisms

Mechanisms of Divergent Thinking

August 11, 2018

The Institute of Administrative Management (IAM) - UK - Since 1915

The Institute of Administrative Management (IAM) is one of the oldest management institutes in the UK, having inspired professional business managers and administrators since 1915.

Our focus is on developing professional administrators, administrative managers and managers.

What is Administrative Management?
Administrative management is at the heart of every successful organisation playing an essential role to ensure that businesses run smoothly.

It involves all types of business management and administration. Any middle or senior manager who is involved in the planning, co-ordinating, directing, or controlling aspects of a business can be considered an administrative manager. Administrative managers ensure there is effective information flow and that resources are employed efficiently across an organisation.

The Practice of Social Science in Organizations - A Review

Working Across the Gap: The Practice of Social Science in Organizations

Lisl Klein
Routledge, 30-May-2018 - Psychology - 289 pages

The author's experience of applying the social sciences in organizations must be unique. Her work is grounded in research but much of her professional activity has been in application, combining the methods and findings of research with an understanding of dynamics in working with organizations. Moving between research and practice she has, for nearly forty years, pursued the aim of rendering the social sciences useful and practical in organizational life.

This collection of papers brings together wide-ranging material that is highly relevant to today's world, whilst also providing a useful historical overview of the field.

New Forms of Work Organisation

Lisl Klein, Dave Klein
CUP Archive, 15-Apr-1976 - Business & Economics - 106 pages

August 10, 2018

Resourcing - A Function of Management - Knol Post March 2010

Resourcing - A Function of Management


  • Narayana Rao


  • Sajid Khan
Koontz and O'Donnell outlined Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing and Controlling as the five functions of management and explained the process of management of these five functions.

In the place of staffing, using the word resourcing, could be a better description of management function at the current stage.

A plan to achieve something (objective) is to be  converted into an organizational plan that has resources,  facilities and people. The manager has to acquire these resources to set up the organization to implement his plan. Acquisition of human resources is staffing. But normally in modern business, the manager has to acquire money resources or finance. Then he has to  acquire land, buildings, machinery, materials and various other services. Then comes directing and resource allocation.

During control phase, replanning takes place, reorganization can take place, resource adjustment (resource acquisition or disposal) may take place, and redirecting may take place to achieve the goals set forth for a period.

Planning involves choosing a direction and an intermediate destination. It has to be a profitable and a useful endeavor. In the process of planning cost benefit analysis is done.  Organizing follows and the means by which one reaches the chosen destination is defined during this activity of management.

Organizing is a process of
  • determining, grouping and structuring activities
  • creating roles for individuals for effective performance at work
  • allocating necessary authority (over resources) and responsibility for results for each role
  • determining detailed procedures and systems for different problem areas such as coordination, communication, decision-making, motivation, conflict resolution and so on.

The resources required to achieve a goal are to be identified during the organizing step of management. How many operators are required and how many supervisors are required is a function of technology employed in the organization and this decision has to be taken during the process of organization. Resourcing follows the organizing phase in the acquiring of the resources planned in the organizing phase. Organizing this way is just the planning stage. Resourcing is the stage during which all resources planned in the organizing stage are acquired by the manager.

Resource Planning  


Resource planning is an economic decision and entrepreneurs have to use it. It is discussed adequately in economics.

Choice of Inputs by the Firm

Every firm or entrepreneur has to decide how much of each input it should employ: how much labor, capital, land, energy, various materials and services.

The fundamental assumption that economists make in this context is that of cost minimization. Firms are expected to choose their combination of inputs so as to minimize the total cost of production.

Least-cost Rule: To produce a given level of output at the least cost, a firm will hire factors until is has equalized the marginal product per dollar spent on each factor of production. This implies that

Marginal product of labor/price of labor  = Marginal Product of Capital Equipment/Price of capital equipment = ...

Thus the firm will choose a factor combination or resource combination that minimizes the total cost of production.  (Source:


Recognition of Role of Resources in Management Process by Various Authors of Principles of Management or Management Process Books


Ernest Dale

Goals and Resources
Once objectives have been set,the planners must decide how far they can proceed toward them in view of the resources available, which include the money on hand, the money that sales will bring, and the funds that may be obtained by borrowing or selling equities. The decision to borrow or sell new stock will, of course, be part of the planning process and will depend on the return expected on the investment.
Finally, the planners must decide on the allocation of the funds to the various company activities and the way in which these funds will be used to generate greater income in the form of sales.  The volume of sales is, in fact, the key factor in all corporate planning.
Ernest Dale, Graduale School of Business, University of Virginia, Management: Theory and Practice, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1965, p.352, Chapter 22. Planning and Forecasting.
An intersting entry in Wikipedia - Resource Management
In organizational studies, resource management is the efficient and effective deployment for an organization's resources when they are needed. Such resources may include financial resources, inventory, human skills, production resources, or information technology (IT). In the realm of project management, processes, techniques and philosophies as to the best approach for allocating resources have been developed. These include discussions on functional vs. cross-functional resource allocation as well as processes espoused by organizations like the Project Management Institute (PMI) through their Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) methodology to project management. Resource management is a key element to activity resource estimating and project human resource management. Both are essential components of a comprehensive project management plan to execute and monitor a project successfully
Resourcing and Resouce Planning Departments
Office of Resource Planning, Universit of Regina


Short urls

Narayana Rao - 15 Apr 2011

short term vs. long term resourcing practice

Seems to be a good analysis or operational resourcing,
but I think there is also strategical resourcing,
which supposes to allow that in long term there be
no shortage or glut of any resource, and that take
into account expected evolutions in risk and prospects.

There might be a conflict between the two aspects.
A compromise would be to have some flexibility,
to starve some resources that are presently needed
for some activities but that might become a weight
in the future if those activities that are going
to shrink (or can be sensitive to an economic
downturn, or to a marketing or technology change)
and to have more resources than presently needed
for activities that have a bright future, just to
be prepared.

In other word, resourcing should be risk oriented
and prospect oriented, and take into account the
"product life cycle"
There is an article that might help in my site:
Peter Greenfinch - 04 Mar 2010
Yes, let us accumulate some material and try to develop a knol.

I am also thinking of the trust capital. Resources will not come to an aspiring manager or an entrepreneur unless he has that trust capital. The providers of resources have to trust his ability to take care of their interests. Management books have to emphasize this point in principles of management books. Customers also will not come and suppliers on credit also will not come. Even employees will not join.

We know many of us joined knol because we had trust in google management.
Narayana Rao - 04 Mar 2010
OK, although I don't think I would be the best one to write such a knol. Maybe we try something collaborative instead. At the moment I would add a couple of ideas.
* The resource to optimize in priority is the scarciest and costliest one, now or in the future. For example energy is becoming costlier and scarcer.
* A resource which is getting more and more important in many activities is immaterial, it is the "knowledge + innovation + trust capital". This is often the main element of a business "goodwill" even if it does not show in its accounts. That immaterial part just skyrocketted for Apple an went to the dogs for Toyota.
* To find resources involves several Departments in a firm : finance, procurement, human resources, but they should not work alone, about every manager in the firm should contribute to combine and optimize those resources.
* Oh, I was going to forget, the main resource of a business is its customers.
Peter Greenfinch - 03 Mar 2010
Very interesting. I suggest that you write a detailed knol on how to determine the optimal resource combination. My thrust is presently on the point that in management process description, resourcing comination decision and resourcing activity have to be brought out prominently. How to take resource combination decisions could be a big area and a detailed knol by people with background in management would be a good addition to online article base.

I am presenly going through books on management process to find out their treatment of this topic. I found a paragraph in Ernest Dale's book on goals and resources in corporate planning chapter. I need to collect such small paragraphs from various books first to present an argument on how it has to be incorporated in more detail in the introduction to management books.
Narayana Rao - 02 Mar 2010

Learning Organization

The authors reports an increase in performance after ten years in two companies.  Both companies report that they experienced steady productivity gains of 10% or a little more, compounded year-over-year over a 10-15 year time period. Both reported that in the past two to three years they experienced an inflection point, where the productivity gains jumped from the steady 10% or a little more to 15-20% productivity gains. An astonishing performance.

Both companies attribute the reason for this inflection point to  the level of learning  achieved by their associates. Now many of them  can identify problems, solve problems, and implement changes so quickly and independently and thus more associates are driving the productivity gains.

August 8, 2018

Resourcing Projects

A Manager's Job is to get results through people and other resources. Hence acquiring all resources (including human resources) is a function of management. - Narayana Rao (2010)

Estimating and Resourcing
The Project Management Book: How to Manage Your Projects To Deliver Outstanding Results
Richard Newton
Pearson UK, 2013 - Business & Economics - 296 pages

The Project Management Book addresses the real-life scenarios and issues that anyone responsible for managing a project is likely to face on a day to day basis.  It provides solutions to the everyday issues involved in managing projects.

Estimating is the process of determining how much time and resources a project requires.
Resourcing is the subsequent process of identifying, acquiring and allocating the right resources in the project.

Being able to estimate the resources required to run a project and gaining access to those resources are central to managing projects.

Resource Planning

Special understanding required by Persons working in Projects

Project human resources have to understand the nature of the project and work accordingly. There is fluctuation in the amount of work demanded by a project. The work can be very light sometimes and very heavy at other times. People must be ready to take up the extra work whenever it arises because project time limits are fixed and the customer is one unlike the delivery times of routine operations where multiple customers share the output.

So when acquiring the human resources for the project, project managers has to evaluate whether the person concerned has understanding of the project work nature and whether he is willing to work in that context.

In an online article  the following are specified to evaluate a person for project based work.

1. The ability to cope positively with change
2. Commitment to milestones and  willingness to dig deep to complete a milestone
3. Must be ready to face surprises and should not react in frustration to every surprise that is encountered on a project
4. The Capability to move roles and/or work multiple roles to get the job done
5. The ability to switch off and chill after a period of high intensity working
6. Must not take any work-related discussions personally
7. Can keep focused on the end goal
8. Believe the end goal is possible
9. Can support the team to deliver the scope at all costs

Estimating the science of uncertainty

Meyer, W. G. (2016). Estimating: the science of uncertainty. Paper presented at PMI® Global Congress 2016—EMEA, Barcelona, Spain. Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute.

Estimation is at the heart of most project disciplines, and project cost and time overruns can often be traced back to inaccurate estimates.

Estimation requires human involvement to create a forecast that considers past projects, personal experience, and industry-specific knowledge and techniques. But the process of estimation is often subject to biases by the estimator.

This paper explores the problem of estimation inaccuracies from a cognitive psychological perspective. It looks at various research studies about the way in which the human brain deals with forecasting, and makes recommendations on how estimates can be improved.!prettyPhoto

Estimating and Resourcing 

The Project Management Book: How to Manage Your Projects To Deliver Outstanding Results
Richard Newton
Pearson UK, 2013 - Business & Economics - 296 pages

The Project Management Book addresses the real-life scenarios and issues that anyone responsible for managing a project is likely to face on a day to day basis.  It provides solutions to the everyday issues involved in managing projects

Practice Standard for Project Estimating
By Project Management Institute

Leveraging the new practice standard for project estimating
Kanabar, V. & Warburton, R. D. H. (2011). Leveraging the new practice standard for project estimating. Paper presented at PMI® Global Congress 2011—North America, Dallas, TX. Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute.

Updated on 9 August 2018, 15 April 2017

August 4, 2018

Qualitative Research - Use in Business Research

Applications of Qualitative Research in Business

Job Analysis
Advertising Concept Development
Productivity Enhancement
New Product Development
Benefits Management Retail Design
Process Understanding
Union Representation
Market Segmentation
Sales Analysis

Ch 7 in Cooper Schlinder 11th Edition
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August 3, 2018

Business Research Methods - Introduction

Learning Objectives

To Understand . . .

What business research is and how it differs from  business decision support systems and business  intelligence systems.

Trends affecting business research and the  emerging hierarchy of business decision makers.

The distinction between good business research  and research that falls short of professional quality.

The nature of the research process.

Business research provides information to guide business decisions

Research Identifies changes in business environment and would help in responding  to change

Enterprises have long recognized the need
to better sense and respond to business change.


A process of determining, acquiring,analyzing, synthesizing, and disseminating relevant business data, information, and insights to decision makers in ways that mobilize the organization to take appropriate business actions that, in turn, maximize business performance

Research Reduces Risk

The primary purpose of research is to reduce the level of risk of a business decision.

Information Sources

Decision Support Systems
Numerous elements of data organized for retrieval and use in business decision making
Stored and retrieved via

Business Intelligence Systems
Ongoing information collection
Focused on events, trends in micro and macro-environments

Research done and information collected has to pass these tests?

Can information be applied to a critical decision?
Will the information improve managerial decision making?
Are sufficient resources available?

Key Terms

Applied research
Business intelligence system (BIS)
Business research
Decision support system
Descriptive studies
Explanatory Studies

Management dilemma
Predictive studies
Pure research
Reporting studies
Return on Investment (ROI)
Scientific method

Technology Ecosystem for Industry 4.0 Production System

The Technology Ecosystem - Subsystems and Components

Digital Technologies

Artificial Intelligence
Augmented Reality
Automated Guides Vehicles
Driverless Trucks
Mobile Devices
Virtual Reality
3D Printing

Networks and Connectivity

Cloud Computing
Edge Computing

Integrated Platforms
Human Machine Interfaces
User Experience
Data Networks
Integration Layers

Production/Manufacturing/Supply Chain Applications

Core ERP
Integrated Business Planning Models
Manufacturing Execution Systems
Data Analytics
PLM and Digital Twins

Security and Risk Management

Digital Technologies

Artificial Intelligence
Augmented Reality
Automated Guides Vehicles





Is Blockchain a Viable Technology for Industry 4.0


Driverless Trucks


SAP HANA (High-Performance Analytic Appliance) Platform : Enabler of Industry 4.0

Mobile Devices
Virtual Reality
3D Printing

Security and Risk Management

Industry 4.0 also creates new risks and requires companies to integrate security safeguards not only into their businesses but also throughout their ecosystem.
Dec 31 2017.

Updated on 4 August 2018,  15 July 2018

August - Management Knowledge Revision

August Revision Subjects

Product Design and Development

1 August to 5 August

1 August

1. Introduction - Product Design and Development
2. Product Development Process

2  August

3. Product Planning
4. Identifying Customer Needs for Product Development

Business Research Methods

3 August

Cooper and Schlindler - Chapter 1
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4 August

Research Process Overview
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Clarifying the research question
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5 August

Research Design - Overview
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Qualitative Research in Business Research
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8 August
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9 August
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10 August
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11 August
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12 August
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15 August

15.  Basics of Statistics

Statistical Process Control

16. Statistical Quality Control

Test of Hypothesis

HYPOTHESIS TESTING FOR THE PROCESS CAPABILITY RATIO - 2002 MS Thesis!etd.send_file%3Faccession%3Dohiou1040054409%26disposition%3Dinline

17. Design of Experiments

18 August

Application of Six Sigma


Statistical Forecasting

Operations Research

22.  August

(from the perspective of an industrial engineer)
(From Maynard's Industrial Engineering Handbook, 5th Edition, pp. 11.27-11.44)
Jayant Rajgopal (From Rajgopal's website)

23. August

What is mathematical programming?
Examples of Mathematical Programming.

Video with 600,000+ views



Simplex Method

Transportation Problem

25.  Queing Models


26. Dynamic Programming

Game Theory

To September - Management Knowledge Revision

Industrial Engineers support Engineers and Managers in Efficiency Improvement of Products, Processes and Systems

One Year MBA Knowledge Revision Plan

January  - February  - March  - April  - May   -   June

July  - August     - September  - October  - November  - December

Economics - Revision Articles - List

Updated  4 August 2018,  6 August 2017  13 September 2016, 31 July 2016, 31 Aug 2014