Related to the purpose of control
Principle of assurance of objective
The task of control is to assure accomplishment of objectives by detecting potential or actual deviation from plans early enough to permit effective corrective action.
Principle of efficiency of controls
The more control approaches and techniques detect and illuminate the causes of potential or actual deviations from plans with the minimum of costs or other unsought consequences, the more efficient these controls will be.
Principle of control responsibility
The primary responsibility for the exercise of control rests in the manager charged with the execution of plans.
Principle of direct control
The higher the quality of managers and their subordinates, the less will be the need for indirect controls.
(The principle may termed as principle of reduced controls. A superior can spend less time in control activities if he has more higher quality managers and their subordinates in his department.)
Principles related to Structure of control
Principle of reflection of plans
The more controls are designed to deal with and reflect the specific nature and strucuture of plans, the more effective they will serve the interests of the enterprises and its managers.
Principle of organizational suitability
The more controls are designed to reflect the place in the organization structure where responsibility for action lies, the more they will facilitate correction of deviation of events from plans.
Principle of individuality of controls
Controls have to be consistent with the position, operational responsibility, competence, and needs of the individuals who have to interpret the control measures and exercise control.
Process of control
Principle of standards
Effective control requires objective, accurate, and suitable controls.
Principle of critical-point control
Effective control requires attention to those factors critical to appraising performance against an individual plan.
The exception Principle
The more a manager concentrates his control on exceptions, the more efficient will be the results of this control.
Principle of flexibility of controls
If controls are to remain effective despite failure or unforeseen changes in plans, flexibility is required in the design of controls.
Principle of action
Principle of Action
Control is justified only if indicated or experienced deviations from plans are corrected through appropriate planning, organizing, staffing and directing.
Harold Koontz and Cyril O’Donnell, Principles of Management: An Analysis of Managerial Functions, 4th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968
Harold Koontz and Cyril O’Donnell, Principles of Management: An Analysis of Managerial Functions, 2nd Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959