Training is defined as any attempt to improve employee performance on a currently held job or one related to it.
Development refers to learning opportunities designed to help employees grow to higher responsibility jobs.
Needs analysis is three stage process: Organizational analysis, job analysis, person analysis
Organizational analysis find out the areas and skills where training emphasis should be placed. Short and long-term goals and objectives of the organization and any trends that may affect these goals determine the areas of importance to the organization. The human resources inventory of the organization can reveal projected employee retirements, promotions, turnover and the resultant new recruitment. Sophisticated personnel inventories can be maintained to indicate teh knowledge and skills inventory of individual employees and they can be compared with the knowledge and skills needed as per the HR plan. Climate and efficiency indexes help in the identification training needed to alleviate the current deficiencies in these dimensions.
More elaborate list of data sources used in organizational needs analysis
Organizational goals and objectives, Human resources inventory, Organizational climate surveys, Job satisfaction survey, Efficiency indexes, Exit interviews, Recently made and likely to be made changes in technology, MBO system outputs and documents, Manager recommendations
Job analysis should document the tasks or duties involved in the job. It also has to specify knowledge, attitude, behavior and other characteristics required for a person to do the job effectively and efficiently.
The person analysis identifies specific persons and the specific knowledge or skills in which those specific persons are to be trained or developed.
Special Training Programs
Employee orientation programs
The objectives of the program
1. To assist the new employee in adjusting to the organization and feeling comfortable and positive about the new job.
2. To clarify the job requirements,demands, and performance expectations; and
3. To get the employee understand the organization's culture and quickly adopt the organization's goals, values and behaviors.
After reading this chapter, you should be able to
Define what is meant by training and explain why it is a critical function for corporations today.
Explain how to conduct a needs assessment, including performing organizational, task, and person analyses and deriving instructional objectives for a training program.
Know how to design a training program to facilitate learning.
Identify the critical elements related to transfer of training.
Compare and contrast the various techniques available for training, including their relative advantages and disadvantages, with particular emphasis on e-learning.
Identify criteria to use to evaluate training effectiveness.
Understand different experimental designs that can be used for evaluating training programs.
Understand the components of training programs for employee orientation and onboarding, teamwork, generational issues, diversity awareness, sexual harassment, creativity, and international assignments.