June 30, 2014

Big Data - Evolution, Current Applications and Future Trends - Panel Discussions and Presentations - Videos


June 2014
Using Big Data to Make Better Pricing Decisions

March 2014
Why Big Data is a Big
Harvard Magazine Article

January 2014 - Driving Value through Data Analytics - Accenture Specialists Presentation


Big Data Applications in Government
Tech America - Federal  Big Data Commission Joint Report


Big Data - The Revolution is on par with internet
Authors - Viktor Mayer Schoberger and Kenneth Cukier
On the occasion of Book Launch - Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How we live work and think

IBM's Big Data and Smarter Analytics Leadership Summit 2013



Google Talk Panel discussion 22 October 2012


June 29, 2014

Information Technology for Marketing, Marketing Technology Function and Chief Marketing Technology Officer

Marketing Technology Function - Emergence In a Strong Way (2014)

Information technology has given initially the ability to reach a customer personally and quickly to marketers. Presently big data technologies are providing the ability to find what is important to customers at a point in time and provide that information quickly and personally. Now all activities of marketing have a digital interaction. The stage is now set for leveraging the information technology to deliver more for the marketing performance.Every technology adoption has an effectiveness improvement dimension and efficiency improvement dimension.

The interface between marketing activities and information technology has grown to such a significant extent that a new function called marketing technology has appeared and many are being designated as marketing technologists. In 2014, Gartner reports that 81% of companies in its survey have a chief marketing technologist or equivalent title post. Businesses with $500 million to $1000 million have taken up this structure in a big way.

Marketing technologist provides value by being able to decide what to build as a pilot test and deploy, by acting as a filter between software vendors and the company and introducing marketing information technology into company by acting as a bridge between IT and marketing.

Marketing technology persons needs to be both left brain user and right brain user. He is to be an analytical person but has to come up with ideas that work and excite customers. While currently experienced persons are not available to man this function and companies are investing their resources in developing these persons. Some companies are employing team approaches to employ this function rather than giving the responsibility to a single person.

Digital Marketing - Options and Tools - Infographic by Gartner

Big Data, Big Opportunities in Marketing - IBM Presentation - 2013


Real Time Marketing Technology

Technology has changed marketing and market research into real time activity. Marketers are looking for opportunities to send outbound messages: email campaigns, events, blogging, tweeting, PR, ebooks, white papers, apps, banner ads, Google Ad Words, social media outreach etc. The marketeers are trying various options, tools and techniques to attract customers to their sites, to their offers and to their communities and improve their marketing performance.

Baynote is an interest mining product. It combines click stream, semantic stream and engagement information to personalize product and content recommendations to align with the intent of the visitor

Customer Analytics Payoff
IBM Report - September 2011

In the report, four stages in analytics use are described. The first stage is use of analytics to reduce cost of communication. In this stage, analytics were used to find redundant communication and remove them thus doing some cost savings. In the second analytics was used to make right offers to the customers based on history of transactions. In the third stage, predictive analytics that do sentiment analysis of the conservations in social media are used to proactively develop conversations with the customers.

In the fourth stage, all channels used by the customer are simultaneously monitored and multichannel next best action approach is employed to practice real time guided selling experience. The study indicates that at this fourth stage companies are reporting 241 to 64.3 percent converted response rates.


First post after reaching million page view milestone on 28 June 2014

June 28, 2014

What is Big Data and What are its Applications? - IBM Experts Explanation

What is Big Data - IBM Explanation

What is big data?

Every day, we create 2.5 quintillion bytes of data.  This data comes from everywhere: sensors used to gather climate information, posts to social media sites, digital pictures and videos, purchase transaction records, and cell phone GPS signals to name a few. This data is big data.

Big data spans three dimensions: Volume, Velocity and Variety.

Volume: Enterprises are awash with ever-growing data of all types, easily amassing terabytes—even petabytes—of information.

12 terabytes of Tweets are created each day. You can turn  this big data into improved product sentiment analysis.
Convert 350 billion annual meter readings to better predict power consumption

Velocity: Sometimes 2 minutes is too late. For time-sensitive processes such as catching fraud like rejecting a credit car transaction, big data must be used as it streams into your enterprise in order to maximize its value.
Scrutinize 5 million trade events created each day to identify potential fraud
Analyze 500 million daily call detail records in real-time to predict customer churn faster

Variety: Big data is any type of data - structured and unstructured data such as text, sensor data, audio, video, click streams, log files and more. New insights are found when analyzing these data types together.

Monitor 100’s of live video feeds from surveillance cameras to target points of interest
Exploit the 80% data growth in images, video and documents to improve customer satisfaction

Big Data Technology Provides Insights

Big data is more than simply a matter of size; it is an opportunity to find insights in new and emerging types of data and content, to make your business more agile, and to answer questions that were previously considered beyond your reach. Until now, there was no practical way to harvest this opportunity.

Today, IBM’s platform for big data uses state of the art technologies including patented advanced analytics to open the door to a world of possibilities.

Video Presentations on Big Data

What is big data? Part 1



The photo taken from a smart phone posted by a user on twitter account has lot of data associated with the photo.

What is big data? part 2



Big Data Applications 

Use Cases

What is a use case?

A use case helps you solve a specific business challenge by using patterns or examples of technology solutions. Your use case, customized for your unique issue, provides answers to your business problem.

Five game changing high value use cases of Big Data
Big Data Exploration - Enhanced 360 degree view of the customer - Security Intelligence Extension
Operations Analysis - Data Warehouse Modernization

Watch a combined presentation on the benefits of  five use cases and then individual presentations on each use case.

Game Changing with Big Data - Five Use Cases that promise tangible benefits to your organization
2013 Presentation


Big Data Use Case #1 - Exploration


Big Data Use Case #2 - Enhanced 360 degree view of the customer


Big Data Use Case #3 - Operations Analysis


Big Data Use Case #4 - Security and Intelligence Extension


Big Data Use Case #5- Data Warehouse Augmentation
2013 Video


Big Data Products


IBM Big Data Products - 2011 Presentation

Data Warehousing - Fundamentals and Current State of The Art Applications

Fundamentals of Data Warehousing

What is a Data Warehouse?

A data warehouse is a relational database that is designed for query and analysis rather than for transaction processing. It usually contains historical data derived from transaction data, but it can include data from other sources. It separates analysis workload from transaction workload and enables an organization to consolidate data from several sources.

In addition to a relational database, a data warehouse environment includes an extraction, transportation, transformation, and loading (ETL) solution, an online analytical processing (OLAP) engine, client analysis tools, and other applications that manage the process of gathering data and delivering it to business users.

Four basic characteristics of a data warehouse were  set forth by William Inmon:

Subject Oriented
Time Variant

Subject Oriented

Data warehouses are designed to help people to analyze data about various subjects of interest. Hence For to learn more about a company's sales data, one  can build a warehouse that concentrates on sales. Using this warehouse, answers to  questions like "Who was our best customer for this item last year?" can be given.  This ability to define a data warehouse by subject matter, sales in this case, makes the data warehouse subject oriented.


Integration is closely related to subject orientation. Data warehouses must put data from disparate sources into a consistent format. They must resolve such problems as naming conflicts and inconsistencies among units of measure. When they achieve this, they are said to be integrated.


Nonvolatile means that, once entered into the warehouse, data should not change. This is logical because the purpose of a warehouse is to enable you to analyze what has occurred.

Time Variant

In order to discover trends in business, analysts need large amounts of data.  A data warehouse's focus on analyzing change over time is what is meant by the term time variant, or focus on variation over time and other dimensions like variation over customers, regions, channels etc..

See for more Oracle 9i Data Warehousing Guide Book

Service Marketing and Management - Christian Gronroos - Video Lectures and Articles

First Lecture

What is Service? Why Service Business?



Second Lecture - Service Profit Logic: Implications for Management



Total 5 videos were posted by Hanken External Relations

Services Marketing Theory Revisited
2012 article

Service Management and Marketing: Customer Management in Service Competition, 3 ed
Christian Gronroos

June 27, 2014

Big Data - Implementation Guidelines


Australian Government - Big Data Practice Guide - Draft


Big Data - Challenges and Success Factors - Deloitte Analytics - Presentation Format

Implementation of the Big Data Concept in Organizations - Possibilities, Impediments and Challenges
Janucz Wielki, Poland
2013 conference paper

Organizations that capitalize on big data stand apart from traditional data analysis environments in three key ways:

They pay attention to data flows as opposed to stocks.
They rely on data scientists and product and process developers rather than data analysts.
They are moving analytics away from the IT function and into core business, operational and production functions.
Thomas Davenport, 30 July

Implementing Big Data Analytics

Path from Insights to Business Value Generation
Sloan Management Review

Big Data Applications in Financial Services


31 Dec 2013
Big Data Use Cases across Financial Services
Author: Vamsi Chemitiganti, Chief Architect, Red Hat's Financial Services Vertical
Wall Street and Technology
According Gartner report, 64% of the firms surveyed launched a big data initiative.
Four use cases in financial services

1. Risk Management
2. Fraud detection and management
3. Intelligent customer upsell and cross sell
4. Investment management decision making

Human Resource Management - Review Articles

Human Resource Management Revision Articles Series

Review articles are mainly based on the textbook:
Human Resource Management: An Experiential Approach (SIE), 4/e
Copyright year: 2007

H. John Bernardin, Florida Atlantic University

Google books page for the book. Preview and search facility are available


Table of Contents and Revision Articles

Human Resource Management Revision Articles for Chapters

PART I - Human Resource Management and the Environment

Strategic Human Resource Management in a Changing Environment
The Role of Globalization in HR Policy and Practice - Review notes updated 10.1.2012
The Legal Environment of HRM: Equal Employment Opportunity - Review Notes

PART II - Acquiring Human Resource Capability

Work Analysis and Design - Review Notes
Human Resource Planning and Recruitment - Review Notes
Personnel Selection - Review Notes

PART III - Developing Human Resource Capability

Performance Management and Appraisal - Review Notes
Training and Development - Review Notes
Career Development - Review Notes

PART IV - Compensating and Managing Human Resources

Compensation: Base Pay and Fringe Benefits - Review Notes
Pay for Performance - Review Notes
Managing the Employment Relationship - Review Notes
Labor Relations and Collective Bargaining - Review Notes
Employee Health and Safety - Review Notes

Full Chapters of the Book Human Resource Management Online Book by Laura Dias

Research in Human Resource Management
Human Resource Management Research Propositions

MBA Knowledge Revision Schedule

January  - February  - March  - April  - May   -   June

July       - August     - September  - October - November  - December

Updated 8 June 2014,  6.1.2012, 14.12.2011

Managerial Economics - Review Articles - List

The book 'Managerial Economics' was authored and published by Joel Dean in 1951.

The purposed was stated as to show how economic analysis could be used in formulating business policies. The focus of the book is to give executives access to the practical contributions that economic thinking can make to top-management policies. It is also stated that the book deals only with those phases of enterprise economics that strike the author as particularly useful to he management of large industrial corporations.

The book highlights economic analysis for the concepts of profit, competition, demand, cost, price and applied areas like advertising and capital budgeting.

Review notes for the chapters of the book

1. Profits
2. Competition
3. Multiple Products
4. Demand analysis
5. Cost
6. Advertising
7. Basic Price
8. Product-line Pricing
9. Pricing Differentials
10.Capital Budgeting

MBA Knowledge Revision Schedule

January  - February  - March  - April  - May   -   June

July       - August     - September  - October - November  - December

Strategic Management - Review Chapter Notes - Strickland and Thompson

PART ONE Concepts and Techniques for Crafting and Executing Strategy

Section A: Introduction and Overview

Chapter 1: What Is Strategy and Why Is It Important? Key Points of the Chapter

Chapter 2: Charting a Company’s Direction: Vision and Mission, Objectives, and Strategy - Key Points of the Chapter

Section B: Core Concepts and Analytical Tools

Chapter 3: Evaluating a Company’s External EnvironmentKey Points of the Chapter

Chapter 4: Evaluating a Company’s Resources, Capabilities, and CompetitivenessKey Points of the Chapter

Section C: Crafting a Strategy

Chapter 5: The Five Generic Competitive Strategies: Which One to Employ? - Key Points of the Chapter

Chapter 6: Strengthening a Company’s Competitive Position: Strategic Moves, Timing, and Scope of Operations - Key Points of the Chapter

Chapter 7: Strategies for Competing in International MarketsKey Points of the Chapter
Chapter 8: Corporate Strategy: Diversification and the Multibusiness CompanyKey Points of the Chapter

Chapter 9: Ethics, Corporate Social Responsibility, Environmental Sustainability, and StrategyKey Points of the Chapter

Section D: Executing the Strategy

Chapter 10: Building an Organization Capable of Good Strategy Execution: People, Capabilities, and Structure - Key Points of the Chapter

Chapter 11: Managing Internal Operations: Actions That Promote Good Strategy Execution - Key Points of the Chapter

Chapter 12: Corporate Culture and Leadership: Keys to Good Strategy ExecutionKey Points of the Chapter

Industrial Engineering - Review Articles

1. Industrial Engineering - Introduction

2. Component Areas of IE: Human Effort engineering and System Efficiency Engineering

Articles are posted in serial order

Pioneering Efforts of Taylor, Gilbreth and Emerson
Principles of Motion Economy
Motion Study - Human Effort Engineering
Ergonomics - Introduction
Work Measurement

Predetermined Motion Time Systems (PMTS)
Methods Efficiency Engineering
Product Design Efficiency Engineering
Plant Layout - Efficiency
Value Engineering - Introduction

Statistical Quality Control – Industrial Engineering
Statistical Quality Control – Industrial Engineeri... (duplicate post - to be removed)
Inspection Methods Efficiency Engineering
Operations Research - An Efficiency Improvement Tool for Industrial Engineers
Engineering Economics is an Efficiency Improvement Tool for Industrial Engineers
Industrial Engineering and Scientific Management in Japan

Shigeo Shingo - The Japanese Industrial Engineer
System Engineering Process and Its Management
Systems Improvement
Systems Installation - Installing Proposed Methods
Productivity, Safety, Comfort, and Operator Health Management

Organizing for Industrial Engineering: Historical Evolution of Thinking
Current Research in IE
Managing Change in Improvement Projects - Comfort Zone to Comfort Zone
Supply Chain Cost Reduction
System Design Principles

Total Improvement Management
Total Industrial Engineering - H. Yamashina

Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan - One Year Plan

January - February - March - April - May - June

MBA Knowledge Revision Schedule

January  - February  - March  - April  - May   -   June

July       - August     - September  - October - November  - December

June 23, 2014

Supply Chain Management - Panel Discussions and Lectures


Cass School of Business - Supply Chain Management Master Class
Prof Sinead



Cass School of Business YouTube Channel - 300 videos

Systems Approach in Supply Chain and Risk Management - MIT Webinar
Speaker: Loannis Kyratzoglou



YouTube Link for the above video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bHpUzw82P1U

Business and Managerial Ethics - Panel Discussions and Lectures


The Return on Integrity: Ethics, Values and Business
15th Minnesota Business Ethcis Award Key Note Address


Ohio Wesleyan University Business Ethics Lecture - Susan Willeke


Entrepreneurship - Panel Discussions and Lectures


Center for Strategic and International Studies Panel Discussion

Doing Business at the Cross Roads -

Part 1


Part 2



Financial Management - Corporate Finance - Panel Discussion and Video Presentations

Working Capital Panel Discusion
2012 Clinton Global Initiative Discussion



June 22, 2014

Human Resource Management - Panel Discussions and Video Lectures


Chief Human Resource Officer's Round Table 2014



Best Practice Tips from Google, VP, People Operations



June 21, 2014

Marketing Management - Video Lectures and Panel Discussions

Summaries of Chapters of Kotler's Marketing Management Book for quick reading and revision


The Strategy Building, Marketing and Selling a Brand - Panel Discussion - Aspen/Snowmass


Product Management - Challenges and Opportunities
Product Managers of Los Angeles - Panel discussion
March 2014



November 2013

Singapore Management  University - Digital marketing panel discussion
Ogilvy Singapore and Google



July - 2013 - Building Your Action Plan for Social Media Marketing

Presentation at Columbia Business School by Ric Dragon,Author of Social Marketology



Rick Dragon - 60 minute Radio Talk

Social Marketology - Webinar - One hour by Ric Dragon



June 20, 2014

Big Data - The Revolutionary Change It is Bringing in Management - Planning and Decision Making

HBR article October  2012

Big data tools and philosophies are bringing a revolution in management theory and practice.

How Big Business is Generating Value from Big Data

Stanford B School Panel Discussion Video
3 October 2013



June 15, 2014

Toyota Kata - Developing Ingenuity of People through Management

Toyota strongly believes in developing people. It is a common philosophy of all Japanese companies. But Toyota is a great example of exemplary practice of many principles of management both of Japanese origin and American origin

Mike Rother is the author of the book Toyota Kata

Demonstration of Coaching Cycles by Mike Rother


Talk on Toyota Kata by Mike Rother


Home Page of Mike Rother


Toyota Kata - Habits for Continuous Learning and Improvements - Hakan Forss

Toyota Kata Presentation by Keith Dilbert

June 14, 2014

Approaching the Prospect

Selling Process - Skills - Knol - Article - Series

The first impression

The first impression a salesperson makes is important. If this impression is favorable, the prospect is more likely to listen to welcome and listen to the salesperson. If it is not favorable, he may not cooperate and may erect communication barriers even though it is a prearranged meeting.

The first impression is centered on the image projected by the salesperson’s appearance and behavior. Following are some suggestions to be followed.

1. Wear appropriate conservative business clothes.

2. Be neat in dress and grooming.

3. Do not smoke, chew gum or drink during approach to the customer

4. Keep an erect posture and project confidence and warmth.

5. Ask permission to sit down if the prospect has not offered the seat.

6. Show enthusiasm.

7. Smile

8. Do not begin with apology for taking the prospect’s time. Believe it, you are there to help him first.

9. Do not imply that you have not planned the call.

10. Maintain eye contact with the prospect.

11. If the prospect offers to shake hands, do so with a firm grip.

12. Remember the prospect’s name - correctly use it in greeting him

Approach techniques

Opening with a statement

Opening with a demonstration

Opening with a question or questions

Opening with a statement

Four types opening statements are mentioned in books.

1. Introductory approach

It opens with the salesperson’s name and business. “Hello, Mr. ………., my name is ………, representing …………….”

When a salesman is meeting a prospect for the first time this approach is appropriate.

2. Complimentary approach

This approach starts with a compliment to the prospect.

Examples: Your office is nicely decorated. It is very kept tidily. Etc.

3. Referral approach

In this approach, the person who referred the salesman to the prospect is mentioned. “Mr. Smith, Brian Young, your colleague suggested that I meet you and discuss the issues involved in portfolio revision with you.”

4. Premium approach

Everyone likes to receive free gifts. The salesman uses a free sample to attract the attention of the prospect for his product and presentation. “Mr. Paul, our guide on mutual funds is free gift for you. Can you share your savings and investment goals? We provide ideal solutions for many.”

Demonstration openings

In these openings some thing of interest to the prospect is demonstrated. IN the product approach, the product is placed on the table or given to the prospect and salesman waits for the conversation to start from the prospect. A textbook representative may give a new text to a professor and wait for the professor to initiate the conversation after he flips a few pages from the book.

Opening with questions

When a person walks into a store and goes to a counter, the counter person says yes sir! How can I help you? This question starts the interaction between the counter person and the prospect.

The questions can be regarding benefits, regarding some information etc. For example, do you know that your neighbor consumes 30% less electricity?

Opening statements, questions and demonstration facilitate the initial contact for further interaction with the prospect.
______________ ______________

Body Language is very Important - Train Yourself in Body Language


Original knol - http://knol.google.com/k/narayana-rao/approaching-the-prospect/ 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 74#

June 13, 2014

Online Marketing - Introduction

Online Marketing - Definitions

Institute of Direct Marketing defines E-marketing as 'the use of internet and related digital information and communications technologies to achieve marketing objectives'.

Strauss et al (2003) make the marketing objectives more explicit. They say e-marketing covers a wide range of IT related applications with three main aims:

Transforming marketing strategies to create more customer value through more effective segmentation, targeting, differentiation, and positioning strategies;

more efficiently planning and executing the conception, distribution, promotion, and pricing of goods, services and ideas;

creating exchanges that satisfy individual consumer and organizational customers' objective.

Internet History.

Internet started in 1969. By 2006 there were more than one billion users worldwide.
In January 2011, two billion internet users were recorded. The mobile users number has reached 5 billion.

Internet users in the world - Continental breakup

Marketing Environment - Conducive to Internet Marketing


1. New supply opportunities: Communication became cheap and structured and many manufacturers and retailers are accessing potential suppliers across national boundaries using internet. Hence, marketers have to implement internet marketing.

2. New distribution channels: Internet made low cost distribution of information products possible. All information sellers are forced to adopt internet marketing or online marketing or e-marketing as this channel is now generating significant amount of sales. For distributing cash through ATM is made possible because of networking and now an ATM can facilitate withdrawal from any bank's account. Credit cards could be used from any shop.

3. Informing stakeholders; Communicating with stakeholders became timely and efficient. Marketers have to access electronic channels for advertising, publicity, informing and interacting.

4. Competition: Entirely new set of people entered various businesses using internet as the channel. Blogging is one example. Newspapers are facing serious competition from bloggers. Textbook authors and publishers are facing serious competition from online authors. This new competition is forcing newspapers and textbook authors to adopt internet marketing.


Social Factors
(i) Busy persons: More senior and successful executives are working 50 to 60 hours per week in pursuit of career success. They are looking for convenience shopping and 24×7 shopping facilities.

(ii) Increased leisure time: There is another category of persons who have more leisure time and they are willing to spend time on internet and use number of new ways of interaction made feasible by internet like blogging, social networking etc.

(iii) Technology adoption: People are adopting internet at a more rapid pace compared to many other technologies.

Technological Factors
Networking technology and communication technology are developing fast to provide more useful features at reduced prices. There are developments that promise computers to children at schools at a price of $100 per terminal. The schools can provide broadband access also at reasonable prices. Internet sites can be accessed through mobiles

Economic Factors
Economic growth has become difficult in advanced economies and hence there is thrust on efficiencies. Internet is in the forefront of technologies offering cost reduction possibilities in number of areas of production, marketing and distribution.

Political Factors
Governments and political parties have realized the benefits of internet based facilities in governing and communicating with the masses. Hence, the political system is in favor of internet penetration even though governments have to simulataneously deal with cyber crime.

Internet Marketing System - Components

1. Customer.
2. Content
3. Communications
4. Competition.

Customer is the focus of any marketing system. An online customer is a more informed and powerful person, with knowledge acquired from various web sites using search engine, price comparison sites, online discussin forums etc.

The web site is the salesman in online marketing systems. Online communication activity and the website have to complete the selling process or at least the order booking process for an internet marketer.

The prospects have to contacted through various channels to make them aware of the web site or the internet sales channel of a organization. Print media, TV channels and internet media are being used for communication purpose. Search engine marketing or use of search engines for attracting the potential customers to the E-commerce or E-business web sites has become the primary communication mode.

Competition is increasing in the internet market place. Traditional brick and mortar companies are starting their internet channels. Some new entrants are coming into the market using internet channels only. Foreign sellers are offering their products through internet channels. Alliance formation has become more easy in internet channels. Certain new competitors are coming into the market through elimination of certain firms in the supply chains. Consumers are able to dispose off their used products through internet channels. Thus competition has increased and also got more varied.

Internet Marketing System - Benefits to the Customer and Marketer

2. Consistency.
3. Creative content.
4. Customization
5. Coordination.
6. Control.

The ability to shop when the customer wants in a 24×7 is a great convenience. Certain repetitive activities can be automated like the monthly shopping list. In a door-delivery set-up, the customer can simply send the shopping list online, billing is done online, payment is done online and the goods package can be delivered at door step. The monthly shopping is now done conveniently at an odd hour that a busy person can find. People can use time like travelling time to browse what is on offer.

The sales message is consistent because it does not vary with the salesman. Any number of times, a customer visits the web sites, he will get the same information or information that is consistent with the earlier messages and he can even check back the earlier messages and information.  A wiki capability, can ensure that all earlier versions of a message related to a product or offer  can be seen by the customer.

Creative Content
The E-commerce site can mimic consent communication. The customers who are satisfied with brief details can complete the buying process with the brief starting message. But customers who want more information can be provided more information at their choice. Total technical information and manufacturing process nuiances can be explained to customers. Quality improvement steps taken by an organization can be shown using video clips.

The site can give an impression of customized site to a repeat customer. It creates shopping lists etc. which are customized to a specific customer. His brand preferences are identified and indicated in the shopping lists.

The E-commerce site can have features of coordination. If the customer for door delivery is not in his residence, the supplier may be informed of this fact through the web site. Such information is available as a written record or formal communication.

Marketers can test their promotion campaigns and measure their impact in an automated fashion in online marketing.

Online Marketing: A Customer-Led Approach, Richard Gay Et.al.
This introductory article will be supplemented by articles focusing on various steps in online marketing.
Now covered in Online (Internet) Marketing and E-Commerce - Knol Book

E-Commerce, Internet, Online, Website Marketing News - SEO,SMM,PPC News

Wharton Professor David Bell on Using Digital Marketing for Building Brands and Customer Assets - 2012




Interesting Web Pages

An Introduction to Internet marketing
By Dave Chaffey, Richard Mayer, Kevin Johnston and Fiona Ellis-Chadwick

Reports on E-Commerce

Second Quarter 2009


What Users are doing on Internet



Migration from Knol
All management knols are being collected in http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/ .
Marketing articles are available under the label http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/search/label/Marketing%20Management
Article on differentiating and positioning http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/11/marketing-strategy-differentiating-and.html
This article is posted under http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/online-marketing.html


Original knol - Knol Number 1746

June 9, 2014

Management of Advertising - Kotler's Chapter Summary

Marketing Management Revision Article Series based on Kotler's Marketing Management Book.

Advertising is any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor


Advertising is any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor (Kotler).

Advertising is aimed at a target market and buyer motives have to be considered in developing the advertisement strategy or program.

Five Major Decisions in Advertising

Five major decisions are to be made developing the advertisements.

Mission: the objectives of the advertisement

Money: how many needs to be spent or how much can be spent?

Message: What is the message to be sent to get the desired response?

Media: What media should be sued?

Measurement: What are the evaluation criteria for results of the advertisement?

These five decision are known as Fives Ms (5 Ms) of advertising.

Objectives of Advertising

One classification of objectives is to inform, persuade or remind or reinforce.

Under the above broad heads more number of objectives can be specified. Colley lists 52 possible advertising objectives in his book ‘Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results.’

The objective is decided based on the marketing situation of the product or brand.

Informative advertising aims to create brand awareness and knowledge of new products or features of existing products.

Persuasive advertising aims to create liking, preference, conviction, and purchase of a product or service. Persuasive advertising uses comparative advertising also.

Reminder advertising aims stimulate repeat purchase of products and services.

Reinforcement advertising aims to convince current purchasers that they made the right choice.

Advertising Budget Decision

Five specific factors are considered in this decision.

Stage in the production life cycle

Market share and customer base size

Competition and clutter

Advertising frequency

Product substitutability

In adaptive-control method of setting advertising budgets, the company tests in some market segments with low advertising, and in some market segments with high advertising. In most of the market segments, the normal advertising expenditure is incurred. The results give the response of the market to advertising expenditure by the company. These results will help the company to adjust the advertising expenditure.

Advertising Elasticity

The success rate of advertising was higher on new products or line extensions than on established products/brands.  When advertising was successful in increasing sales, its impact lasted up to two years after peak spending. The long term incremental sales generated were approximately double the incremental sales observed in the first year of advertising spending increase.

Academic literature review reveals that advertising elasticities were estimated to be higher for new (0.3) than for established products.

Advertising Message

(Picture source: http://www.toyotabharat.com/Images/prius160-big.jpg )

An advertisement has to gain attention of the reader or listener to generate sales. So the quotation to keep in mind is “Until it’s compelling, it isn’t selling.”

Advertisers use four-step process to generate advertising messages and select the appropriate message.

1. Message generation

2. Message evaluation and selection

3. Message execution
4. Message social responsibility review

1. Message generation

Inductive and deductive methods are used to generate messages.

In inductive method, creative people talk to customers, dealers, experts and competitors to know the strengths and weaknesses of the product or brand, their uses, the personalities of potential users and related demographic and psychographic variables.

Deductive framework says buyers expect four types of reward from a product: rational, sensory, social, or ego satisfaction. Buyers might visualize these rewards from results-of-use experience, product –in-use experience, or incidental-to-use experience. The combinations from these give twelve types of advertising message themes. The advertiser with the now available computer facilities can prepare advertisement messages for each of the themes and provide them for evaluation.

2. Message evaluation and selection

The advertisement messages are to be rated on desirability, exclusiveness and believability. They have to be tested in the market to find determine which message is having the maximum desired effect.

3. Message execution

Style, tone, words and format etc. are to be decided in executing an advertising message.

4. Message social responsibility review

Advertising ethics and codes need to be followed by advertisers and advertising agencies. Social and legal norms are to be followed. Advertisers must not make false promises. They should not show false demonstrations.

Prius Family Advertisement - What do you call when it turns into more?


Deciding on the Media

Media selection involves finding the most cost-effective media to deliver the desired number of exposures to the target audience.

Evaluating Advertising Effectiveness

Advertisers try to measure the communication effect of an advertisment - its effect on awareness, knowledge or preference. Ad’s sales effect can also be measured and Kilter says emphatically that sales effect also needs to be researched.


Russell, H. Colley, Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results, National Association of Advertisers, New York, 1961.

Roland T. Rust, Advertising Media Models: A Practical Guide, Lexington Books, Lexington, MA, 1986.

Herbert E. Krugman, "What Makes Advertising Effective?' Harvard Business Review, March-April 1975, pp. 96-103.

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Marketing Communication: Channels and Promotion Tools

Originally posted in

June 8, 2014

Principles of Project Management

An equitable commitment between the provider of resources and the project delivery team must exist
before a viable project exists.

The measures of project success, in terms of both process and product, must be defined at the beginning
of the project as a basis for project management decision making and post-project evaluation.


Statistics - Introduction

Introduction to Probability and Statistics - MBA Course Notes Statistics - Introduction

Statistics - Introduction

Statistics for Management - Revision - Knol - Article - Series

Mean, Median, Mode, Range, Variance, Standard Deviation, Correlation, Regression, Time Series Data Analysis



The word statistik comes from the Italian word statista. It means a statesman. Dr. E.A.W. Zimmerman introduced the work statistics into England and its use was popularized by Sir John Sinclair through his work, Statistical Account of Scotland 1791-1799.
We can identify three subdivisions in statistics now.

Descriptive statistics

Large amount of data is compressed into tables and charts in this branch of statistics.

How to Compute Mean, Median, Mode, Range, and Standard Deviation?

Inferential statistics

This branch of statistics deals with generalizing observations from samples to populations and statements about the probability of their validity.

Decision theory

This branch of statistics deals with decisions under risk and uncertainty
Five study material links are provided below for the five topics that form the foundation for a basic understanding of application of statistics.
Introduction, Organizing Data, Summary Measures of Data, Correlation and Regression, and Times Series Data Analysis
Statistics - Study Materials
1. Introduction
2. Organizing Data
3. Numerical Descriptive Measures - Mean, Median, Mode and Range, Variance , Standard Deviation
4. Regression and Correlation
Example Problems
5. Time Series Data Analysis and Forecasting
Example Problems
Course Page - Foundation Course in  Statistics

University of South Maine

Human Resource Management Theory - Research Propositions

Vulnerable work and international migrants: a relational human resource management perspective
Luciana Turchick Hakak and Akram Al Ariss
The International Journal of Human Resource Management,  2013

Proposition 1
: Country context will determine the type of network ties that are valued,the importance of ties in society and in the workplace and the strategies that individuals are expected to undertake in order to forge these ties.

PhD Thesis
Edith Cowan University

Proposition 1:Good HR practices will be positively related to organisational commitment
Proposition 2: The relationship between HR practices and turnover will be mediated by organisational commitment.
Proposition 3: National culture moderates the effects of leadership behaviour on organisational commitment and job satisfaction.
Proposition 4: Organisational commitment mediates the relationship of leadership behaviour with job satisfaction
Proposition 5:National culture affects organisational culture coupled with job satisfaction
Proposition 6: Employees’ organisational commitment will be negatively related to employee turnover.
Proposition 7: National culture and labour market conditions have a direct influence on employee retention.

Strategic human resource management: what does it mean in practice?

Ken Lovell
Southern Cross University, 2009

Proposition 1: Senior managers who adopt a ‘best practice’ conception of SHRM will try to implement HRM practices based on a universal model derived from external sources.
Proposition 2: Senior managers who adopt a ‘contingent’ conception of SHRM will have a procedure in place whereby HRM practices are intended to be deliberately aligned with a broader organisational strategy.
Proposition 3a: Managers will try to acquire any valuable resources that they perceive are being used by competitors as a source of competitive advantage.
Proposition 3b: If valuable resources that are providing an advantage to competitors cannot be acquired, managers will try to imitate the resource or find a substitute that provides an equivalent advantage.
Proposition 4: To the extent that any senior management resources are devoted to HRM, they will focus on valuable resources that competitors will find difficult or impossible to imitate and for which no substitute is easily available.
Proposition 5: Management’s attempts to create organisational culture or complex capabilities as valuable resources are likely to be tentative and accompanied by unintended consequences.

June 7, 2014

MBA Revision Notes - Management Knowledge/Theory Revision Notes

This blog, Management Theory Review (MTR) will contain articles that help in management knowledge revision by MBA students as well as professionals. The articles were already written on Google's Knol platform and they are being reposted here as Knol is being discontinued as a product by Google.

Thanks to the support given by Knol team, this blog is reaching the cumulative one million page milestone.

MBA Knowledge Revision Schedule

January  - February  - March  - April  - May   -   June

July       - August     - September  - October - November  - December

January  - Operations Management - Supply Chain Management
February  - Financial Accounting - Cost Accounting
March - Organizational Behavior - Marketing Management
April  - Marketing Management - Engineering Economics
May    Selling Skills -   Marketing Management
June  - Marketing Management - Industrial Engineering

July  - Organizational Behavior  - Principles of Management
August - Principles of Management - Business and Managerial Ethics - Economics
September - Economics - Engineering Economics - Human Resource Management
October - HRM - Management Accounting
November - Strategic Management - Financial Management
December - Managerial Economics - Operations Management

To be added - Financial Management, Strategic Management,


The first post in this blog posted on 23 November 2011. The blog was started to transfer my articles on Google Knol platform to this blog as Google has announced the closure of the Knol platform.

Updated on 6 June 2014

Enterprise Architecting - Organizing Function of Management

Enterprise Architecting: Definition

"Applying holistic thinking to design, evaluate, and select a preferred structure for a future state enterprise to realize its value proposition and desired behaviors”
Nightingale and Rhodes, 2007

Enterprise Architecting provides strategies/approaches to ensure time is spent developing and evaluating‘could be’states,and selecting the best alternative given a set of desired properties and criteria
for the future enterprise.

Enterprise Architecture Elements

People (Organization)
Eco System

Architecting the System of Systems Enterprise: Enabling Constructs and Methods from the Field of Engineering Systems
Donna H. Rhodes, Adam M. Ross, and Deborah J. Nightingale
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
IEEE SysCon 2009 —3rd Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, 2009
Vancouver, Canada, March 23–26, 2009

Beyond the Lean Revolution: Achieving Successful and Sustainable Enterprise Transformation

AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn, 2011 - Business & Economics - 256 pages

For organizations looking for full-fledged, dynamic transformation... it's time to move beyond 'lean.' Most organizations are engaged in change efforts often focused solely on eliminating waste in specific departments or 'silos.' That's the 'lean paradigm,' and while it's a good place to start, enterprise transformation goes much further.

Enterprise Transformation

It begins with the big picture: What are the strategic objectives? How is the enterprise performing against those objectives? How should it be? Who are the stakeholders and what do they value? Then it moves forward toward an audacious vision of the enterprise's future. Based on years of research and implementation, Beyond the Lean Revolution provides a roadmap for achieving sustainable, bottom-line results, delivering value to stakeholders, and reaching that future vision. Filled with illuminating examples, the book moves well beyond traditional lean thinking, showing readers how to:
Ensure senior leadership commitment
▪ Assess the enterprise's current state
▪ Analyze stakeholder values
▪ Develop a future vision
▪ Create a plan for transformation

From inception to implementation and beyond, this book provides a holistic framework for bridging the gap from mere change ... to genuine transformation.


Short Term Course at MIT
Date: June 9-11, 2014 | Tuition: $2,500 |


This course is about:

Thinking holistically about enterprise
Viewing the enterprise through multiple lenses
Applying an architectural approach
Evaluating alternative architectures
Enriching your thinking

Enterprises evolve over time, but the transformation efforts aimed at their evolution too often fail to achieve their intended outcomes. We teach a holistic approach to guide enterprise leaders in understanding their ‘as-is’ enterprise, generating and evaluating alternative concepts, and selecting a ‘to-be’ architecture concept. While some very good frameworks and approaches exist to develop detailed enterprise architectures, we move ‘upstream’ in the enterprise design lifecycle to the concept phase. Our holistic approach goes beyond a process-centric or information technology-centric perspective, critically important even when the transformation might specifically be related to process re-engineering or an information technology upgrade. Leaders need to be able to see the whole enterprise to effectively envision the path for change.

In discovery of this ‘right concept’ we explore the enterprise through ten fundamental enterprise elements and their interrelationships. This is essential to broadening the leadership conversations needed to reach a strategic enterprise future vision. The ten elements are: ecosystem, stakeholders, strategy, information, infrastructure, process, organization, knowledge, products, and services.

Learning techniques for stakeholder analysis and for ‘future-proofing’ to evaluate fitness of architectures for alternative futures enhances the strategic enterprise decisions. We examine how the principles, practices, and heuristics of systems architecting are extended and adapted for enterprise architecting. We discuss the role of leadership in creating a vivid transformation vision, as well as transformation and communication plans.

In the fast-paced world in which modern enterprises operate, a sense of urgency can lead to a rush to take action. Yet applying a formal framework and best enterprise design practices can be futile unless time is taken to adequately explore and evaluate alternatives to find an ‘optimal’ concept for going forward. Other approaches in the industry focus on “doing enterprise architecting right.” Based on a decade of research and case investigations, our approach is aimed as the necessary prerequisite activity to ensure transformation is based on “the right enterprise concept architecture.”

This course is not about: traditional IT-focused enterprise architecture, EA Frameworks (Zachman, TOGAF, DODAF, etc.), Clinger-Cohen Act, enterprise documents and databases, or designing IT systems.


Fundamentals  Fundamentals: Core concepts, understandings, and tools (15%)
Latest Developments  Latest Developments: Recent advances, and future trends (30%)
Industry Applications  Industry Applications: Linking theory and real world (40%)
Other  Other: Designing, evaluating, and transforming enterprises (15%)
Delivery Methods

Fundamentals  Lecture: Delivery of material in a lecture format (75%)
Latest Developments  Discussion or Groupwork: Participatory learning (25%)

Fundamentals  Introductory: Appropriate for a general audience (60%)
Latest Developments  Specialized: Assumes experience in practice area or field (40%)


The participants of this course will be able to:

Understand the motivation for and increasing importance of designing and transforming enterprises to meet contemporary challenges.
Appreciate the emerging field of holistic enterprise architecting as distinguished from transformation based on a single perspective.
Understand how strategic drivers (business model, strategic focus, enterprise performance objectives, etc.) and desired enterprise “itlities” (flexibility, scalability, agility, etc.) influence enterprise decisions.
Use ten elements (ecosystem, stakeholders, strategy, information, infrastructure, process, organization, knowledge, products, and services), and their interrelationships, to view the whole enterprise.
Understand methods that can be employed to generate, evaluate, and select an ‘optimal’ concept architecture for enterprise transformation.
Use ‘future-proofing’ to evaluate fitness of architectures for alternative futures to enhance strategic enterprise decisions.
Recognize leadership challenges, barriers, and enablers in designing and planning enterprise transformations.
Discuss strategic issues leaders face in planning and undertaking enterprise redesigns and transformation.
Acquire knowledge of the latest published literature in the field and insight into ongoing research.

This course is targeted to executives and professionals who lead and implement enterprise transformation efforts within and across an enterprise. The course will be of particular benefit to professionals who understand the value of taking a systems perspective in making strategic decisions in the face of a dynamic environment involving complex enterprise factors.

Class runs 9:00 am - 5:00 pm each day except for Wedesday when it ends at 4:00 pm.

Registration is on Monday morning from 8:30 - 8:50 am.

Instructors will host a networking dinner following the Day Two session (optional).


Dr. Donna H. Rhodes

Dr. Donna H. Rhodes is a senior lecturer in the Engineering Systems Division and principal research scientist in the Sociotechnical Systems Research Center (SSRC). She is the director of MIT’s Systems Engineering Advancement Initiative (SEAri), a research group focused on advancing the theories, methods, and practice applied to complex sociotechnical systems. Prior to joining MIT in 2003, Dr. Rhodes held senior management positions in systems engineering and enterprise practices at IBM Federal Systems, Lockheed Martin, and Lucent Technologies.

Dr. Rhodes conducts research on innovative approaches and methods for architecting and design of complex systems and enterprises, including predictive indicators of performance, empirical studies of engineering systems thinking and practice, and designing for uncertain futures. Her research is driven by the desire to more predicatively architect socio-technical systems to address significant societal needs in a dynamic world. She is involved in research across multiple sectors including defense, aerospace, transportation, energy, and commercial products.

Dr. Rhodes received her Ph.D. in Systems Science from the T.J. Watson School of Engineering at Binghamton University. She serves on industry and government advisory boards focused on advancement of systems practice and education, as well as on study panels for issues of national and international importance. She engages with government and industry leaders through collaborative research, consulting engagements and executive courses. She has been very involved in the evolution of the systems engineering field, including development of several university graduate programs. Dr. Rhodes is a past president and fellow of the International Council on Systems Engineering, and a recipient of INCOSE’s Founders Award and several distinguished service awards. She serves on the INCOSE Systems Engineering journal editorial board.

Professor Deborah J. Nightingale 

Professor Deborah Nightingale has broad-based experience with academia, the private sector,and the government. Professor Nightingale joined the MIT faculty in 1997 and holds a dual appointment in the Engineering Systems Division and the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at MIT. She serves as the Director of the Sociotechnical Systems Research Center (SSRC) and was the Co-Director of the Lean Advancement Initiative, a joint industry, government, and MIT consortium. Her research interests are centered on complex enterprise integration, enterprise architecting, and organizational transformation. Her current focus on health systems is exemplified by her role as PI on several research projects, including an enterprise systems analysis of the DoD system of care for post-traumatic stress, several systems studies for the Veterans Administration, and multiple projects in the civilian sector. In addition, Professor Nightingale has led several executive transformation engagements in both industry and government.

Prior to joining MIT, Professor Nightingale headed up Strategic Planning and Global Business Development for AlliedSignal Engines. While at AlliedSignal she also held a number of executive leadership positions in operations, engineering, and program management, participating in enterprise-wide operations from concept development to customer support. Prior to joining AlliedSignal, she worked at Wright-Patterson AFB where she served as program manager for computer simulation modeling research, design, and development in support of advanced man-machine design concepts.

Professor Nightingale has a Ph.D. from The Ohio State University in Industrial and Systems Engineering. In addition, she holds M.S. and B.S. degrees in Computer and Information Science from The Ohio State University and University of Dayton, respectively. She is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, Past-President and Fellow of the Institute of Industrial Engineers, and Co-Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Enterprise Transformation. She is a co-author of the books Lean Enterprise Value: Insights from MIT’s Lean Aerospace Initiative and Beyond the Lean Revolution: Achieving Successful and Sustainable Enterprise Transformation. Professor Nightingale serves on a number of boards and national committees, where she interacts extensively with industry, government, and academic leaders.

This course takes place on the MIT campus in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Journal of Enterprise Architecture


Published Papers in the Journal

The PRISM Architecture Framework – was it the very first Enterprise Architecture Framework?
By Roberto Rivera

A Plain English Introduction to Enterprise Architecture

Peter Murchland

Producing Enterprise Architecture Content that Counts

Sally Bean

Using the Component Factory Business Model to Deliver Technology Re-use

Jeff Scott

Enterprise Architecture: A Courageous Venture

Chris Potts

Core Knowledge for Enterprise Architecture

Eskil Swende

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