May 31, 2016

June - Management Knowledge Revision With Links



First Week  1 to 5 June 2015

June First Week - Management Knowledge Revision
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2016/05/june-first-week-management-knowledge.html

Opportunities or Areas for Innovation
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2014/11/opportunities-or-areas-for-innovation.html
Market Development for New Products, Processes and System
http://nraomtr.blogspot.in/2014/11/market-development-for-new-products.html

Organizing for Innovation
Research and Development Management
http://www.wzl.rwth-aachen.de/en/080d8d8c949a1ac0c1256f190035d886/pm_i_eng_v2.pdf



Industrial Engineering

Industrial Engineering Introduction
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/industrial-engineering-introduction.html

Component Areas of IE: Human Effort engineering and System Efficiency Engineering
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/component-areas-of-ie-human-effort.html




Pioneering Efforts of Taylor, Gilbreth and Emerson
http://nraomtr.blogspot.in/2011/12/pioneering-efforts-of-taylor-gilbreth.html

Principles of Motion Economy
http://nraomtr.blogspot.in/2011/12/principles-of-motion-economy.html



Motion Study - Human Effort Engineering
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/motion-study-human-effort-engineering.html

Ergonomics - Introduction
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/ergonomics-introduction.html





Work Measurement
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/work-measurement.html

Predetermined Motion Time Systems (PMTS)
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/predetermined-motion-time-systems-pmts.html



2 week - 8 to 12 June 2015

Methods Efficiency Engineering
Product Design Efficiency Engineering


Plant Layout - Efficiency
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/11/plant-layout-efficiency.html
Value Engineering - Introduction
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/value-engineering-introduction.html

Statistical Quality Control – Industrial Engineering
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/statistical-quality-control-industrial.html
Inspection Methods Efficiency Engineering
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/inspection-methods-efficiency.html


Operations Research - An Efficiency Improvement Tool for Industrial Engineers
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/operations-research-efficiency.html
Engineering Economics is an Efficiency Improvement Tool for Industrial Engineers
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/engineering-economics-is-efficiency.html





Industrial Engineering and Scientific Management in Japan
Shigeo Shingo - The Japanese Industrial Engineer


3rd Week  15 to 19 June 2015

System Engineering Process and Its Management
Systems Improvement Process



Systems Installation - Installing Proposed Methods
Productivity, Safety, Comfort, and Operator Health Management



Organizing for Industrial Engineering: Historical Evolution of Thinking
Current Research in IE



Managing Change in Improvement Projects - Comfort Zone to Comfort Zone
Supply Chain Cost Reduction




Total Improvement Management
Total Industrial Engineering - H. Yamashina


4 Week - 22 to 26 June 2015

Economics

Introduction to Economics - Basic Economic Concepts and Theories
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/introduction-to-economics-basic.html
Elements of Supply and Demand - Review Notes
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/elements-of-supply-and-demand-review.html

Theory of Aggregate Supply and Demand
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/theory-of.html
Business Cycles
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2011/12/business-cycles.html

Macroeconomic Objectives
Money and Monetary Policy

Fiscal and Debt Policies of the Government
Theory Demand, Supply and Equilibrium in Market







June Month Birthdays - Management Scholars and Professors

To July - Management Knowledge Revision

One Year MBA Knowledge Revision Plan







January  - February  - March  - April  - May   -   June

July  - August     - September  - October  - November  - December

June Fourth Week - Management Knowledge Revision

June Third Week - Management Knowledge Revision

June Second Week - Management Knowledge Revision

June First Week - Management Knowledge Revision

May 26, 2016

June - Management Knowledge Revision








_______






First Week  1 to 5 June 2015

Opportunities or Areas for Innovation
Market Development for New Products, Processes and System

Organizing for Innovation
Research and Development Management
http://www.wzl.rwth-aachen.de/en/080d8d8c949a1ac0c1256f190035d886/pm_i_eng_v2.pdf



Industrial Engineering

Industrial Engineering Introduction
Component Areas of IE: Human Effort engineering and System Efficiency Engineering



Pioneering Efforts of Taylor, Gilbreth and Emerson
Principles of Motion Economy


Motion Study - Human Effort Engineering
Ergonomics - Introduction




Work Measurement
Predetermined Motion Time Systems (PMTS)


2 week - 8 to 12 June 2015

Methods Efficiency Engineering
Product Design Efficiency Engineering


Plant Layout - Efficiency
Value Engineering - Introduction

Statistical Quality Control – Industrial Engineering
Inspection Methods Efficiency Engineering


Operations Research - An Efficiency Improvement Tool for Industrial Engineers
Engineering Economics is an Efficiency Improvement Tool for Industrial Engineers





Industrial Engineering and Scientific Management in Japan
Shigeo Shingo - The Japanese Industrial Engineer


3rd Week  15 to 19 June 2015

System Engineering Process and Its Management
Systems Improvement Process



Systems Installation - Installing Proposed Methods
Productivity, Safety, Comfort, and Operator Health Management



Organizing for Industrial Engineering: Historical Evolution of Thinking
Current Research in IE



Managing Change in Improvement Projects - Comfort Zone to Comfort Zone
Supply Chain Cost Reduction




Total Improvement Management
Total Industrial Engineering - H. Yamashina


4 Week - 22 to 26 June 2015

Economics

Introduction to Economics - Basic Economic Concepts and Theories
Elements of Supply and Demand - Review Notes

Theory of Aggregate Supply and Demand
Business Cycles

Macroeconomic Objectives
Money and Monetary Policy

Fiscal and Debt Policies of the Government
Theory Demand, Supply and Equilibrium in Market







June Month Birthdays - Management Scholars and Professors

To July - Management Knowledge Revision

One Year MBA Knowledge Revision Plan







January  - February  - March  - April  - May   -   June

July  - August     - September  - October  - November  - December


May 18, 2016

Personality and Attitudes




Personality and attitudes represent important micro, cognitively oriented variables in the study of organizational behavior.

Personality - Introduction

Personality represents the "whole person" concept. It includes perception, learning, motivation, and more. According to this definition, people's external appearance and traits, their inner awareness of self, and their person-situation interaction make up their personalities.

In personality theory, different approaches have been tried. The historically important ones include trait theory (observable patterns of behavior that recur frequently), Freud's psychoanalytic or psychodynamic theory (in which personality is shaped by unconscious determinants of behavior), and Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow's humanistic theory (Every person strives to realize one's potential).

Although the nature versus nurture debate in shaping personality continues, the findings of twin studies of the importance that heredity may play in personality and recent breakthroughs in neuropsychology that points to the importance of the brain in personality have led most psychologists to recognize both nature and nurture. However, the nurture side still dominates.

In personality theory, the study of relatively fixed predispositions has resurfaced in the form of the "Big Five" personality traits. Conscientiousness, emotional stability, agreeableness, extraversion, and openness to experience have been found to significantly relate to job performance, especially conscientiousness. In addition, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) remains a popular tool for personal and career development. Whereas the Big Five is based on research, the MBTI is based on the historically important Carl Jung theory of personality types and mental processes. Both the Big Five and MBTI if carefully interpreted and used can make a contribution to the understanding and application of organizational behavior.

Personality and Related Concepts

 
Luthans has taken the position that personality will mean how people affect others and how they understand and view themselves, as well as their pattern of inner and outer measurable traits and their person-situation interaction behavior.

 
Self-Variables

The self of a person is a unique product of many interacting parts and may be thought of as the personality viewed by a person within. People's understanding regarding themselves is called self-concept in personality theory. Self-esteem, multiple intelligences, emotion, optimism and efficacy are important self-variables and have application in organizational behavior.

Self-Esteem

 
Self-esteem includes people's self perceived competence and self-image. Is high self esteem good for organization's performance? Kreitner and Kinicki concluded that high self esteem can be good thing only when it is nurtured and channeled in constructive and ethical ways. Otherwise, it can become antisocial and destructive. So behavior managers have a role to play in getting the appropriate performance from high self-esteem individuals.

An elaboration of self esteem in organizational context has emerged. It is called organization-based self esteem (OBSE). It is defined as the self-perceived value that individuals have of themselves as organization members acting within an organization context.

Self esteem is a global trait, meaning it is present interactions of an individual in a similar way.

The Big Five Personality Traits

Researchers have identified 171 personality traits on which persons can be ranked or measured. This 171 trait list was prepared after sufficient effort in reducing the number of traits by identifying similar traits and combining them. From these 171 traits, five core personality traits called the five factor model was found to be of value for use in organizational situations.

These five traits are:
  •     Conscientiousness
  •     Emotional stability
  •     Agreeableness
  •     Extraversion
  •     Openness to experience
To get a high score on these parameters the person must have the following characteristics or behavior.

To get a high score on conscientiousness, the person has to be dependable, hardworking, organized, self-disciplined, persistent and responsible.

To get a high score on emotional stability, the person has to be normally calm, secure, happy and unworried.

To get a high score on agreeableness, the person has to be cooperative, warm, caring, good-natured, courteous and trusting.

To get a high score on openness to experience, the person has to be curious, flexible, creative, imaginative, artistically sensitive, open to other cultures and open to intellectual discussions.

These big Five dimensions have to managed by the managers appropriately in a leadership or managerial situation to get favorable outcomes.(Article by Prof Ginka Toegel (IMD) and Jean-Loui Brasoux -
http://sloanreview.mit.edu/article/how-to-become-a-better-leader/  )

Myers- Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)


In the 1940s, Katharine Briggs and  Isable Briggs-Myers developed a personality test to measure their preferences on four pairs of traits proposed earlier by Carl Jung in the 1920s.

These four traits are extraversion-introversion, sensing-intuiting, thinking-feeling, and judging-perceiving.

Extraversion and introversion are related to feeling energetic and comfortable. Extraverts are more energetic in groups. Introverts are more energetic and productive alone.

Sensing and intuiting are related to collecting information for solving a problem. People who prefer sensing look into the specifics of situation, want concrete evidence and facts, go into details and are practical persons. People who prefer intuition look into possibilities, are satisfied with general description of the situation, use abstract and theoretical ideas.

Thinking and feeling are related to evaluation of alternatives for decision making. People who prefer thinking are analytical, they follow a set of rules, use their head or brain and are more inclined to judge based on the evidence. Persons who prefer feeling, are more subjective, take circumstances into account and are not so rule bound, they use heart in preference to brain and may show mercy (or vindictiveness in negative manner).

Judging and perceiving are related to the orientation of a person to the outside world. Persons who show the traits of judging are organized, structured, time oriented and decisive people.Persons who show traits of perceiving are seen more as flexible persons who explore things spontaneously and are open ended with behavior.

Socialization

Nurture is socialization. Every new born child is nurtured or socialized by his parents, relatives, neighbors,  friends, teachers, religious priests, his superiors, subordinates etc. Personality development is influenced by socialization.

Application of Various Personality Theories and Concepts in Organization Behavior Theory

Self-esteem is an important variable. If a person has low self-esteem and not confident about his thinking ability, he likely to fear decision making and may not be able to assert himself in interpersonal relations. Research has shown that employees with high self esteem feel unique, competent, secure,  and empowered.

Socialization

Schein has advocated that organizations must have socialization process.

The socialization process helps in changing attitudes, values and behaviors. It ensures continuity and consistency of behavior of various persons of the organization. It will facilitate adjustment to new jobs, work groups and new practices. The early period of socialization of new recruits is a critical period.

The important activities related to socialization process of an organization include:

1. Relevant training
2. Timely and consistent feedback
3. Initial work under good supervisors
4. A orientation program
5. Socialization in high morale work groups.
6. Challenging jobs in the early part of career.

Deliberate and well designed socialization programs do have tremendous potential impact on the personality development of members of an organization within the organization (personality development after they have joined the organization).

Attitude

An attitude can be defined as a persistent tendency to feel and behave in a particular way toward some object.

Attitudes are a complex cognitive variables that have three basic characteristics: they are directed toward an object about which a person has feelings, and beliefs,  they persist unless changed in some way; and they range along a continuum from positive to negative. 

Attitudes have three components: emotional (feelings), informational, and behavioral. Behavior can be observed, but the feelings and belief which give rise to the behavior cannot be observed.

Attitudes, being persistent often help employees adapt to their work environment by providing a way of interpreting things or happenings in the environment. There are four functions that attitudes have in this process: (1) they help people adjust to their environment, (2) they help people defend their self-image, (3) they provide people with a basis for expressing their values, and (4) they help supply standards and frames of reference that allow people to organize and explain the world around them.

Changing Attitudes

Attitudes can be changed.

But it is sometimes difficult to change attitudes. There are two important barriers.  One reason is prior commitments. A second is insufficient information on the part of the person having an attitude to be changed.

Research shows that some of the ways of bringing about attitude changes are providing new information, and persuasion by friends or peers, and co-opting. Fear also helps in changing attitudes. There are some instances, where or when an individual may be in stage of forming attitude or belief. Organizations can provide appropriate information and create appropriate situation to develop desirable attitudes at that point of time.

Personality traits or dispositions, such as positive affectivity (PA) and negative affectivity (NA), are important antecedents to attitudes about one's job.

Traditionally the most important attitude studied and given concern in the real world is job satisfaction.

Job Satisfaction

This attitude is defined as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experience. More simply stated, it an attitude toward the job. Does the person has a positive attitude or negative attitude toward job.

A number of factors influence job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is a combination of attitudes towards factors related to a job.Some of the major ones are the work itself, pay, promotions, supervision, the work group, and working conditions.

There are a number of outcomes of job satisfaction. For example, There is relationship between satisfaction and job performance.  Although the relationship with performance was thought to be relatively weak (0.17), recent research is showing a much stronger relationship. Low job satisfaction tends to lead to both turnover and absenteeism, whereas high job satisfaction often results in fewer on-the-job accidents and work grievances, less time needed to learn new job-related tasks, and less stress.

Efforts to Increase Job Satisfaction

A job satisfaction has positive impact on many desirable outcomes of the organizations, management can take some steps to increase job satisfaction.

Some of the specific guidelines mentioned by Luthans:
  • Make jobs more fun,
  • Ensuring fairness,
  • Get the right fit,
  • Design jobs to make them more exciting and satisfying.

Organizational Commitment Attitude

Closely related to job satisfaction is the organizational commitment attitude. It traditionally refers to the employees' loyalty to the organization. An an attitude, organizational commitment is defined as (1) a strong desire to remain a member of a particular organization; (2) a willingness to exert high levels of effort on behalf of the organization; and (3) a definite belief in, and acceptance of, the values and goals of the organization.

Organizational commitment is determined by a number of personal, organizational, and nonorganizational variables.

Now commitment is generally conceived as having three components:

Affective (emotional attachment),
Continuance (costs of leaving): willingness to stay in the organization due to costs of leaving. 
Normative (obligation to stay): The person feels it obligatory to stay in the organization.

Like job satisfaction, the organizational commitment attitude is very complex (composed of number of attitudes towards various factors in the organization) and has mixed results with respect to desired outcomes of the organization. But in general, it is thought to have a somewhat stronger relationship with organizational outcomes such as performance, absenteeism, and turnover.

Like satisfaction, organizational commitment can be enhanced.

Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs) 

Organ defines this concept as "individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization." The OCBs can be a personality level concept.

The extra-role, prosocial/organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) involve predispositional traits to be cooperative and conscientious. OCBs include  a variety of behaviors, and the major ones are  altruism, conscientiousness, civic virtue, sportsmanship, and courtesy. In an organization perceived as a just organization, more employee display OCBs.

Although there is still some criticism of the conceptualization and research of OCBs, there is growing evidence that OCBs positively relate to individual, group, and organizational performance.
 

References 

Fred Luthans, Organizational Behavior,  McGraw-Hill, 10th Edition, 2005 (Main Text for Revision Articles)

Related article 
http://nraombakc.blogspot.com/2012/01/personality-theories-and-assessment.html

July - Management Knowledge Revision

Originally posted in Knol ( Knol number 161)


Updated   18 May 2016, 11 July 2014, 22.3.2013, 17.2.2014

May 17, 2016

The Management of Information Systems - Dickson and Wetherbe - Book Information


Gary W. Dickinson and James C. Wetherbe
1985 Book
McGraw Hill Book Company



Part I. Introduction
Ch. 1  The MIS Executive

Part 2. MIS Organization

Ch. 2 The Organizational Use of Computers
       3 Organizing and Staffing the MIS Function

Part 3. Managing MIS Personnel
       4. Contingency Management and the MIS Function
       5. Achieving Job Productivity and Satisfaction

Part 4. MIS Planning and Control
       6. Strategic Planning for MIS
       7. Management Assessment and Evaluation of MIS


Part 5. Key Technology Trends and Implications
       8. Database Management Systems
       9. Decision Support Systems
      10. Data Communication Systems
      11. Distributed Data Processing
      12. Advanced Office Systems
      13. Robotics and MIS

Part 6. Managing MIS Development
      14. Systems Analysis and Design Strategies and Procedures
      15. Software Development
      16. Implementation

Part 7. Management of Production and Computer Operations
      17. Computer Capacity Planning
      18. Hardware and Software Acquisition
      19. Computer Operations Management


MISM Course at CMU, Pittsburgh


Master of Information Systems Management (MISM) program was developed from the ground up as a blended business-technology program. Through our program, students will develop better planning, management and technical abilities that focus on the application of technology to create business value.

Quantitative management and technology: Our information systems courses offer a unique blend of technology, management, and strategy.


Information Systems Management (MISM) - 16-Month Track
Unlike our competition, the Master of Information Systems Management (MISM) program was developed from the ground-up as a blended business-technology program. Through our program, you'll develop better planning, management and technical abilities necessary for leading a thriving organization in today's complex, digital world.

The MISM degree requires you to demonstrate proficiency in technology management, IT Strategy, and fundamental business skills.

MISM Course Requirements
The required courses are designed to build core competencies in integrating technology management with business expertise with courses ranging from Economic for IT to Object Oriented Programming in Java. As a student in the MISM program, you also have the flexibility to choose from a range of challenging elective courses designed to help you excel in an increasingly digital world.


Important Points from the Chapters


Ch. 1  The MIS Executive

The emergence of business and management information systems (MIS) in organizations has created an intense demand for well-trained, capable information systems managers to plan, organize, direct and control the powerful technology of computer-based information systems.

The topics presented in the book provide a managerial, organizational, behavioral, and technical treatment of MIS management.

MIS executives must blend management, business, technical, and interpersonal relations.

Ch. 2 The Organizational Use of Computers


Ch 4. Contingency Management and the MIS Function

The basic foundation of the contingency theory is that the effectiveness of a management approach is contingent upon the organizational environment in which it is applied. This abandons the concept that there is a "best way" to manage in all environments.

IS function is divided into three important functions: Systems development, production, technical services.

Ch 5. Achieving Job Productivity and Satisfaction

The most highly regarded of motivational theories are as follows:


  • Maslow's need hierarchy  -  A.G. Maslow 1943
  • Reinforcement  - B.F. Skinner  1953
  • Attribution theory - F. Heider 1958
  • Herzberg's dual factory theory - F. Herzberg 1959
  • Expectancy theory - V. Vroom 1964
  • Goal Setting - E.A. Locke 1976
Practical Guidelines

1. Efforts to increase motivation must first focus on the  employee's needs (Maslow, Herzberg)
2. work assignments and goals should be realistic and clearly defined;  rewards for performance should be practical and fulfill the  motivational needs of the employee (Locke, Vroom). 
3. Consequences or outcomes of good performance must approximate the expectations of the employee (Skinner, Heider)

Positive versus Negative Control of Behavior

Behavioral Management Tasks

Communicating
Imitation
Shaping
Reinforcement (Scheduling)

Ch. 6. Strategic Planning for MIS

A four stage model of MIS planning consisting of strategic planning, organization information requirements analysis, resource planning and allocation, and project planning is discussed in this chapter.

The challenges of MIS planning are:

1. Alignment of  the MIS plan with the overall strategies and objectives of the organization.
2. Design of  an information system structure or architecture for the organization.
3. Allocation of information  system development and operations resources among competing applications.
4. Completing information system projects on time and on schedule.

       

Information Systems Management in the Big Data Era - Lake and Drake - 2014 - Book Information


https://books.google.co.in/books?id=absoBgAAQBAJ

http://www.springer.com/us/book/9783319135021

Authors:  Lake, Peter, Drake, Robert
Publisher Springer


Table of Contents

1 Introducing Big Data .............................................................................. 1
1.1 What the Reader Will Learn......................................................... 1
1.2 Big Data: So What Is All the Fuss About?................................... 1
1.2.1 Defining “Big Data”...................................................... 2
1.2.2 Big Data: Behind the Hype ........................................... 3
1.2.3 Google and a Case of the Flu........................................ 6
1.3 Big Data: The Backlash Begins ................................................... 6
1.3.1 Big Data Catches a Cold............................................... 6
1.3.2 It’s My Data – So What’s in It for Me?......................... 8
1.3.3 Bucking the Backlash – The Hype Cycle ..................... 9
1.4 A Model for Big Data .................................................................. 11
1.4.1 Strategy ......................................................................... 12
1.4.2 Structure........................................................................ 13
1.4.3 Style .............................................................................. 13
1.4.4 Staff............................................................................... 13
1.4.5 Statistical Thinking ....................................................... 14
1.4.6 Synthesis....................................................................... 14
1.4.7 Systems......................................................................... 15
1.4.8 Sources.......................................................................... 15
1.4.9 Security ......................................................................... 16
1.5 Summary ...................................................................................... 16
1.6 Review Questions......................................................................... 16
1.7 Group Work/Research Activity .................................................... 17
1.7.1 Discussion Topic 1 ........................................................ 17
1.7.2 Discussion Topic 2 ........................................................ 17
References................................................................................................. 17


2 Strategy .................................................................................................... 19
2.1 What the Reader Will Learn......................................................... 19
2.2 Introduction.................................................................................. 19
2.3 What is Strategy? ......................................................................... 20
2.4 Strategy and ‘Big Data’................................................................ 22
2.5 Strategic Analysis......................................................................... 26
2.5.1 Analysing the Business Environment ........................... 26
2.5.2 Strategic Capability – The Value Chain ........................ 32
2.5.3 The SWOT ‘Analysis’................................................... 38
2.6 Strategic Choice ........................................................................... 43
2.6.1 Introduction................................................................... 43
2.6.2 Type, Direction and Criteria
of Strategic Development.............................................. 44
2.6.3 Aligning Business and IT/IS Strategy........................... 47
2.7 Summary ...................................................................................... 51
2.8 Review Questions......................................................................... 51
2.9 Group Work Research Activities.................................................. 51
2.9.1 Discussion Topic 1 ........................................................ 51
2.9.2 Discussion Topic 2 ........................................................ 51
References................................................................................................. 52


3 Structure .................................................................................................. 53
3.1 What the Reader Will Learn......................................................... 53
3.2 Introduction.................................................................................. 53
3.3 What Is ‘Structure’? ..................................................................... 55
3.3.1 What Do We Mean by ‘Structure’?............................... 55
3.4 Formal Structures......................................................................... 56
3.4.1 The “Organisational Chart”: What Does
It Tell Us?...................................................................... 56
3.4.2 Structure, Systems and Processes................................. 61
3.4.3 Formal Structure: What Does This Mean
for Big Data?................................................................. 65
3.4.4 Information Politics ...................................................... 66
3.5 Organisational Culture: The Informal Structure .......................... 69
3.5.1 What Do We Mean by ‘Culture’? ................................. 69
3.5.2 Culture and Leadership................................................. 69
3.5.3 The “Cultural Web”....................................................... 71
3.6 Summary ...................................................................................... 78
3.7 Review Questions......................................................................... 78
3.8 Group Work/Research Activity .................................................... 78
3.8.1 Discussion Topic 1 ........................................................ 78
3.8.2 Discussion Topic 2 ........................................................ 79
References................................................................................................. 79


4 Style .......................................................................................................... 81
4.1 What the Reader Will Learn......................................................... 81
4.2 Introduction.................................................................................. 81
4.3 Management in the Big Data Era................................................. 82
4.3.1 Management or Leadership?......................................... 82
4.3.2 What Is ‘Management’?................................................ 83
4.3.3 Styles of Management................................................... 86
4.3.4 Sources of Managerial Power ....................................... 87
4.4 The Challenges of Big Data (the Four Ds)................................... 90
4.4.1 Data Literacy................................................................. 90
4.4.2 Domain Knowledge ...................................................... 92
4.4.3 Decision-Making........................................................... 93
4.4.4 Data Scientists............................................................... 96
4.4.5 The Leadership Imperative ........................................... 98
4.5 Summary ...................................................................................... 99
4.6 Review Questions......................................................................... 100
4.7 Group Work/Research Activity .................................................... 100
4.7.1 Discussion Topic 1 ........................................................ 100
4.7.2 Discussion Topic 2 ........................................................ 100
References................................................................................................. 100


5 Staff .......................................................................................................... 103
5.1 What the Reader Will Learn......................................................... 103
5.2 Introduction.................................................................................. 103
5.3 Data Scientists: The Myth of the ‘Super Quant’.......................... 104
5.3.1 What’s in a Name? ........................................................ 104
5.3.2 Data “Science” and Data “Scientists”........................... 105
5.3.3 We’ve Been Here Before…........................................... 110
5.4 It Takes a Team…......................................................................... 111
5.4.1 What Do We Mean by “a Team”?................................. 111
5.4.2 Building High-Performance Teams .............................. 113
5.5 Team Building as an Organisational Competency ....................... 117
5.6 Summary ...................................................................................... 121
5.7 Review Questions......................................................................... 121
5.8 Group Work/Research Activity .................................................... 122
5.8.1 Discussion Topic 1 ........................................................ 122
5.8.2 Discussion Topic 2 ........................................................ 122
References................................................................................................. 122


6 Statistical Thinking................................................................................. 125
6.1 What the Reader Will Learn......................................................... 125
6.2 Introduction: Statistics Without Mathematics.............................. 125
6.3 Does “Big Data” Mean “Big Knowledge”? ................................. 126
6.3.1 The DIKW Hierarchy ................................................... 127
6.3.2 The Agent-in-the-World................................................ 128
6.4 Statistical Thinking – Introducing System 1 and System 2 ......... 129
6.4.1 Short Circuiting Rationality.......................................... 132
6.5 Causality, Correlation and Conclusions....................................... 133
6.6 Randomness, Uncertainty and the Search for Meaning............... 135
6.6.1 Sampling, Probability and the Law
of Small Numbers......................................................... 137
6.7 Biases, Heuristics and Their Implications for Judgement............ 138
6.7.1 Non-heuristic Biases..................................................... 142
6.8 Summary ...................................................................................... 144
6.9 Review Questions......................................................................... 144
6.10 Group Work Research Activities.................................................. 145
6.10.1 Discussion Topic 1 – The Linda Problem..................... 145
6.10.2 Discussion Topic 2 – The Birthday Paradox................. 145
References................................................................................................. 146


7 Synthesis................................................................................................... 147
7.1 What the Reader Will Learn......................................................... 147
7.2 From Strategy to Successful Information Systems...................... 147
7.2.1 The Role of the Chief Information Officer (CIO)......... 148
7.2.2 Management of IS Projects........................................... 149
7.3 Creating Requirements That Lead to Successful
Information Systems.................................................................... 151
7.4 Stakeholder Buy-In ...................................................................... 154
7.5 How Do We Measure Success...................................................... 155
7.6 Managing Change ........................................................................ 156
7.7 Cost Benefits and Total Cost of Ownership ................................. 158
7.7.1 Open Source.................................................................. 158
7.7.2 Off the Shelf vs Bespoke .............................................. 159
7.7.3 Gauging Benefits........................................................... 160
7.8 Insourcing or Outsourcing?.......................................................... 161
7.9 The Effect of Cloud...................................................................... 163
7.10 Implementing ‘Big Data’.............................................................. 164
7.11 Summary ...................................................................................... 165
7.12 Review Questions......................................................................... 166
7.13 Group Work Research Activities.................................................. 166
7.13.1 Discussion Topic 1 ........................................................ 166
7.13.2 Discussion Topic 2 ........................................................ 166
References................................................................................................. 166


8 Systems..................................................................................................... 169
8.1 What the Reader Will Learn......................................................... 169
8.2 What Does Big Data Mean for Information Systems?................. 169
8.3 Data Storage and Database Management Systems...................... 170
8.3.1 Database Management Systems.................................... 172
8.3.2 Key-Value Databases .................................................... 173
8.3.3 Online Transactional Processing (OLTP) ..................... 173
8.3.4 Decision Support Systems (DSS) ................................. 175
8.3.5 Column-Based Databases ............................................. 176
8.3.6 In Memory Systems...................................................... 176
8.4 What a DBA Worries About......................................................... 177
8.4.1 Scalability ..................................................................... 177
8.4.2 Performance .................................................................. 178
8.4.3 Availability.................................................................... 179
8.4.4 Data Migration.............................................................. 179
8.4.5 Not All Systems Are Data Intensive ............................. 182
8.4.6 And There Is More to Data than Storage ...................... 183
8.5 Open Source................................................................................. 183
8.6 Application Packages................................................................... 184
8.6.1 Open Source vs Vendor Supplied?................................ 186
8.7 The Cloud and Big Data............................................................... 187
8.8 Hadoop and NoSQL..................................................................... 189
8.9 Summary ...................................................................................... 190
8.10 Review Questions......................................................................... 190
8.11 Group Work Research Activities.................................................. 191
8.11.1 Discussion Topic 1 ........................................................ 191
8.11.2 Discussion Topic 2 ........................................................ 191
References................................................................................................. 191


9 Sources..................................................................................................... 193
9.1 What the Reader Will Learn......................................................... 193
9.2 Data Sources for Data – Both Big and Small............................... 193
9.3 The Four Vs – Understanding What Makes Data Big Data ......... 194
9.4 Categories of Data........................................................................ 196
9.4.1 Classification by Purpose.............................................. 196
9.4.2 Data Type Classification and Serialisation
Alternatives................................................................... 198
9.5 Data Quality ................................................................................. 202
9.5.1 Extract, Transform and Load (ETL) ............................. 205
9.6 Meta Data..................................................................................... 206
9.6.1 Internet of Things (IoT) ................................................ 206
9.7 Data Ownership............................................................................ 209
9.8 Crowdsourcing ............................................................................. 210
9.9 Summary ...................................................................................... 212
9.10 Review Questions......................................................................... 212
9.11 Group Work Research Activities.................................................. 212
9.11.1 Discussion Topic 1 ........................................................ 213
9.11.2 Discussion Topic 2 ........................................................ 213
References................................................................................................. 213


10 IS Security................................................................................................ 215
10.1 What the Reader Will Learn......................................................... 215
10.2 What This Chapter Could Contain but Doesn’t ........................... 215
10.3 Understanding the Risks .............................................................. 216
10.3.1 What Is the Scale of the Problem?................................ 216
10.4 Privacy, Ethics and Governance ................................................... 218
10.4.1 The Ethical Dimension of Security............................... 218
10.4.2 Data Protection.............................................................. 221
10.5 Securing Systems......................................................................... 224
10.5.1 Hacking......................................................................... 224
10.5.2 Denial of Service........................................................... 225
10.5.3 Denial of Service Defence Mechanisms....................... 226
10.5.4 Viruses and Worms and Trojan Horses
(Often Collectively Referred to as Malware)................ 227
10.5.5 Spyware......................................................................... 228
10.5.6 Defences Against Malicious Attacks ............................ 228
10.6 Securing Data............................................................................... 230
10.6.1 Application Access Control .......................................... 233
10.6.2 Physical Security........................................................... 234
10.6.3 Malicious Insiders and Careless Employees................. 235
10.7 Does Big Data Make for More Vulnerability? ............................. 235
10.8 Summary ...................................................................................... 235
10.9 Review Questions......................................................................... 236
10.10 Group Work Research Activities.................................................. 236
10.10.1 Discussion Topic 1 ........................................................ 236
10.10.2 Discussion Topic 2 ........................................................ 236
References................................................................................................. 237


11 Technical Insights.................................................................................... 239
11.1 What the Reader Will Learn......................................................... 239
11.2 What You Will Need for This Chapter ......................................... 239
11.3 Hands-on with Hadoop ................................................................ 240
11.3.1 The Sandbox ................................................................. 240
11.3.2 Hive............................................................................... 248
11.3.3 Pig ................................................................................. 251
11.3.4 Sharing Your Data with the Outside World................... 256
11.3.5 Visualization ................................................................. 258
11.3.6 Life Is Usually More Complicated!.............................. 261
11.4 Hadoop Is Not the Only NoSQL Game in Town!........................ 262
11.5 Summary ...................................................................................... 263
11.6 Review Questions......................................................................... 263
11.7 Extending the Tutorial Activities.................................................. 263
11.7.1 Extra Question 1 ........................................................... 263
11.7.2 Extra Question 2 ........................................................... 264
11.7.3 Extra Question 3 ........................................................... 264
11.8 Hints for the Extra Questions....................................................... 264
11.9 Answer for Extra Questions......................................................... 264
11.9.1 Question 1 ..................................................................... 264
11.9.2 Question 2 ..................................................................... 265
11.9.3 Question 3 ..................................................................... 265
Reference .................................................................................................. 266

12 The Future of IS in the Era of Big Data................................................ 267
12.1 What the Reader Will Learn......................................................... 267
12.2 The Difficulty of Future Gazing with IT...................................... 267
12.3 The Doubts................................................................................... 268
12.4 The Future of Information Systems (IS)...................................... 269
12.4.1 Making Decisions About Technology........................... 271
12.5 So What Will Happen in the Future? ........................................... 275
12.5.1 The Future for Big Data................................................ 275
12.5.2 Ethics of Big Data......................................................... 279
12.5.3 Big Data and Business Intelligence .............................. 280
12.5.4 The Future for Data Scientists ...................................... 281
12.5.5 The Future for IS Management..................................... 282
12.5.6 Keeping Your Eye on the Game .................................... 285
12.6 Summary ...................................................................................... 286
12.7 Review Questions......................................................................... 286
12.8 Group Work Research Activities.................................................. 287
12.8.1 Discussion Topic 1 ........................................................ 287
12.8.2 Discussion Topic 2 ........................................................ 287
References................................................................................................. 287
Index................................................................................................................. 289


http://www.springer.com/us/book/9783319135021



Big Data System Development
2015 Presentation by Chen et al.
https://sse.uni-due.de/bigdse15/BIGDSE2015-Chen_et_al.pdf


Addressing the Software Engineering Challenges of Big Data
POSTED ON OCTOBER 21, 2013 BY IAN GORTON IN ARCHITECTURE
https://insights.sei.cmu.edu/sei_blog/2013/10/addressing-the-software-engineering-challenges-of-big-data.html

Article - McKinsey Quarterly October 2011
Are you ready for the era of ‘big data’?
By Brad Brown, Michael Chui, and James Manyika
http://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/strategy-and-corporate-finance/our-insights/are-you-ready-for-the-era-of-big-data




May 3, 2016

Relevant Information and Decision Making - Marketing Decisions - Review Notes

Many marketing decision models use accounting information

Illustrative Decisions

The special sales order

_________________

_________________
Rutgers Accounting Web

Deletion or addition of products, services, or departments

Optimal use of limited resources

Pricing decisions

Target costing - Price derived new product target cost


Updated 3 May 2016, 8 Dec 2011

Relevant Information and Decision Making - Production Decisions - Review Notes

Many production decision models require accounting information.

Management accounting is branch of accounting wherein accountants provide data that helps in taking specific management decisions. Management has various subject based approaches and quantitative management decision making approach requires cost data for taking decisions using various optimization models. Revenue data is also required for management decision making. Decision making is future oriented and hence requires estimates of various costs and revenues for the future periods. But estimates of costs and revenues cannot be made and verified (for their accuracy) unless accounting system provides actual historical costs and revenues. Historical cost details provided by the accounting system can be modified for volume data and price expectations and estimates can be made more easily and accurately by operation personnel. Management cost objective related accounting work involves going through ledger data and summarizing the data that accurately reflects the cost elements that go into the cost objective in various transactions done by various departments of the organization.

Some of the decision models requiring cost data are:

1. Product mix determination: Requires revenue estimates and cost estimates to give profit estimates for each of the products considered for product mix determination.

2. Economic order quantity model (Purchase)

Simple economic order quantity formula is given by EOQ = SQRT (2AS/I)
where A = annual demand in units, S = order cost for each order issue and receipt and I = Inventory carrying cost per unit per annum.

To implement this model inventory control manager requires the estimates of ordering cost and inventory carrying cost.

3. Economic Order quantity model (Production)

The model is similar to purchase model. But now S is set up cost for the machine. To implement this model production planner or controller needs the estimate of set up cost for each machine. Management accountants have to take the set up cost for machine of each machine as cost objective and find out the set up cost.

4. Quality Cost

Quality cost model argues companies are incurring less cost in designing quality and preventing defects and are spending more in repairing defects and related losses. Management accountants have to take these cost ideas as cost objectives and prepare a statement showing cost of designing quality, cost of preventing defects and cost of actual defective parts. This data is going motivate the company management to increase investments in designing for quality and preventive devices or systems.

Product Line Decision - Keep it or Drop it
________________

________________
Mean That


One Time Special Order Decision

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Brian Routh TheAccountingDr


Decision Making & Relevant Information: Make-or-Buy,

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Brian Routh TheAccountingDr


Originally posted at
http://knol.google.com/k/narayana-rao/cost-based-management-decision-making/2utb2lsm2k7a/2084


Updated   3 May 2016, 12 May 2015
First posted 8 Dec 2012

Relevant Information and Decision Making - HR and Other Functions

Accounting information is used in HR function decision making.

Human resource accounting is now a well developed field in management accounting.

Human resource management decision like investing in training are done through quantitative cost benefit models and accounting provides cost related inputs to these decision models in human resource management.


Human Resources Accounting
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_________________
NIMTx

Updated 3 May 2016

May 2nd Week - MBA Management Knowledge Management Revision

May 2, 2016

Costing for Strategic Profitability Analysis

Strategic management accounting is a recently developed branch in management accounting. It helps management in developing required estimates for various proposed strategies based on accounting information. The main job of management accountant is to provide accounting statements that have the relevant information of use in developing estimates of the results.

Company can pursue cost leadership strategy or  differentiation strategy in the product and target markets it is operating. The accounts of two years can be compared and the growth, product differentiation and cost leadership components of the increase in operating income can be determined.

Growth component

The growth component measures change in revenue and costs based on changes in units sold or produced, with all other variables being the same as the previous year. By isolating the change in units, the analysis looks at the impact of the change in growth on revenue.


Revenue effect of growth


Revenue effect of
growth component = (Actual units of output sold in the current period – Actual units of output
sold in the last period) × Selling price in the last period.

Maintaining the selling price of the last period isolates the increase in revenue resulting from the change in units sold.

Cost effect of growth

Cost effect of growthcomponent  = (Actual units of input or capacity that would have
used to produce current period output assuming the same input-output relationship that existed in the last period  – Actual units of input or capacity to produce the last period output)  × Input prices
in the last period


Maintaining the input-output relationship in the last period input prices isolates the increase in cost resulting from the growth in sales between the last period and the current period. Since fixed costs do not change, variable direct-material costs are isolated from fixed costs (including conversion and R&D costs). This approach assumes that the company is still operating within its relevant range.


Price-recovery component

The price-recovery component of operating income measures the change in revenues and the change in costs to produce the given level of current output resulting from the change, assuming the relationship of input output remains constant. This isolates the change in revenue due solely to the change in selling price.

Revenue effect of price recovery

Revenue effect of product
differentiation component = (Selling price in the current period – Selling price in the last period) ×
Actual units of output sold in the current period

Cost effect of price recovery

This component focuses on the effect of changes in prices of input and also incorporates changes in fixed costs or conversion costs.
Cost effect of  product differentiation component
 = (Input prices in the current period  – Input prices in the last period)  ×
(Actual units of inputs or capacity that would have been used to produce in the current period output
assuming the same input-output relationship that existed in the last period)

Productivity component

The productivity component analysis uses current-year prices to isolate the change in costs between the current and past year caused solely by the changes in quantities, mix, and capacity of inputs.

Productivity/cost leadership component =
(Actual units of input or capacity to produce the current period input
 – Actual units of inputs or capacity that would have been used to produce the current period output assuming the same input-output relationship that existed in the last period)
 × (Current period prices)

Conclusion
Companies that have chosen a cost-leadership strategy would be more likely to focus on productivity and growth components, while companies following a differentiation strategy would see more changes in price recovery and growth components.


Strategic Analysis of Operating Income - Part 1
____________________

____________________
Startup Tech Asia

Strategic Analysis of Operating Income - Part 2
____________________


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Startup Tech Asia


Updated  2 May 2016, 8 Dec 2011

Cost Information and Analysis for Capital Budgeting




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Jane the Accountant

Cost Information for Transfer Pricing




The  "transfer price" is the amount charged by one segment of an organization for a product or service that it supplies to another segment of the same organization. The economic reason for charging transfer prices is
to be able to evaluate the performance of the group entities concerned. By charging prices for goods and services transferred within a group, managers of group entities are able to make the best possible decision as to whether to buy or sell goods and services inside or outside the group. About half of the major groups in the world transfer goods and services internally on the basis of a cost-oriented system. Some MNEs use only variable costs, other full costs, and still other use full costs plus a profit mark up (cost-plus method). Some use standard costs, other actual costs.


When  there is a competitive open market for the products or services transferred internally, an alternative method is to use the market price as a transfer price. The market price may be derived from published price lists for similar products and services (external market price) or it may be the price charged by a group entity to its external customers (internal market price). Sometimes, the transfer may take place  in an earlier stage of production instead of as marketable unit. In this case,  by subtracting costs and a reasonable profit of the last internal stage from market price, tansfer price can be determined.

Apart from the cost-based methods and transfer prices based on open market prices, a third way is negotiation among group entities  like independent parties. The transfer price resulting from such
negotiations is equally acceptable from a business economics point of view.

THE ARM'S LENGTH PRINCIPLE

Prices set for transactions between group entities should - for tax purposes - be derived from prices which would have been applied by unrelated parties in similar transactions under similar conditions in the open market.

This is the so-called "dealing at arm's length" principle, which is the international standard for transfer pricing matters.






PRACTICE AMONG MNEs

In 1992 the International Bureau of Fiscal Documentation sent a questionnaire on the use of transfer pricing methods to about 150 large MNEs in 20 countries.
Seventy answers from 12 countries provided useful information.
Main sectors of activity were: oil and chemicals, electronics, finance, forestry, metals, pharmaceuticals, retailing and textiles.

Per country the following pattern appears:
Belgium:
Germany:
large majority uses cost-plus/resale price,
goods and services: if CUP is available it is used, but nevertheless the majority applies cost-plus or
resale price;
intangibles: majority applies CUP.

CUP: Comparable Uncontrolled Price


Netherlands;
goods and services: almost all use cost plus or
resale price;
intangibles: great majority use cost-plus/resale
price, some CUP or mixed methods.

Sweden: majority applies CUP.
Switzerland:
large majority use cost-plus/resale price,

U.K. : goods: some CUP, other cost-plus/resale minus;
services: cost-plus;
intangibles: CUP.

U.S.A.:
goods and services: a clear majority applies costplus/resale
price;
intangibles: equally divided over CUP, cost-plus
and other methods.

The surevey reveals a clear dominance of the cost-plus and resale price methods in the case of goods and services. CUP is better represented with respect to intangibles. Some respondents indicated that internal CUPs were used: prices charged by group members to non-related clients.

Reference
http://archivo.cepal.org/pdfs/1995/S9500513.pdf

Updated 2 May 2016, 8 Dec 2011