May 31, 2017

May - Management Knowledge Revision



First Week  1 May to 5 May


Cost Information for Pricing Decisions
Cost Behavior Analysis and Relevant Costs

Costing for Strategic Profitability Analysis
Cost Information for Customer Profitability Analysis

Costing for Spoilage, Rework and Scrap
Costing for Quality, Time and the Theory of Constraints

Costing for Inventory Management, JIT and Backflush
Cost Information and Analysis for Capital Budgeting

Cost Information for Management Control and Performance Control
Cost Information for Transfer Pricing

Second Week 8 May to 12 May


Managerial Accounting or Management Accounting - Review Notes
Relevant Information and Decision Making - Marketing Decisions

Relevant Information and Decision Making - Production
Relevant Information and Decision Making - HR

The Master Budget - Accounting Information
Flexible Budgets and Variance Analysis - Review Notes

Responsibility Accounting for Management Control
Accounting Information for Management Control in Divisionalized Companies

Capital Budgeting - Accounting and Cost Information


Revision of Organizational Behavior

________________



















________________




Introduction to Organizational Behavior

Third Week   15 May to 19 May

Environmental context: Information Technology and Globalization
 Environmental context: Diversity and Ethics

 Organizational Context: Design and Culture
Organizational Context:: Reward Systems

Perception and Attribution
Personality and Attitudes

Motivational Needs and Processes
Positive Psychology Approach to OB


Communication
 Decision Making

Fourth Week  22 May to 26 May


 Stress and Conflict
Power and Politics

Groups and Teams
 Managing Performance through Job Design and Goal Setting


Principles of Industrial Engineering Presented by Professor K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao (Author of this blog) on 23 May 2017 at the Annual Conference of Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers in Pittsburgh, USA.  Industrial Engineering is a management subject or discipline with Engineering as the foundation. Its primary application area is engineering systems. It augmented application area is any system.  INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING IS SYSTEM EFFICIENCY ENGINEERING AND HUMAN EFFORT ENGINEERING (Definition by Narayana Rao - Published in Udyog Pragati, Jounral of NITIE in 2006)
_______________

_______________

 Behavioral Performance Management
Effective Leadership Process


Great Leaders: Styles, Activities, and Skills
Principles of Innovation

Innovation - Strategic Issues and Methodology
Idea Generation in Organizations


29 May

To June - Management Knowledge Revision

May Month - Birthdays of Management Scholars and Business and Industry Magnates and Accomplished Professionals - Biographies


1
2
3 - Sidney S. Alexander (1916)
4
5 - Jerry A. Hausman (1946)
6 - Sigmund Freud (1856), Kenneth Blanchard (1939)
7
8 - Benjamin Graham (1894)  [Graham - Rao Method]
9
10 - Daniel Bell (1919), William James Reddin (1930),  Ikujiro Nonaka (1935)
11 - Morris Llewellyn Cooke (1872)
12 - Thomas H. Carroll II (1914)
13
14 - William R. Spriegel (1893), Mark Zuckerberg (1984) [Zuckerberg - Narayana Rao Reading Challenge 2015]
15 - Paul Samuelson (1915)
16 - Edward T. Hall (1914), Merton Miller (1923), Robert Butler Wilson Jr. (1937),  Catherine Tucker (1977)
17
18
19 - Harold Koontz (1908) Biography: http://mtrrp.blogspot.com/2014/05/prof-dr-harold-koontz-biography-and.html
20 - Henry Gantt (1861), Edwin C. Nevis (1926)
21
22
23 - Michael Porter (1947)
24 - Lilian Gilbreth (1878),
25 - Paul Cootner (1930)
26
27 - Philip Kotler (1931)
28
29
30
31




One Year MBA Knowledge Revision Plan

January  - February  - March  - April  - May   -   June

July  - August     - September  - October  - November  - December

_____________________________________________________

Updated 26 May 2017


Old Plan
To be Removed



Opportunities or Areas for Innovation














Product Design Efficiency Engineering

Project Management - Introduction - Revision Article



Selling Process – Prospecting

Sales Process – Call Planning



Approaching the Prospect

Interacting with the Prospect



Prospect Objections During Sales Presentations

Trial Close



Sales Closing Techniques

Service to Customer: Follow Up After The Sale

Second Week


Risk Premium

Safety Stock Determination



Scanning of Environment for Marketing Ideas

Scientific Approach, Engineering Approach, Management Approach



SHAREHOLDER VALUE MANAGEMENT THEORY REVIEW

Software Cost Management



Statistics - Introduction

Stock Market Efficiency Theory and Implications for Financial Management



Supervision - Introduction - Public Administration

Supply Chain Cost Reduction

Third Week






Suppy Behavior/Decisions of Firm in Competitive Markets

System Design Principles



Talent Management

Target Costing and Target Cost Management



Total Improvement Management

Total Industrial Engineering - H. Yamashina



Valuation and Verification of Closing Stock - Auditing

Valuation of Bonds and Equity Shares

Fourth Week



Variance Analysis, Flexible Budget and Management Control





What is Strategy in Simple Terms?

Who is a Knowledge Worker?



Communities of Practice

Audit Report - Auditing



Political Strategies in Use for Acquiring and Using Power

Personal Power and Social Power



Soft Power - Hard Power

Power - The Concept and Theory in Organizational Behavior





























May 27, 2017

The Socio Economic Approach to Management (SEAM)



The primary source for this article is the literature review by Chato B. Hazelberger in his Phd Thesis "Looking for the Evidence of TFW Virus." [School of Education UST, Minnesota, 2014].

In the 1970’s the Socio Economic Approach to Management (SEAM) was created in
France as a systematic approach to management. Henri Savall and a group of researchers sought
to integrate classical scientific management theories with the human relations school (Savall,
2010). The goal was to recognize and integrate the human factor, which according to the SEAM
founders was overemphasized by the neoclassical human relations school and underappreciated
by the traditional proponents of scientific management. What emerged was SEAM, which found
its home at ISEOR. In 1973 ISEOR was created to manage SEAM consulting, and later doctoral
work in SEAM (Savall, 2010).

SEAM is carried out by a team of consultants, who are referred to as intervener researchers. This title reflects the consultant’s role as both a consultant in the change process, and in continuing the research work of ISEOR.

Key to SEAM is the concept of hidden costs (Savall, 2008). Hidden costs are economic
inefficiencies that come from dysfunctions. Dysfunctions can be explained as the gap between what is planned or directed and what actually occurs in the organization. By getting rid of the dysfunctions, an organization can release untapped potential allowing greater growth, new ideas, and cost savings.

SEAM classifies looks for dysfunctions in any of six categories: working conditions,
work organization, time management, communication-coordination-cooperation, integrated
training and strategic implementation. By finding dysfunctions in these areas and revealing their
costs, SEAM finds additional revenue that can be returned to the bottom line, create potential for
individual growth which will benefit the organization, and provide a better working environment.

From the beginning, SEAM was concerned about not just making organizations more
effective, but also in studying the causes of the six dysfunctions. Early on, Savall (2013)
suggested there was a flaw in the classic economic models. The classic models left out the
human component. In searching for why this human element had been left out, the team at
ISEOR identified that it was due to an overreliance on scientific management. They saw this
particularly in the elements of scientific management as put forth by Frederick Taylor, Henri
Fayol and Max Weber. ISEOR observed scientific management had an ideological flaw.

Acknowledging that scientific management had an ideology was important to understanding the TFW virus. Ideology “... describes the system of beliefs, values, and practices that reflects and reproduces existing social structures, systems and relations (Brookfield, 2005, p. 68).” An ideology is put forth as the true system of belief within the dominant group and is propagated as the one true way.
Savall and his contemporaries at ISEOR observed that what was at the core of the
scientific management was an ideology. That ideology was based on the work Taylor, Fayol,
Weber.

When the Academy of Management was asked to update their list of the top 10 outstanding contributors to American business management thought and practice Taylor was named number one, Weber two, and Fayol five (Heames 2009).

The concept that setting goals is a management task is found in Fayol’s work and that element of strategic planning is found also in Porter and Kotter.


 Savall first put forth the metaphor of the virus in 1973 (Cristallini, 2012). He used the metaphor of a virus for three reasons:
• The virus was ideological in nature, contaminating decision making and analysis at a foundational level
• The virus caused changes in organizational structures and behavior
• The virus was continually transmitted within and to other organizations through training, practice, and management education

In his article “The role of governance in the fight against the global pandemic of the techno-economic virus,” Cristallini (2011) wrote extensively about the TFW virus as the root cause for the hidden costs and dysfunctions that ISEOR finds in organizations. He asserted that organizations are carrying this hidden virus. It is going undiagnosed, and current organizational change efforts are treating symptoms of the virus rather than the core problems of the organization which is the presence of the virus.

 Cristallini (2012) made the case that the proponents of the TFW virus view individuals as untrustworthy, and not intelligent or responsible. The individual is not free. In contrast to this, SEAM sees the individual as creative, and able to grow, change, and be trusted to do what helpful to the organization given the chance.

The virus promotes the view of individuals as untrustworthy with the health of the
organization and even the protection of their own interests. This baseline belief about the
individual leads to the conclusion that individuals must be controlled in order to do what is in
their best interest and the best interest of the organization. The effect of this view of individuals
is manifested in the symptoms of the TFW virus.

Manifestations of the Virus.

(Cristallini, 2011):
• Depersonalization and Submission
• An aristocratic view of the organization
• Apathy
• Separation

Cristillani (2011) argued two concepts promoted by the founders of the TFW Virus are
depersonalization and submission. Cristallini (2011) explained depersonalization as the
individual giving way to the needs of the organization. “Submission assumes that the individual
complies with the requirements, because it accepts the principle of subordination, it is docile and
waives his freedom and his aspirations” (p. 3). Depersonalization at its core is looking at the
worker as a machine. The individual is unimportant; another resource to be used that is
replaceable and interchangeable with any other worker (or possibly a machine).

Cristallini used the word massification to explain the concepts of depersonalization and
submission. One image that Cristallini (2011) gave for massification was herding cattle. In the
workplace that exhibits evidence of the virus there is a herder, and then there are the workers,
who are the cattle who must be pushed along. No cow is different, and the job of management is
simply to get the cattle to move in the right direction.

As defined by Cristallini (2011), submission occurs when individual aspirations and
preferences give way to organizational good. More than just existing as a second consideration,
individual aspirations and preferences must be in some ways suppressed in order to achieve
organizational goals. Massification is also the result of the technocratic nature of organizations
where the virus is present. Organizations are governed by rules and systems that are inflexible.
Organizational rules, procedures, and standards, replace dialogue between understanding and
intelligent individuals, unable to handle the unexpected and complexity because of their
structure.

 “The TFW virus is profoundly marked by an aristocratic view of organizational life”
(Conbere, Heorhiadi & Cristallini, 2014, p. 4) Cristallini (2011) argued that the separation of
menial and noble tasks within an organization is evidence of the virus. Since some tasks are
considered more important, the people who have the more important tasks are considered more
important. This leads to artificial hierarchies. Time and energy are spent on the management of
the hierarchy rather than on tasks related to the mission of the organization.

Apathy, or a lack of interest in work, results from a lack of hope. Conbere, Heorhiadi &
Cristallini, (2014) used a similar concept in the term “blindness,” noting, “Our blindness
prevents us from seeing, and thus we become unable to hope that it is possible to implement
organizations which are flexible, cooperative and more livable” (p. 8).

 In his original work Cristallini (2011) explained apathy partly as non-cooperation, “The
virus has the effect of encouraging individuals and groups to withdraw their known world and
not to open outwards” (p. 6). This non-cooperation is the workers way of disengaging essentially
because the organization does not incent workers to cooperate. Apathy is a key to the virus
because apathy means people are resigned to whatever happens, who do not feel that they can or
even should affect change in the organization (Cristallini, 2011).


Another way the virus manifests itself is in separations or divisions in the workplace,
marked by borders, walls and fences. One reason for these walls is hyperspecialization or the
separation of functions based on faulty logic. Cristallini (2011) saw a linkage between the
separation of tasks and an increase in egotism and selfishness. He said the virus is observed
when group effort is not recognized; instead individual tasks in very specialized areas are
encouraged and promoted. People are not rewarded for teamwork and cooperation, but rather
excellence in their own small task. Therefore the focus is not on making the whole better, but
rather on making oneself look better. This non-cooperation is evidence of the virus as well, as
hyperspecialization is rewarded over teamwork and the effect on others is not considered. The
virus encourages the building of walls between areas of the organization.


Book

Becoming Agile: How the SEAM Approach to Management Builds Adaptability

Christopher G. Worley, Veronique Zardet, Marc Bonnet, Amandine Savall
John Wiley & Sons, 15-Sep-2015 - Business & Economics - 192 pages



Becoming Agile: How the SEAM Approach to Management Builds Adaptability illustrates the process of becoming an agile organization. Reflecting the principles presented in The Agility Factor, readers are taken on a real-world journey of transformation and change. This short-format case study of the French company Brioche Pasquier highlights how one organization successfully implemented the principles of agility using the socio-economic approach to management, detailing each step of the process and describing how every decision brought the goal closer within reach. Readers get inside the heads of decision makers to gain insight into how tough decisions were made, how new, important, and flexible management tools were implemented, and how the necessary changes ultimately benefitted both the organization and the people who made it work. From overarching policy to day-to-day procedure, the story provides a clear example of how an agile organization is developed, giving readers a foundation upon which to implement similar changes in their own organization.

 This case study allows readers to learn from an organization that got through the inertia and put the principles of agility into action, with incredible results.

Understand how the principles of agility can be implemented using a specific intervention strategy
Tailor those principles to suit any organization
Calculate and convert the "hidden costs" of traditional organizational design into flexible, value added activities
Formulate and execute an actionable agility strategy
Big changes require a deep understanding of the problem at hand, and a viable plan for steering the organization in a better direction. By seeing how it's been done before, organizations can take a proven approach and tailor it to their specific needs. For those tasked with formulating the agility strategy, Becoming Agile: How the SEAM Approach to Management Builds Adaptability provides invaluable insight.

https://books.google.co.in/books?id=GZVNCgAAQBAJ





May 25, 2017

May - Management Knowledge Revision with Links






First Week  1 May to 5 May 2016


Cost Information for Pricing Decisions
Cost Behavior Analysis and Relevant Costs

Costing for Strategic Profitability Analysis
Cost Information for Customer Profitability Analysis

Costing for Spoilage, Rework and Scrap
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/costing-for-spoilage-rework-and-scrap.html
Costing for Quality, Time and the Theory of Constraints
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/costing-for-quality-time-and-theory-of.html


Costing for Inventory Management, JIT and Backflush
Cost Information and Analysis for Capital Budgeting

Cost Information for Management Control and Performance Control
Cost Information for Transfer Pricing

Second Week 8 May to 12 May 2016


Managerial Accounting or Management Accounting - Review Notes
Relevant Information and Decision Making - Marketing Decisions

Relevant Information and Decision Making - Production
Relevant Information and Decision Making - HR

The Master Budget - Accounting Information
Flexible Budgets and Variance Analysis - Review Notes

Responsibility Accounting for Management Control
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/responsibility-accounting-for.html
Accounting Information for Management Control in Divisionalized Companies
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/accounting-information-for-management.html

Capital Budgeting - Accounting and Cost Information


Revision of Organizational Behavior

________________



















________________




Introduction to Organizational Behavior
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/introduction-to-organizational-behavior_06.html

Third Week   15 May to 19 May

Environmental context: Information Technology and Globalization
 Environmental context: Diversity and Ethics

 Organizational Context: Design and Culture
Organizational Context:: Reward Systems

Perception and Attribution
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/perception-and-attribution-review-notes.html
Personality and Attitudes
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/personality-and-attitudes-review-notes.html

Motivational Needs and Processes
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/motivational-needs-and-processes-review.html
Positive Psychology Approach to OB
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/positive-psychology-approach-to-ob.html


Communication
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/communication-review-notes.html
Decision Making
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/decision-making-review-notes.html

Fourth Week  22 May to 26 May 2015



Stress and Conflict
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/stress-and-conflict-review-notes.html
Power and Politics
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/power-and-politics-review-notes.html

Groups and Teams
http://nraomtr.blogspot.in/2011/12/groups-and-teams-review-notes.html
Managing Performance through Job Design and Goal Setting
http://nraomtr.blogspot.in/2011/12/managing-and-leading-for-high.html

Behavioral Performance Management
http://nraomtr.blogspot.in/2011/12/behavioral-performance-management.html
Effective Leadership Process
http://nraomtr.blogspot.in/2011/12/effective-leadership-processes-revision.html


Great Leaders: Styles, Activities, and Skills
http://nraomtr.blogspot.in/2011/12/great-leaders-styles-activities-and.html
Principles of Innovation
http://nraomtr.blogspot.in/2014/11/the-ten-principles-of-innovation.html

Innovation - Strategic Issues and Methodology
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2014/11/innovation-strategic-issues-and.html
Idea Generation in Organizations
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2014/11/idea-generation-in-organizations.html


28 & 29 May

To June - Management Knowledge Revision

May Month - Birthdays of Management Scholars and Business and Industry Magnates and Accomplished Professionals - Biographies


1
2
3 - Sidney S. Alexander (1916)
4
5 - Jerry A. Hausman (1946)
6 - Sigmund Freud (1856), Kenneth Blanchard (1939)
7
8 - Benjamin Graham (1894)  [Graham - Rao Method]
9
10 - Daniel Bell (1919), William James Reddin (1930),  Ikujiro Nonaka (1935)
11 - Morris Llewellyn Cooke (1872)
12 - Thomas H. Carroll II (1914)
13
14 - William R. Spriegel (1893), Mark Zuckerberg (1984) [Zuckerberg - Narayana Rao Reading Challenge 2015]
15 - Paul Samuelson (1915)
16 - Edward T. Hall (1914), Merton Miller (1923), Robert Butler Wilson Jr. (1937),  Catherine Tucker (1977)
17
18
19 - Harold Koontz (1908) Biography: http://mtrrp.blogspot.com/2014/05/prof-dr-harold-koontz-biography-and.html
20 - Henry Gantt (1861), Edwin C. Nevis (1926)
21
22
23 - Michael Porter (1947)
24 - Lilian Gilbreth (1878),
25 - Paul Cootner (1930)
26
27 - Philip Kotler (1931)
28
29
30
31




One Year MBA Knowledge Revision Plan

January  - February  - March  - April  - May   -   June

July  - August     - September  - October  - November  - December

_____________________________________________________

Old Plan
To be Removed



Opportunities or Areas for Innovation














Product Design Efficiency Engineering

Project Management - Introduction - Revision Article



Selling Process – Prospecting

Sales Process – Call Planning



Approaching the Prospect

Interacting with the Prospect



Prospect Objections During Sales Presentations

Trial Close



Sales Closing Techniques

Service to Customer: Follow Up After The Sale

Second Week


Risk Premium

Safety Stock Determination



Scanning of Environment for Marketing Ideas

Scientific Approach, Engineering Approach, Management Approach



SHAREHOLDER VALUE MANAGEMENT THEORY REVIEW

Software Cost Management



Statistics - Introduction

Stock Market Efficiency Theory and Implications for Financial Management



Supervision - Introduction - Public Administration

Supply Chain Cost Reduction

Third Week






Suppy Behavior/Decisions of Firm in Competitive Markets

System Design Principles



Talent Management

Target Costing and Target Cost Management



Total Improvement Management

Total Industrial Engineering - H. Yamashina



Valuation and Verification of Closing Stock - Auditing

Valuation of Bonds and Equity Shares

Fourth Week



Variance Analysis, Flexible Budget and Management Control





What is Strategy in Simple Terms?

Who is a Knowledge Worker?



Communities of Practice

Audit Report - Auditing



Political Strategies in Use for Acquiring and Using Power

Personal Power and Social Power



Soft Power - Hard Power

Power - The Concept and Theory in Organizational Behavior




























May 24, 2017

Innovation - Strategic Issues and Methodology



Strategy is about the future, and developing strategy is the process of thinking about the future, predicting it, making decisions about it, and taking action to create profitable future. Since
innovations are critical to the future, it’s clear that the management of innovation is entirely strategic in nature.


The classical model of strategy development begins with an assessment of the future, a set of predications about what’s going to happen, followed by the development of initiatives that align with that future to assure survivaland growth of the organization. Future is entirely risky and it makes much more sense to prepare for a multitude of possible futures by developing a strategic portfolio of initiatives and innovations.

The astute innovation strategy thus defines a range of initiatives that could become important under many different future states; in other words, a portfolio. The elements of such a portfolio - products, services, processes and  organizational approaches,  etc. -  will be applicable in a variety of different
future conditions,  and as events unfold some will prove to be invaluable while others will be irrelevant, remaining forever on the shelf. With many projects under way at the same time, the typical, large R&D group is naturally managing a portfolio by default, so the for these organizations the question is not the existence of the portfolio, but its composition. The idea that the portfolio must be closely linked to the organization’s strategy, however, is a surprisingly recent one, and has been labeled as the third generation practice in the long history of professional R&D.


The first generation, starting at the very beginnings of systematic R&D in the early decades of industrialism through the mid-1800s, was largely a randomized process of exploring basic science in the hunt for commercial opportunities. Thomas Edison had a more focused approach and it was the prototype for the highly systematized process that was then perfected during World Wars I and II, mission-driven R&D.


Third generation methodology focuses on R&D portfolio management as a key element of organizational strategy, and it is recognized as a standard practice in the world of R&D management. It’s described in the  “Third Generation R&D,” published in 1991, and includes a number of very sophisticated portfolio analysis techniques.


A fourth generation practice of R&D management has also been defined, which expands the scope of the third generation approach with a much greater focus on specific processes for creating breakthrough innovations.


Stages of Innovation Methodology


Every idea is born in its own distinctive moment of inspiration. Many are immediately discarded, while some go through further development pathways.


Effective innovation methodology shapes the pathways by which individual ideas will be developed, and just as important, it’s a broader process which improves the odds that good and great ideas actually do arrive with regularity and that they are developed to their full potential.

Methodology must have means of systematically filtering multitudes of new ideas, applying processes for turning the best ones into candidates for innovations, and using tools to help bring them to market.


So innovation management has five stages at least in converting ideas into successful businesses.

1. Creating or finding great ideas;
2. Targeting, or choosing those worth developing further;
3. Innovation development, transforming great ideas into potential innovations;
4. Applying potential innovations to develop markets and create businesses.
5. Support business till it becomes a success. The innovation team has to debug issues that surface during the actual business transactions.

From Permanent Innovation - Langdon Morris

Permanent Innovation
The Definitive Guide to the Principles, Strategies, and Methods of
Successful Innovators
Langdon Morris

Langdon Morris is a co-founder and principal of InnovationLabs LLC and Senior Practice Scholar at the Ackoff Center of the University of Pennsylvania and Senior Fellow of the Economic Opportunities Program of the Aspen Institute.


Third Generation R&D Management


Third Generation R&D: Managing the Link to Corporate Strategy

Philip A. Roussel, Kamal N. Saad, Tamara J. Erickson
Harvard Business Press, 1991 - 192 pages


Written by three senior consultants from Arthur D. Little,  This book relates how R&D management has evolved from the naive "strategy of hope" approach of the 1950s and 1960s, when companies spent lavishly in the vague expectation that something good would result, to the more systematic approach of the past two decades. The third generation of R&D is a pragmatic method for linking R&D to long-term business planning. It shows managers how to: integrate technology and research capabilities with overall management and strategy; break down organizational barriers that isolate R&D from the rest of the company; foster a spirit of partnership and trust between R&D and other units; and create managed portfolios of R&D projects that match corporate goals.


https://books.google.co.in/books/about/Third_Generation_R_D.html?id=KjwAtPDluusC

A Summary from Arthur D Little
http://www.adlittle.com/downloads/tx_adlprism/1991_q2_01-06.pdf




MBA Core Management Knowledge - One Year Revision Schedule

Updated 26 May 2017, 27 November 2014



May 11, 2017

Organizational Behavior - Revision Articles with Links and Schedule


Organizational Behavior - Revision Articles Based on Fred Luthans Book






12 May

Introduction to Organizational Behavior



May Third Week   15 May to 19 May 2015


Environmental context: Information Technology and Globalization
Environmental context: Diversity and Ethics

Organizational Context: Design and Culture
Organizational Context:: Reward Systems

Perception and Attribution
Personality and Attitudes

Motivational Needs and Processes
Positive Psychology Approach to OB


Communication
Decision Making

Fourth Week  22 May to 26 May 2015



Stress and Conflict
Power and Politics

Groups and Teams
Managing Performance through Job Design and Goal Setting

Behavioral Performance Management
Effective Leadership Process


Great Leaders: Styles, Activities, and Skills






Innovation Management

Principles of Innovation

Innovation - Strategic Issues and Methodology
Idea Generation in Organizations


To June - Management Knowledge Revision


Updated  13 May 2017



Writing on Top Management Challenge Areas - Reflection


Writing on Top Management Challenge Areas for A to Z Blogging Challenge - Reflection





For the April A to Z Blogging Challenge 2017, I wrote on the theme top management challenges. I got an opportunity to think about the issues facing the top management and do literature review regarding the topic. I realize now that I can continue the work on these articles for further and provide a further list of related articles that can be read by interest top managers to develop an understanding of the published literature on the issues identified. Thus I see the potential for studying and enlarging the ideas during the rest of the year. So I am happy that my exercise is a fruitful one.

Index to all articles published

Page views count of each article

I got more than 5000 page views for the articles during the challenge period. I am happy with the page view performance also.

I intend to write next year on the theme Entrepreneurial CEO Characteristics and Activities. The series will use the article "HIRING AN ENTREPRENEURIAL LEADER". By: BUTLER, TIMOTHY. Harvard Business Review. Mar/Apr2017, Vol. 95 Issue 2, p84-93. as the primary resource. The topics are likely to be from the following.

CONSISTENCY or FLEXIBILITY
PROVEN or POTENTIAL
CAREFUL or BOLD
EXPLORE or SETTLE
PREDICTABLE or POSSIBLE
BONUS or SALARY
SAFETY or OPPORTUNITY
MEDAL or JOY
PUZZLE or BLANK CANVAS
NIMBLE or STEADY
CHANGE or CONSTANT
KNOWN or UNKNOWN
PATIENCE or EXCITEMENT
FRONTIER or HOME
SET or OPEN
WILD or TAME
VARIETY or CERTAINTY
INHERIT or CREATE
OWN or MANAGE
SUGGEST or DIRECT
LEAD or PARTICIPATE
SHAPE or CONTROL
CAPTAIN or NAVIGATOR
OWNERSHIP or TITLE
GRACE or POWER
COMPLETE or REFLECT
ASPIRE or ACCOMPLISH
MEMBERSHIP or POSSESSION
KNOWLEDGE or POWER
PRESIDENT or MINISTER
PROFIT or EQUITY

I shall try to collect information and create initial posts and then make the updated posts for the April Challenge.

I thank the A to Z team  Arlee to Zealous participants for creating a network of bloggers and an event for acting and interacting. I intend to participate in the activities of AtoZ Challenge throughout the next year.

May 7, 2017

Business Reimagination - Digital Reimagination


It is the period of business reimagination.

Sometime back we had business process reengineering. Now we have business reimagination. This reimagination is triggered by new digital technologies. It is also being named digital reimagination.


Digital Reimagination

Five key technologies (Digital Five Forces)  are  maturing and  precipitating
the shift to the Digital Consumer Economy. These are Mobility and Pervasive Computing, Big Data,
Social Media, Cloud, and AI-Robotics. These forces are  being used in various permutations
and combinations to drive new applications. As a result, new Digital Composite Forces are emerging.

Foremost among them is the Internet of Things, which combines mobility and pervasive computing,
big data, cloud, and—increasingly—artificial intelligence.

Large number of  devices can be connected to the IoT  driving new economic opportunities. “Digital Reimagination.” involves leveraging a combination of the Digital Five Forces and Digital Composite Forces to reimagine the enterprise along one or more of six dimensions: business models, products and services, customer segments, channels, business processes, and workplaces.
http://info.tcs.com/rs/tcs/images/Report-HBR-ConnectedProducts.pdf
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2016/03/internet-of-things-businessvalue.html

When did the term start.

We are investigating. This 2012 presentation carries lots of examples of changes that occurred in various forms due to digital technologies.

https://scholarlykitchen.sspnet.org/2012/06/01/mary-meekers-internet-trends-2012-the-reimagination-of-nearly-everything/


2017 Videos

Lubomira Rochet, Digital Transformation at L'Oreal
____________________

____________________
Said Business School, Oxford University
27 April 2017


The Re-Imagination of Healthcare and What's to Come -- 2013 DHC
December 2013
Moderated by StartUp Health's CEO Steven Krein, this panel of industry experts discusses why there has never been a more exciting time for healthcare innovation and what this means to healthcare ecosystem stakeholders like providers, patients, entrepreneurs, government, corporations, and investors. This forward-looking discussion explores how the Golden Age of Entrepreneurship and Digital Health is creating an innovation landscape in healthcare like we've never seen before.

Moderator: Steven Krein -- Co-Founder and CEO, StartUp Health

Eric Gertler -- Executive Vice President, New York City Economic Development Corporation

Maria Gotsch -- President and CEO, Partnership Fund for New York City

Ryan Olohan -- National Industry Director, Healthcare, Google

Todd Pietri -- General Partner, Milestone Venture Partners

www.DigitalHealthConference.com
www.nyehealth.org

__________________

__________________
NYeHealth


Re-Imagining Work
Published on 25 Sep 2013
Dave Coplin, Chief Envisioning Officer at Microsoft, imagines what might be possible if more organisations embraced the full, empowering potential of technology & encouraged an open, collaborative & flexible working culture. Discover more RSA animations: http://bit.ly/1FKMHGv.
The RSA

__________________

__________________


Become the Digital Transformation Expert in Your Organization -- Top 20 Whitepapers on Digital Transformation
Published on May 9, 2017
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/become-digital-transformation-expert-your-top-20-whitepapers-tang

Number of MBAs in the World



The first MBA was started at  Dartmouth College’s Tuck School 114 years (1904) ago with a four-student class.

In 2011-2012, 191,571 people graduated from U.S. schools with advanced degrees in business, some 25.4% of all the master’s degrees conferred. That compares with 178,062 master’s degrees in education, or 23.6%, of all the advanced degrees.

More than 16 million people in the U.S., roughly 8% of the country's population, now has a master's on his or her resume (2014)


On  July 19 2013,  Financial Times, p. 8, has a report on business schools (Emma Boyde, “A degree of relevance for the 21st C.?”   p. 8).   According to FT,    there are 15,673 institutions worldwide offering business degrees at all levels.    Basically, America invented the MBA.  In 2011-12,  some 156,400 students were enrolled in US MBA programs.

 



For detailed reading

http://fortune.com/2014/05/31/mba-popular-masters-degree/

https://timnovate.wordpress.com/2013/07/17/too-many-mbas-in-the-world/



India

April 2016
India has at least 5,500 B-schools in operation now.
In 2015-16, these schools offered a total of 5,20,000 seats in MBA courses, compared to 3,60,000 in 2011-12.


January 2015
According to AICTE, the number of management institutions have risen from 2,614 in 2006-07 to 3,364 in 2013-14.
According to All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), 3,54,421 students enrolled for MBA in 3,364 institutions across the country last year.


http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/industry/services/education/out-of-three-lakh-mba-graduates-every-year-only-10-are-employable-experts/articleshow/45867352.cms

http://www.assocham.org/newsdetail.php?id=5651

May 4, 2017

Principles of Management - Subject Update


Basic Chapter Summaries of Principles of Management Based on Koontz and O'Donnell's Book


May 2017

How to Retain Employees Through 'Servant' Leadership
https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/289730


April 2017

By studying and writing on Principles of Management, I became the original author of Principles of Industrial Engineering, a Management Subject with foundation in engineering.

Basic and Detailed Principles of Industrial Engineering
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2016/07/basic-principles-of-industrial.html


March 2017

Leaders have to manage the current activity to change it to make it better

http://www.managementexchange.com/story/first-line-manager-leaders-must-manager-lead



March 2016

Seven Quality management principles (QMPs) 

by ISO  - Read them compulsorily if you have not read so far.
http://www.iso.org/iso/pub100080.pdf

One of the definitions of a “principle” is that it is a basic belief, theory or rule that has a major influence on the way in which something is done. “Quality management principles” are a set
of fundamental beliefs, norms, rules and values that are accepted as true and can be used as a basis for quality management.

The QMPs can be used as a foundation to guide an organization’s performance improvement. They were developed and updated by international experts of ISO/TC 176, which is responsible for
developing and maintaining ISO’s quality management standards.


The seven quality management principles



QMP 1 – Customer focus
QMP 2 – Leadership
QMP 3 – Engagement of people
QMP 4 – Process approach
QMP 5 – Improvement
QMP 6 – Evidence-based decision making
QMP 7 – Relationship management


These principles are not listed in priority order.  All are important and the relative importance
of each principle will vary from organization to organization and can be expected to change over time in the same organization.

Seven Principles of Supply Chain Management


Principle 1: Segment customers based on the ser­vice needs of distinct groups and adapt the supply chain to serve these segments profitably.

Principle 2: Customize the logistics network to the service requirements and profitability of customer segments.

Principle 3: Listen to market signals and align demand planning accordingly across the supply chain, ensuring consistent forecasts and optimal resource allocation

Principle 4: Differentiate product closer to the customer and speed conversion across the supply chain

Principle 5: Manage sources of supply strategically to reduce the total cost of owning materials and services

Principle 6: Develop a supply chain-wide technology strategy that supports multiple levels of decision making and gives a clear view of the flow of products, services, and information

Principle 7: Adopt channel-spanning performance measures to gauge collective success in reaching the end-user effectively and efficiently
http://www.supplychain247.com/paper/the_7_principles_of_supply_chain_management

Seven Principles of Change Management


Senders and Receivers
Resistance
Authority for Change
Value Systems
Incremental vs. Radical Change
The Right Answer Is Not Enough
Change Is a Process
https://www.prosci.com/change-management/thought-leadership-library/the-seven-principles-of-change-management


The APICS Principles of Operations Management consists of five classroom-based, instructor-led courses.

         The Principles of Inventory Management

         The Principles of Operations Planning

         The Principles of Manufacturing Management

         The Principles of Distribution and Logistics

         The Principles of Managing Operations


A HBR article on Negotiation
https://hbr.org/2003/10/nice-girls-dont-ask/

Free Open Access Book

http://open.lib.umn.edu/principlesmanagement/


TENDENCIES IN EVOLUTION OF 21ST CENTURY
MANAGEMENT
https://www.efst.hr/management/Vol20-Specissue/1-Buble%20-%20Management%20tendencies.pdf

THE PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT OF EDUCATIONAL INNOVATIONS IN MODERN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION.
Source: In the World of Scientific Discoveries / V Mire Nauchnykh Otkrytiy . 2014, Vol. 60 Issue 11.11, p4244-4261. 18p.
Author(s): Danakin, N. S.; Shutenko, A. I.; Ospishchev, P. I.

Developing a Theory and Philosophy of Management
Chapter 1 of Pearson Book
https://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0205088155.pdf


November 2015

Innovation Excellence requires Ambidextrous Management
http://www.innovationexcellence.com/blog/2015/11/12/innovation-requires-ambidextrous-management/


September 2015
New and Updated articles in area

Systems Approach in Management - Very detailed treatment is now posted
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2014/12/systems-approach-in-approach.html

Execution is an important function of management

Planning and Execution - Theory and Practice
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2015/09/planning-and-execution-theory-and.html

Resourcing is an important activity for all managers to accomplish set goals

http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2012/03/resourcing-function-of-management.html


May 2015

Negotiation: What Makes the Right Business Deal
http://www.forbes.com/sites/ianaltman/2015/05/05/negotiation-what-makes-the-right-business-deal/





Get the Boss to Buy In.

By: Ashford, Susan J.; Detert, James. Harvard Business Review. Jan/Feb2015, Vol. 93 Issue 1/2, p72-79.

Middle managers  gather valuable intelligence from direct contact with customers, suppliers, and colleagues; they can often see when the market is ripe for a certain offering, for instance, or spot signs that a partnership won't work. But in a top-down culture, they may not voice their ideas and concerns -- and even when they do, they often struggle to persuade the people at the top.


The authors suggest that middle managers should tailor their pitch to the goals, values, and knowledge of decision makers; frame the issue to show how it supports a strategic goal; manage emotions (their own and their audience's); get the timing right by, say, attending to a boss's preoccupations or watching larger trends; involve others, both in and out of their networks; and  adhere to organizational norms, such as how leaders prefer to receive information.


MANAGING YOUR MISSION-CRITICAL KNOWLEDGE.

By: IHRIG, MARTIN; MACMILLAN, IAN. Harvard Business Review. Jan/Feb2015, Vol. 93 Issue 1/2, p80-87. 8p. 2 Color Photographs, 2 Diagrams.

Large-scale, sustainable growth is  possible when people take insights from one knowledge domain and apply them in another -- when deep technical expertise in one business unit is applied in a different business unit, for example, or when a best-in-class marketing group pulls a product development unit into the 21st century by sharing market insights gleaned from customer data.

The authors describe how to map your organization's strategic knowledge.  When knowledge assets are placed in a grid along two dimensions -- unstructured (tacit) versus structured (explicit) and undiffused (restricted) versus diffused (shared) -- it becomes easier to manage them for future competitive advantage.





Playbook - AMA NET

Interesting Source for Management Articles
http://playbook.amanet.org/

Managing Power Dynamics in International Negotiations
BY YADVINDER RANA
About The Author: Yadvinder S. Rana is Professor of Cultural Management at the Catholic University in Milan, Italy, lecturer on intercultural negotiation and influence in leading international business schools, and founder of Neglob, a management consultancy firm that assists companies in international negotiations and global teams performance improvement. For more information about Rana and his new book, The 4Ps Framework: Advanced Negotiation and Influence Strategies for Global Effectiveness, please visit www.neglob.com.
http://playbook.amanet.org/managing-power-dynamics-in-international-negotiations/




The New Rules of Motivation: Unleash Employee Reciprocity
BY RODD WAGNER
About The Author: Rodd Wagner is the New York Times bestselling author of the new book Widgets: The 12 New Rules for Managing Your Employees As If They’re Real People (McGraw-Hill, April 2015).
http://playbook.amanet.org/the-new-rules-of-motivation-unleash-employee-reciprocity/

Only 10% are great managers.
Around 35% OK.
http://www.fastcoexist.com/3044630/this-may-not-surprise-you-only-10-of-managers-have-what-it-takes-to-be-managers



Principles of Management - Subject Update - 2014


Updated 7 May 2017,  8 April 2017,   12 March 2017, 26 Mar 2016, 16 Feb 2016, 11 Dec 2015

Human Resource Management Subject Update




2017

Six Principles of Effective Global Talent Management
Sloan Management Review: Winter 2012
Günter K. Stahl, Ingmar Björkman, Elaine Farndale, Shad S. Morris, Jaap Paauwe, Philip Stiles, Jonathan Trevor and Patrick Wright
http://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/six-principles-of-effective-global-talent-management/


2016
Top 20 Essential Skills of Human Resources Management
By Sravani -September 9, 2016
http://content.wisestep.com/essential-skills-human-resources-management/


2001
Human Capital Interview
https://www.siop.org/tip/backissues/TipOct01/pdf%20tip/392_058to063.pdf


Updated 7 May 2017, 10 December 2015

Organizational Behavior Subject Updates



May 2017

Plutchik’s Model of Emotions – 2017 Update
by Melissa Donaldson | Apr 27, 2017
http://www.6seconds.org/2017/04/27/plutchiks-model-of-emotions/

How to practice emotional intelligence? What are specific, tangible steps to take to respond more carefully?
http://www.6seconds.org/2017/04/30/emotional-intelligence-tips-choice/

Teaching with Emotional Intelligence: A step-by-step guide for Higher and Further Education professionals

Alan Mortiboys
Routledge, 01-Mar-2013 - Education - 176 pages


The way teachers shape and handle their own feelings and those of their learners is central to the success of learning. Now in its second edition, Teaching with Emotional Intelligence shows how to manage this influential yet neglected area of learning and teaching. This practical book looks at how lecturers and teachers can develop and use their emotional intelligence to enhance their teaching and their students’ learning.

Taking the reader step-by-step through the learning process and looking at the relationship from the perspective of both the teacher and the learner, this book will help the reader to:

plan the emotional environment;
learn how to relate and listen to learners effectively;
read and respond to the feelings of individuals and groups;
handle and reveal their feelings as a teacher, as appropriate;
develop self-awareness as a teacher;
recognise their prejudices and preferences;
improve non-verbal communication;
plan for the physical experience of learners;
deal with their learners’ expectations, comments and questions.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=ZoCpAgAAQBAJ

Emotion, Psychopathology, and Psychotherapy
Robert Plutchik, Henry Kellerman
Academic Press, 22-Oct-2013 - Psychology - 300 pages

Emotion: Theory, Research, and Experience, Volume 5: Emotion, Psychopathology, and Psychotherapy is concerned with the formulation of models of emotion psychopathology and psychotherapy.

The book focuses on the dysregulation of emotion, methods for changing emotion and the experience of emotion. The papers contained in the volume are grouped into theoretical works that link emotions to psychopathology and psychotherapy based on concepts derived from evolutionary biology; theoretical works that utilizes psychoanalysis in understanding emotions; and the transformation of cognitive constructions through psychotherapy. Psychologists, psychiatrists, psychoanalysts, sociobiologists, and students in the allied fields will find the book a good source of insight.
https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=WoVGBQAAQBAJ


2016
December

Self-transformation for The Digital Leader for Long-term Success

http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/digital-leader-self-transformation-long-term-success/


2014

July

Psychological Capital

Employee engagement requires listening and responsiveness on the part of leaders and managers at all levels.
http://www.tlnt.com/2014/07/09/surveys-are-good-but-just-not-the-same-as-listening-to-employees/

June 2014

NEGOTIATIONS

How to Negotiate with Someone More Powerful than You

Carolyn O'Hara
JUNE 06, 2014
Harvard Business Review Article
https://hbr.org/2014/06/how-to-negotiate-with-someone-more-powerful-than-you


Mastering Negotiation Skills

Presentation by Stefan Kadlubowski
London Southbank University
_________________________

_________________________

Ideo's Culture of Helping
Harvard Business Review
Jan-Feb 2014
http://hbr.org/2014/01/ideos-culture-of-helping/ar/1

2013

Top Business Negotiations of 2013
Collection by Program on Negotiation - Harvard Law School
http://www.pon.harvard.edu/daily/business-negotiations/top-10-business-negotiations-of-2013/



Designing Trustworthy Organizations

Sloan Management Review, Summer 2013

 Robert Hurley: Six types of signals people consider when deciding whether to trust a person, group or organization (a “trustee”):

Common values: Does the trustee share our values and beliefs?
Aligned interests: Do the trustee’s interests coincide rather than conflict with ours?
Benevolence: Does the trustee care about our welfare?
Competence: Is the trustee capable of delivering on commitments?
Predictability and integrity: Does the trustee abide by commonly accepted ethical standards (such as honesty and fairness), and is he or she predictable?
Communication: Does the trustee listen and engage in open and mutual dialogue?


http://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/designing-trustworthy-organizations/


Updated  7 May 2017,  24 November 2015

May 1, 2017

Costing for Quality, Time and the Theory of Constraints



Cost Accounting and Cost Measurement for Poor Quality Related Costs



Companies that fail to achieve quality at design level to provide as per customer requirement will fail in the market place. Also if the production system is unable to produce as per the design specification, spoilage will occur, rework will occur and failure of the product at the customer's place occurs sooner than expected.  Failure at the customer's end results in customer dissatisfaction, return of the product for repairs and bad word of mouth for the brand. Rework results in extra costs of production. Spoilage is also a loss due to material loss, labor loss and overhead loss associated with the spoilage. As the costs of poor quality are understood and quality improvement methods have evolved, accounting for poor quality related costs also emerged.

Cost of quality framework

Cost of quality framework states that quality can be improved by improving design and production processes and this will reduce appraisal costs, internal failure costs and external failure costs. Also increase in appraisal cost has the potential to reduce internal and external failure costs. To see this phenomenon in practical real life situations, cost accountants are being asked to prepare poor cost of quality statements showing the amount spent on each category of the following costs.

Prevention costs

Appraisal costs

Internal failure costs

External failure costs

Then quality managers and engineers or industrial engineers can come out with plans to increase prevention costs and appraisal costs and decrease internal and external failure costs. Needless to say engineering or managerial economics requires that incremental cost incurred must be less than the benefit realized that is decrease in total failure costs.

Cost accountants have to take the cost of quality categories as cost objectives and provide cost figures for them.


Seven Step Activity Based Costing for Determining Cost of Quality


1. Identify the Cost Objects - Concerned product, total cost of quality, individual category of cost of quality

2. Identify Direct Costs - There are no direct costs related to cost of quality

3. Select the Cost Allocation Bases to Use for Allocating Indirect Costs of the Product - For quality related work design hour, inspection hour, rework hour, were taken as cost allocation bases. In the case of external failure there is cost of transporting the item back to the company. For this a transport event is taken as the cost allocation base.

4. Identify the Indirect Costs Associated with Each Cost Allocation Base - Total cost incurred in product design, process design, inspection, rework due to internal and external failure, transport of customer returns are accumulated.

5. Compute the Rate Per Unit of Each Cost Allocation Base - For each activity, total quantity of performance (cost allocation base) is determined and it is used to divide total cost incurred to get the rate per unit of each cost allocation base,

6. Compute the Indirect Allocated to the Product - Compute the quantities of each cost allocation base related to poor quality used by the product.  Multiplying quantity with the corresponding rate per unit of the collection base will give the indirect to be allocated to the product for that allocation base.

7. Compute the Total Cost of the Cost Object: In our case of cost of quality is the cost object and we add all items of cost of quality framework to get total cost of quality.


Nonfinancial Measures of Quality

Nonfinancial measures are also important and their importance is brought into limelight by the balanced score card approach, Cost and management accountants have also a role to play in recording data of nonfinancial measures and creating statements of these measures.

Nonfinancial measures of customer satisfaction as index of quality

1. Market research studies on customer preference and satisfaction with specific products and product features.
2. The number of defective units reported by customers as a percentage of products shipped.
3. The number of customer complaints in a period say a month
4. Percentage of products that experience a early or excessive failure
5. Delivery delays - Percentages - Highest number of days
6. On-time delivery rate



Reference
Horngren, Foster, Datar,  Cost Accounting: A Managerial Emphasis, 10th Edition, Prentice Hall Inc., 2010


Updated 3 May 2017, 6 May 2015
First Published 8 December 2011


Costing for Spoilage, Rework and Scrap

The key objectives in accounting for spoilage are determining the magnitude of the costs of spoilage and distinguishing between the costs of normal and abnormal spoilage.


Reducing spoilage, rework, and scrap are important for reducing cost and they are part of production process quality improvement effort.

Concepts used in developing the theory of the topic

Spoilage: Spoilage is unacceptable units of production that are discarded or are sold for reduced prices. Spoilage can occur at any stage of the production process.

Rework: Rework is unacceptable units of production that are  subsequently repaired and sold as acceptable finished goods.

Scrap: Scrap is material left over when making a product. It has low sales value when compared with the sales value of the product or sales of value of the input material.

Cost accounting practice recommends normal spoilage is specified as part of production process specification. Its quantum can be evaluated or analyzed at various points of time it can be reduced further if possible by improving the process or technology. In routine accounting abnormal spoilage is reported to managers above the shop floor personnel.

Abnormal Spoilage: The spoilage that should not arise under efficient operating conditions.


Accounting for Spoilage in Job Costing.


Normal Spoilage

The cost of normal spoilage is added to the cost of the product so that estimate cost of product includes allowance for normal cost for subsequent cost estimations.

The disposal value of the spoilage is credited to work-in-progress control account and also to the specific job account. The materials control account and spoiled goods disposal value or income account are debited with the disposal value.

The effect will be that in specific job, it will be charged for all the expenses incurred for the job, but only good units are shown as output. The units which became spoilage are not included in the output and the disposal value of these units is deducted from the total expense. So the cost incurred due to the spoilage is included in the total cost and when one calculates the unit cost of the finished item, it includes a charge for the normal spoilage.

Abnormal Spoilage

In the case of abnormal spoilage, the total cost of the spoilage is removed from the specific job account by giving a credit to it and it is debited to  loss from abnormal spoilage account.

Journal entries

Spoiled good disposal value or income account    Debit
Loss from abnormal spoilage account                   Debit

Specific Job Account                                             Credit

Thus the company management and executives are made aware of abnormal losses so that actions are initiated to prevent them in the future. Accounting and reporting have the purpose of making managers aware of the need to act to prevent undesirable events.


Accounting for Rework in Job Costing


Rework is done on finished products or components, that did not meet specifications and after rework they become acceptable finished goods of components.  There can be an estimated or accepted as normal rework. Any rework above this normal rework is abnormal rework.

Normal Rework

The rework cost is charged to the specific job. Rework may involve some material use, labor use and also incurring of overhead cost. Hence the entry is

WIP account of a specific job    Debit

Material control A/C                                       Credit
Wages Payable A/C                                         Credit
Manufacturing Overhead Allocated A/C        Credit


Abnormal Rework

Abnormal rework is not charged to job so that it will not appear future estimates for similar jobs. It is recorded in a separate loss account.

Loss from Abnormal Rework A/C     Debit

Material control A/C                                   Credit
Wages Payable A/C                                    Credit
Manufacturing Overhead Allocated A/C   Credit

Accounting for Scrap


When the dollar amount of the scrap is immaterial

When the dollar amount of the scrap is insignificant, scrap is returned to the store or scrap store with documentary proof. Periodically, the scrap is sold and income is recorded as income from scrap. If it is material, then the income can be credited to the overhead account and thus overhead cost will become less to that extent.

When the dollar amount is substantial at Job Level

If the dollar amount of the scrap is substantial at the job level, then the scrap generated in the job is measured immediately, returned to the store and its value is ascertained based on the estimates sale value of the scrap. Then the entry for the return of scrap to stores will be:

Material Control A/C  Debit

Work in Process A/C role of the Job  Credit


Thus the cost accounting system helps in highlighting the abnormal costs of spoilage and rework so that remedial action is taken by the managers concerned. Also it provides the cost of the products manufactured by a firm as a true representation of the costs incurred by the firm and it helps the company to provide proper cost estimates for the future and price quotations based on these cost estimates.



Updated  3 May 2017,  6 May 2015
First published  8 Dec 2011