December 10, 2018

Supply Chain Management Under Industry 4.0 - Paper Summaries

What does industry 4.0 mean to supply chain?

Introduction: This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the impact of Industry 4.0 on SCM and aims to provide a thought towards Supply Chain 4.0. The scope of the analysis has been intentionally limited to include only four functions within a supply chain, i.e. procurement, transport logistics, warehouse and order fulfilment. This is presented with respect to the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) of the SCM. It is hoped that the current output will open up future pathways to draw the bigger picture and thus conduct a fuller analysis of these impacts.

Research Method: The research method for this paper is based on review of researcg papers with SCM focus. SCM components and KPIs for each of the components were identified for better understanding of SCM and then the impacts of the changes in technology on each KPI were analysed. The opportunities and threats exhibited in each of the technologies for each of the KPIs were then discussed by linking them with each area of the SCM under study. KPIs are defined in order to obtain quantifiable measures to compare if there are changes over time. The identification of these KPIs is, however, rather complicated because there are no clear boundaries between the levers (buy, storage, sell, move).

 “Buy” lever :  The performance parameters are, for instance: quality standard for the raw materials, reject rate, service level, order accuracy etc.

“Store”:  The performance parameters selected are for instance truck time at the dock, accurate receipts received, time from receiving to pick location, labor hours consumed per order, time from picked order to departure, etc.

“Move” : The KPIs to be analyzed are for instance: truckload capacity, turnaround time, shipment visibility, on-time pickups, on-time delivery, etc.

“Sell”: The KPIs selected are for instance: product availability, customer experience, response time, time to market, etc.

Results and Discussion: The results were created for technologies affecting each KPI, if a technology is affecting KPI then reason behind it is mentioned in form of template. Technology affecting KPIs in warehouse and transportation logistics were presented in form of template. The opportunities and threats with respect to industry 4.0 technologies were also presented in form of template. The aim of this paper is to fill the gap in the implementation of technologies involved in Industry 4.0 within the supply chain, particularly the warehouse, transport logistics, procurement and fulfilment functions. Through the analysis performed, the results showed that the areas which will be most affected by the introduction of Industry 4.0 are the order fulfilment and transport logistics.   Finally, within the procurement function, Industry 4.0 shows 71.43% of opportunities, the remainder being opportunities or threats.

Conclusion: From the analysis performed, it can be seen that the implementation of certain technologies, such as virtual and augmented realities, 3D-Printing and simulation, results will all result in opportunities. On the other hand, big data analytics, cloud technology, cyber security, the IoT, miniaturization of electronics, AIDC, RFID, robotics, drones and nanotechnology, M2M and BI could be opportunities or threats for the organizations. The fact that some technologies can result in both of opportunities and threats is because all the different areas are interconnected, with no clear boundaries between them, depending on where it was analyzed, it could have a positive or negative connotation. The most relevant benefits are increased flexibility, quality standards, efficiency and productivity. This will enable mass customization, allowing companies to meet customers’ demands, creating value through constantly introducing new products and services to the market.

Limitation and future scope: Author calls for empirical research in this area. Due to the fact that the implementation of these technologies will be accompanied by a new environment where people work with machines, he believes that legal aspects, liabilities, insurance and ethics should be considered. The work should be continued with some empirical work and assessment of how companies should digitally integrate their supply chain with real implementation and data.

Summarised  by Kirti Nayal, 1806007 Fellow Research Scholar  2018 Batch

December 1, 2018

Compassion and Leadership

Compassion is a foundational aspect of leadership. Compassionate leaders appear to have stronger and have more engaged followers. Organizations with more compassionate leaders have better collaboration, lower turnover, and employees who are more trusting, more connected to each other, and more committed to the company.

What is compassion?
It is the intent to contribute to the happiness and well-being of others. A compassionate leader has a genuine interest in seeing their people not just perform and increase profits but thrive.

Compassionate leadership requires having wisdom about how to lead for the greater good and for the long term.
Assessment: Are You a Compassionate Leader?
Rasmus HougaardJacqueline CarterJason Beck
MAY 15, 2018

Compassion is one of the three Servant Leadership “C’s”: Compassion, Character and Competence.

Compassion has many explanations. One explanation is that it is a characteristic or trait that makes a person provide comfort to others.

When leaders and managers are compassionate there is comfort all round in the group or the organization.

Managers can exhibit behaviors at either end of the spectrum on any behavior type. On a voluntary basis majority of the people will choose compassionate persons as their leaders.

Three Servant Leadership “C’s”: Compassion, Character and Competence

Part II: Compassion, Character, Competence Tips, for building a servant leadership environment of trust.

More references

Wikipedia Article on Compassion

All religions term compassion as important virtue.

In the Muslim tradition, foremost among God's attributes are mercy and compassion or, in the canonical language of Arabic, Rahman and Rahim. Each of the 114 chapters of the Quran, with one exception, begins with the verse, "In the name of Allah the Compassionate, the Merciful."

Updated 2 December 2018
First published 27 November 2018

Industry 4.0 Bibliographies - Smart Products, Processes, Organizations and Management Areas - Bibliographies

An attempt is being to develop a bibliography network that will provide references to 100,000 articles, books, blog posts, consultant reports and surveys,  white papers, research theses and papers.

Industry 4.0 Bibliographies - Smart Products and Processes Bibliographies

Agriculture 4.0

Animal Husbandry



Engineering 4.0

  • Architecture
  • Automobile Engineering
  • Biotechnology
  • Civil Engineering
  • Communications Engineering
  • Computer Engineering
  • Construction Engineering
  • Diary Engineering
  • Electrical Engineering
  • Electronics Engineering
  • Industrial Engineering
  • Information Technology
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Mining Engineering
  • Production Engineering
  • Sound Engineering
  • Textile Engineering






Industry 4.0

  • Industry 4.0 - Adoption

  • Industry 4.0 - Consultant Reports

  • Industry 4.0 - Employment Issues

  • Industry 4.0 - Government Regulations

  • Industry 4.0 - Implementation Road Map

  • Industry 4.0 - Productivity

  • Industry 4.0 - SMEs

  • Industry 4.0 - Use Cases and Applications


Management Areas

Construction Management
Information Systems
Supply Chain



Smart Products - Design, Manufacturing, Marketing

Smart Products - Various Products

Smart Cities

Technologies for Industry 4.0

  • a) Autonomous Robots,
  • b) Simulations and Forecasting Techniques
  • c) Vertical/Horizontal Software Integration
  • d) Industrial Internet of Things – IoT
  • e) Direct communication between machines
  • f) Internet of Services
  • g) Big data and analytics
  • h) Innovative methods of collecting and processing large amounts of data, including
  • the use of potential activities in the cloud (Clouds)
  • i) Additive Manufacturing
  • j) Augmented Reality – AR
  • k) Virtual Reality – VR
  • l) Cyber-Physical Systems – CPS
  • m) Digital Twin
  • n) Artificial Intelligence,
  • o) Neural Networks
  • p) Cybersecurity
  • q) Mass Customization

University 4.0

Management of Industry 4.0 Transformation - 2018 - Bulletin Board


December 2018

Technological Developments in Industry 4.0 for Business Applications
Google Book Link, 2018 Book

November 2018

What Will Spark The Blockchain Explosion?

Research firm IDC predicts that worldwide spending on blockchain solutions will reach $2.1 billion in 2018—more than double the $945 million spent in 2017—and will reach $9.2 billion in 2021.


Magnetic Sensors Market Estimated To Grow USD 4,680.3 Million by 2026

January - News, Events and Information

Drivers That  Facilitate Transition to Industry 4.0 Production Systems at National Level
Industry 4.0 - IIoT Technology - Industrial Engineering - Productivity Science

Industrial Engineering 4.0 - IE in the Era of Industry 4.0 - Blog Book

Industry 4.0 - A Note for Industrial Engineers for Industrial Engineering 4.0 (IE 4.0)

Autonomous Robots - A Note for Industrial Engineers for Industrial Engineering 4.0 (IE 4.0)

Book Information

Enhancing Knowledge Discovery and Innovation in the Digital Era

Lytras, Miltiadis D., Daniela, Linda, Visvizi, Anna
IGI Global, 19-Jan-2018 - Education - 363 pages

With the dawn of electronic databases, information technologies, and the Internet, organizations, now more than ever, have easy access to all the knowledge they need to conduct their business. However, utilizing and detecting the beneficial information can pose as a challenge.

Enhancing Knowledge Discovery and Innovation in the Digital Era is a vibrant reference source on the latest research on student education, open information, technology enhanced learning (TEL), and student outcomes. Featuring widespread coverage across a range of applicable perspectives and topics, such as engineering education, data mining, and 3D printing, this book is ideally designed for professionals, upper-level students, and academics seeking current research on knowledge management and innovation networks.


Advancing Industry 4.0 with AI and IoT - IBM Watson Presentation

IBM Watson Internet of Things October 2017


The Fourth Industrial Revolution
Klaus Schwab
Penguin UK, 03-Jan-2017 - Business & Economics - 192 pages

The founder and executive chairman of the World Economic Forum on how the impending technological revolution will change our lives

We are on the brink of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. And this one will be unlike any other in human history.

Characterized by new technologies fusing the physical, digital and biological worlds, the Fourth Industrial Revolution will impact all disciplines, economies and industries - and it will do so at an unprecedented rate. World Economic Forum data predicts that by 2025 we will see: commercial use of nanomaterials 200 times stronger than steel and a million times thinner than human hair; the first transplant of a 3D-printed liver; 10% of all cars on US roads being driverless; and much more besides.

In The Fourth Industrial Revolution, Schwab outlines the key technologies driving this revolution, discusses the major impacts on governments, businesses, civil society and individuals, and offers bold ideas for what can be done to shape a better future for all.

Updated 2018 - 2 December 2018,  19 November 2018,  16 September 2018, 27 January 2018, 19 January 2018

November 21, 2018

Leadership - Koontz and O'Donnell - Review Notes

Basic Theories of Leadership - from OB Books

4th Edition of Koontz and O'Donnell

Along with motivation and communication activities, leadership is a means of directing.

Carter identifies five approaches to leadership definition:
(1) polarization of members of a group around some central person.
(2) the person able to direct a group toward its goals
(3) the person selected by group members to lead them
(4) the person able to move a group along a specific dimension, such as sociability or integration and
(5) the person possessing certain behavior.

Groups require a common sense of authority. According to Bronislaw Malinowski, authority means the privilege and the duty of making decisions, of pronouncing in cases of dispute or disagreement, and also the power of enforcing such decisions. Authority is the very essence of social organization.

A leader is given authority by his group. They accept him voluntarily as the common center of authority.

People also seem to require frequent reminders of group goals to overcome forgetfulness and indifference. The leaders have long view and foresight to overcome boredom and limited vision.

Leadership is the ability of a manager or in general a person to induce subordinates (followers) to work with confidence and zeal. Zeal reflects ardor, earnestness, and intensity in the execution of assignments; confidence reflects experience and technical ability.

No doubt subordinates of a manager are driven by the need for a job and income. If they are guided only by rules and requirements enforced by the organization structure through managerial authority, they tend to work at abut 60 or 65 per cent of capacity. To raise output toward total capacity, the manager must induce zealous response on the part of subordinates by exercising leadership. He does this based on the needs of subordinates, especially their ego and self-development needs.

The sociological view of leadership:

Selznick is an important contributor.
The leader has the task of building goals and policies into the social structure of the enterprise.

Confidence Building

The confidence exhibited by a subordinate manager rests upon the quality of his knowledge and his sense of security.

Orientation of a subordinate comes first. Second is follow up supervision. Third is providing job security to the subordinate.

Zeal Building

Koontz and O'Donnell write that zeal building escapes scientific analysis. They provide two idea for this activity.

1. Inspiration

2. Stregthening personal qualities


From a different edition

The essence of leadership is followship.

A person has to attract followers to become a leader and practice leadership.

Koontz and O'Donnell defined leadership as influence, that is, the art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically toward the achievement of group goals.


Presentation Based on Recent HBR Article and a Book

Be selfless - Be compassionate
Become Better Leader – Human Relations First Perspective

Compassion is the intention to bring happiness to others.


Book - The Mind  of the Leader

“The Mind of the Leader”, is published by Harvard Business Publishing
Rasmus Hougaard, M.A., Jacqueline Carter, M.Sc. and Vince Brewerton


Based on extensive research, including assessments of more than 35,000 leaders and interviews with 250 C-level executives, “The Mind of the Leader” concludes that organizations and leaders aren’t meeting employees’ basic human needs of finding meaning, purpose, connection, and genuine happiness in their work.

 “The Mind of the Leader” offers a  practical solution and helps  managers and executives to lead with three core mental qualities: Mindfulness, Selflessness, and Compassion.

With real world inspirational examples from Marriott, Accenture, McKinsey & Company, LinkedIn, and many more, “The Mind of the Leader” illustrates  this new kind of leadership. It represents a radical redefinition of what it takes to be an effective leader – and a practical, hard-nosed solution to every organization’s engagement and execution problem.


Updated 2018 - 22 November 2018,  8 February
10 Feb 2015, 11 Dec 2011

Theories of Leadership

The article describes various

Leadership theories briefly.

In leadership theory, three studies are considered as seminal and important. In Iowa leadership studies, authoritarian, democratic and laissez-faire leadership concepts were proposed and investigated for their effect on aggressive and apathetic behavior on the part of followers. Laissez-faire approach resulted in more aggressive behavior, authoritarian style resulted in more apathetic behavior and democratic style was in between the two.

In Ohio leadership studies, a questionaire was used  on air force commanders and members of bomber crews as well as other leaders and the responses were subjected to factor analysis. Two factors emerged out of the analysis and were given the names of consideration and initiating structure.  They became more popular as task orientation and people orientation.

In Michigan studies, 12 pairs of high-producing and low-producing sections of an insurance company were studied. The conclusion was that high-producing sections were supervised in a general rather than close supervisory style and supervisors were people centered. In the case of low-producing section, the supervision was more close and task oriented.

The presently identified theories of leadership have their genesis in these studies in identifying the determinants of leadership and effective leadership.

Theories of leadership are provided in two categories: Traditional and modern.

Traditional theories are: 1. Trail theory 2. Exchange theory 3. Contingency theory 4. Path goal theory.

Trait Theories of Leadership:

Trait theories identify traits or characteristics that help in leadership.

Leaders were more intelligent than the average of the group being led, but, interestingly, the leader is not the most intelligent of the group.

Emotion quotient (EQ) characteristics such as empathy, graciousness, optimism, and being able to read the nonverbal cues in social situation are associated with effective leaders. The leader should be able to assess himself as an able person (Self efficacy).

From trait theory, this approach moved towards skills theory.

From the trait theories, a list of skills categorized as technical, conceptual and human skills needed for effective management or leadership are specified. Yukl further identified that skills such as creativity, organizing ability, persuasiveness, diplomacy and tactfulness, knowledge of the task, and the ability to speak well contribute to leader success.

Competencies is another version of trait theory.

In the language of competencies, the following competencies were identified as having a relation to leadership effectiveness.

1. Drive, or the inner motivation to pursue goals (achievement motivation).

2. Leadership motivation - the use of socialized power to influence others to succeed.

3. Integrity, the idea includes truthfulness and the will to translate words into deeds.

4. Self-confidence exhibited through impression management

5. Leading others to feel confident.

6. Intelligence – ability to process information, analyze alternatives, and discover opportunities.

7. Knowledge of the business – ideas relevant to the business are initiated.

8. Emotional Intelligence: self-monitoring personality, ability to adapt to circumstances as needed.

_____________ _____________ 

 Exchange and Group Theories of Leadership

According to this group of theories, a leader provides more benefits/rewards than burdens/costs for followers.

In a group, members make contributions at a cost to themselves and receive benefits at a cost to the group or other members. Interaction continues because members find the social exchange mutually rewarding.

(If every member of the group has to get more reward than his personal cost, the group must have synergy. The individual contributions result in bigger output due to the synergy)

In this group of theories, some analyzed the relationship between leader and the followers as one consisting of dyads, leader and each follower.  One idea that emerged from this thinking  is that leader behavior changes with subordinate behavior. When subordinates are not performing very well, leaders tend to emphasize the task and initiate structure to improve the performance. With subordinates who are doing a good job, consideration to people becomes the dominant behavior.

Some scholars in this group, emphasize the role of subordinates and this means subordinates have to be trained to be good followers so that group comes out successful. Followers have to support the leader and make leader look good.

Another aspect of leadership brought out by this line of theory is that subordinates who are committed and who expend a lot of effort for the unit are rewarded with more of the leader’s potential resources than those who do not display these behaviors. “Thus over a time the leader develops an “in-group” and an “out-group” of subordinates and these two groups are treated in different ways. The in-group reports fewer difficulties in their relationship with the leader and the out-group people have more complaints and grievances.

In this line of thought is also the idea, perceived similarity between the leader and the subordinate leads to higher quality leader-subordinate relationship.

In another dimension of this theory, it is stated that leaders try to change the self concept of the subordinate to improve the performance of the subordinate. At the same time subordinates also shape leader’s self concept or self schema through their responses.

Contingency Theory of Leadership

Fred Fiedler, presented a rigorous version of contingency theory wherein situation plays a part in leadership process.

Fiedler described the favorableness of a situation using three dimensions.

1. The leader-member relationship – cordial or opposing

2. The degree of task structure at hand – structured or unstructured

3. Leader’s position power – Formal authority of the leader

Fiedler found that when situation is very favorable or unfavorable, authoritarian leadership style delivered better results. When the situation is moderately favorable or unfavorable, human oriented or democratic leadership delivered better results. As in majority of the case, the situation will be in the middle ground, democratic leadership style is the more popular and appropriate style. 

Fiedler also came out with cognitive resource theory (CRT) of leadership. According to CRT

1. More intelligent leaders develop better plans, decisions, and action strategies than less intelligent leaders.

2. Intelligence contributes more strongly to group performance if the leader is directive and the group members are motivated and supportive of the leader.

3. Interpersonal stress distracts the leader from the task and the leader’s intelligence will contribute more highly if the leader has relatively stress-free relationship with superiors and subordinates.

Path-Goal Leadership Theory

According to this theory leaders have to understand the goals of the followers and prescribe a path that promises the fulfillment of goals to the followers.

The theory asserts that leader behavior will be acceptable to followers to the extent that the followers see such behavior as either an immediate source of satisfaction or as instrumental to future satisfaction.

Leadership behavior will be motivational and increase the effort of the followers to the extent that (1) it makes satisfaction of follower needs contingent on effective performance of the tasks planned by the leader and (2) it complements the environment of subordinates by providing the coaching, guidance, support, and rewards which are necessary for effective performance and which may otherwise be lacking in subordinates or in their environment.

Leaders can exhibit the following types of behavior as they feel appropriate to a situation. Same person can exhibit all the behaviors as appropriate.

1. Directive leadership: Leader decides the path and directs the followers.

2. Supportive leadership: Leaders friendly.

3. Participative leadership: Leader asks for and uses suggestions of followers.

4. Achievement oriented leadership: Leader sets challenging goals and shows confidence that followers will attain those challenging goals.

The activities of leader can be explained in the following steps.

1. Recognizing and arousing followers’ needs for outcomes over which the leader has some control.

2. Increasing the personal payoffs to followers for task accomplishment. This could mean providing payoffs which the follower desires.

3. Making the path to those payoffs (goals - *path-goal theory) easier to travel by coaching and direction.

4. Helping followers clarify their expectations.

5. Reducing frustrating barriers.

6. Increasing opportunities for personal satisfaction contingent on effective performance.

Path goal theory focuses on two aspects, goals of the subordinates and the path that is to be traveled for achieving those goals. Leader has to contribute to both of them or either of them at any point in time to be the leader.

Modern Theories

Charismatic Leadership Theories

Robert House suggested that charismatic leaders are characterized by self confidence and confidence in subordinates, high expectations for subordinates, ideological vision, and the use of personal examples. Followers identify with leader and his mission, exhibit extreme loyalty to and confidence in the leader, emulate leader’s values and behavior, and derive self esteem from their relationship with the leader. The leaders foster attitudinal, behavioral and emotional changes in their followers. Charismatic leaders produce performance in followers beyond expectations.

Transformational Leadership Theory

Transactional leadership involves an exchange relationship and can be interpreted as guiding followers to produce according to their values, beliefs.

Transformational leaders shift the values, beliefs and even needs of their followers. Transformation leaders help their organization and followers deliver an output that is far better or higher than than the historical trend based estimated output.

Transformational leaders have the following characteristics

1. They identify themselves as change agents.

2. They are courageous.

3. They believe in people.

4. They are value driven

5. They are life long learners.

6. They have the ability to deal with complexity, ambiguity and uncertainty.
7. They are visionaries (have grand plans).

Social Cognitive Approach to Leadership

The cognitive approach emphasizes understanding. A leader has to understand himself, his needs, and his behavior and also has to understand the environment that includes followers, their needs and behaviors. Leadership is coming out with plans and actions that are acceptable to followers and achieve the objectives of the group.

The steps in this approach can be described as:

1. The leader identifies the environmental variables that control his behavior.

2. The leader spares his time to work with the subordinate to discover the personalized set of environmental contingencies that regulate the subordinate’s behavior.

3. The leader and subordinate jointly attempt to discover ways in which they can manage their individual behavior to produce more mutually reinforcing and organizationally productive outcomes.
4. The leader enhances the efficacy of subordinates through setting up successful experiences (coaching), modeling, positive feedback, and persuasion, and psychological and physiological arousal. The increased efficacy leads to performance improvement. The success of the subordinates can in turn lead to leadership efficacy through the increased confidence in leader as well as appropriate subordinate behavior to reward his leader.

Video - Keith Blanchard on Leadership

___________ ___________ 

 Conclusions that Emerge from Synthesis of Theories

Leadership theories are not mutually exclusive. Each theory to an extent supplements or complements other theories. Leaders are better individuals in various traits compared to average followers. Leaders have to provide value to followers. Their effectiveness does not depend only on their traits and performance. The behavior of followers is also an important variable in determining the outcome of the organization. Hence group responsibility needs to be stressed to attain the outcomes or objectives of the group rather the role of leader alone. Leaders have to be coaches and they have to take interest in developing their subordinates' capabilities.

Reference and Source

Luthans, Fred, Organizational Behavior

Bibliography on Leadership

Leadership Theories - Bibliography

Related Articles

Leadership - Koontz and O'Donnell - Review Notes  - Points on leadership given in principles of management book

Leadership Styles, Roles, Activities, Skills and Development
Cognitive Resources Theory of Leadership
The concepts of Leadership and Management
Changing Leadership Style
Successful Leadership - Effective Leadership
Social and Emotional Intelligence for Effective Leadership

Leadership Themes

Authentic Leadership
Servant Leadership - An Explanation
Team Leadership
Leadership Roles - The Concept

Video - Lecture on Leadership
_____________ _____________

 Originally published on Knol theories-of-leadership
Knol Number 25
Updated 22 November 2018,   23.2.2012, 12 May 2011

Management Articles and Concepts Directory

November 18, 2018

Servant Leadership and Other Leadership Philosophy Models

Interesting Article

'Servant Leadership' and How Its 6 Main Principles Can Boost the Success of Your Startup

Thomas Smale
Founder of FE International
January 24, 2018

Robert Greenleaf's influential 1970 essay "The Servant As Leader" in 1970.
Adam Grant, professor at the Wharton School of Business, wrote in his  book Give and Take that research shows servant leaders are more productive and more highly regarded by employees. Servant leadership has also been implemented by incredibly successful companies like Whole Foods, UPS and Ritz Carlton.

What are servant leadership's main principles?
Six, identified by author-writer Larry Spears (who established a center on servant leadership),

1. Empathy
2. Awareness
3. Building community
Leader or the organization as a community builder.
Leader (say CEO) builds a community where both employees and customers can thrive (generalized into all stakeholders).
4. Persuasion
5. Conceptualization
6. Growth

Spears' (1998) 10 characteristics of servant leadership are (a) listening, (b) empathy, (c) healing, (d) awareness, (e) persuasion, (f) conceptualization, (g) foresight, (h) stewardship, (i) commitment, and (j) community building. Spears (1998) argued that servant leadership is tied to the character exhibited by leaders in their essential traits.

 Laub (1999), did a Delphi study. In the Delphi process, 60 characteristics of servant leaders were identified and eventually clustered into six key areas: (a) valuing people, (b) developing people, (c) building community, (d) displaying authenticity, (e) providing leadership, and (f) sharing leadership. For Laub (1999), these are the essential behaviors that characterize what servant leaders do and they answer to how servant leaders place the good of those led over their own self-interest.

Patterson's (2003) model of servant leadership includes the following dimensions as the essential characteristics of servant leadership: (a) agapáo love, (b) humility, (c) altruism, (d) vision, (e) trust, (f) empowerment, and (g) service.

Thus Spears' (1998) model of servant leadership focuses primarily on the character exhibited by servant leaders and Laub's (1999) model focuses primarily on the behaviors of servant leaders, Patterson's (2003) model provides includes both the dimensions of character and behavior.

Servant versus Self-Sacrificial Leadership: A Behavioral Comparison of Two Follower-Oriented Leadership Theories

Jeffrey A. Matteson
Regent University

Justin A. Irving
Bethel University

International Journal of Leadership Studies, Volume 2, Issue 1
An online refereed journal sponsored by
Regent University, School of Business & Leadership
1333 Regent University Drive, Virginia Beach, VA 23464

Servant Leadership and Other Models of Leadership  (Adopted essay) - Reference needs to be given

There are measures in place to assess servant leadership. It  is important first to  to understand how it differs from other models.

There have been a multitude of other leadership philosophies, ideas and theories.

Dirk van Dierendonck (2011) noted that servant leadership could be compared to seven other leadership theories: transformational leadership, authentic leadership, ethical leadership, Level 5 leadership, empowering leadership, spiritual leadership, and self-sacrificing leadership.

Transformational Leadership.

Components of a transformational leader are idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration (Varol & Varol, 2012). The transformational leader shows concern for the follower, but does not place an emphasis on serving the follower (Stone, Russell, and Patterson, 2003). In a study conducted by Parolini, Patterson, and Winston (2009), over 500 people in various organizations ranging  from churches and non-profits to corporations and academic institutions. The  study revealed  that the perceived difference between  transformational leaders and servant leaders was the focus on the needs of the individuals instead of the organization. 

Authentic Leadership.

Authentic leadership  grew in popularity with Bob George’s book, Authentic Leadership (2003). Both servant leadership and authentic leadership place a strong value in serving and empowering others. These philosophies focus on establishing relationships with people and rely on follower’s strengths instead of weaknesses (Nayab, 2010; Ladkin & Taylor, 2010; Politis, 2013). The difference between the two styles is the approach. Servant leaders want to do what is right, while authentic leaders are more concerned with being real (Nayab, 2010f; Avolio &Gardener, 2005). There are lists of characteristics for servant leadership that mold the leader in his journey. Authentic leadership does not have a set of attributes specified so far. There are two attributes that Van Dierendock (2011) discussed as an overlap in these philosophies: authenticity and humility.

Ethical Leadership.

Ethical leadership is a normative approach to leading others. The philosophy, according to Brown, Trevino, and Harrison (2005), stresses a standardized viewpoint of appropriate behavior in both actions and relationships. Servant leadership shares many attributes with ethical leadership such as caring for people, trust, integrity, and serving others (Dierendonck, 2011), but they differ from a developmental aspect. Ethical leadership focuses on the correct actions and directives of the leader within the organization, not so much how individuals can meet their goals personally (Brown, et al, 2005). There are three characteristics that these two styles do not share: authenticity, interpersonal acceptance, and providing direction (Dierendonck, 2011).

Level 5 Leadership.

In Jim Collins’ seminal work, Good to Great, he outlined his five levels in his hierarchy of leadership capabilities (2001). The levels are Executive, Effective Leader, Competent Manager, Contributing Team Member, and Highly Capable Individual. The highest level in the hierarchy identifies a leader who represents a balance of humility and professional will, which incorporates sound business results and vision for the future. The lowest level leader uses his talent, knowledge, and skills to make contributions to the organization (2001). The qualities at level 5 overlap with two servant leadership characteristics: humility and providing direction (Dierendonck, 2011). A major factor is the creation on the Level 5 Leadership model was shareholder value in terms of stock value, which is a major difference between this style and servant leadership. Three attributes missing from Level 5 that are seen in servant leadership are authenticity, interpersonal acceptance, and stewardship.

Empowering Leadership.

Empowering leadership is a leadership style grounded in social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986) and the core attribute is the employee’s perspective and the leader’s actions (Dierendonck, 2011) to involve others. Self-direction and self-motivation are also key concepts for this philosophy according to Pearce and Sims (2002). There are obvious overlapping traits between servant leadership and empowering leadership. Servant leadership can be thought of  as an elaboration of empowering leadership. When addressing the additional five servant leadership characteristics of Dierendonck’s research of humility, authenticity, interpersonal acceptance, providing direction and stewardship, there is not an overt connection but an indirect expansion of all the traits (2011). The philosophy of servant leadership goes beyond the foundational ideas of this leadership type and encompasses a larger set of traits.

Spiritual Leadership.

Spiritual leadership and servant leadership share the goal to make one’s work meaningful and maximize followers’ strengths (Dierendonck, 2011). The framework of spiritual leadership combines the employee’s experiences with self-transcendence, community, and meaning in a workplace. The leadership style recognizes the experiences can be found in the employee’s organization (Pawar, 2008). The issue is a lack of behaviors associated with this philosophy because most of the research is built around the organization and not the leader (Dierendonck, 2011). There are similarities with the viewpoint of both types of leadership. Both encourage followers to find a sense of self through work and creating a community in the workplace (Fry, 2003). There is a more structured framework, which separates servant leadership from spiritual leadership (Fry et al, 2005).

Self-Sacrificing Leadership.

Charisma, legitimacy, and reciprocity are characteristics of a leader who subscribes to the self-sacrificing model (Choi & Mai-Dalton, 1999). Studies (De Cremer, 2006; De Cremer, Mayer, Schouten, & Bardes, 2009; Van Knippenberg & Van Knippenberg, 2005) reveal that these traits are indeed apparent with these types leaders. The followers of a self-sacrificing leader have a strong willingness to work together, motivated for pro-social behavior, and rate their leaders as effective (2005). Self-sacrificing leadership derives from transformational leadership and has a more organizational focus than a person focus (Matteson & Irving, 2005). The connection this style has with servant leadership is found with Greenleaf’s best test to make sure that those being lead also become servant-leaders themselves. Attributes they share are compassionate goals and supportive environment, but none of the six characteristics mentioned above are overlapping in this style.

All of the leadership models listed above have some similarities with servant leadership, but servant leadership also has unique attributes that allow it to stand on its own as a philosophy. We have to  understand the practical use of the characteristics and themes by studying organizations and situation. where servant leadership has been implemented.

Practice of  Servant Leadership

TD Industries is one of the first companies to actually practice servant leadership within a corporation (Spears, 2005). TD is based in Dallas, Texas and provides heating and plumbing contracts. The founder, Jack Lowe, Sr. read Greenleaf’s writings on the servant as leader and implemented managerial training in servant leadership as a result. Thirty years later, any employee at TD who supervises someone else must attend servant leader training. The fruit of the implementation for TD Industries has been a consistent spot on the Fortune magazine’s 100 Best Companies to Work for in America list (2005). From a corporate standpoint, TD does not stand alone in capitalizing on the benefit of servant leadership. Other large companies such as Synovus Financial, Southwest Airlines, and Popeye’s Louisiana Kitchen hold employee trainings and center their culture on servant leadership (2005).

Many companies that have been influenced in some way by servant leadership chose to focus more on the people that work for them as opposed to the “bottom line”.  These are corporations that make a concerted effort to be really good at what they do with an emphasis on relationship building, which is a characteristic of servant leadership.

Measurement of Servant leadership

Servant leadership has grown in popularity in the past five decades, but researchers have only been able to actually measure the term since around 2006. Measurement instruments such as Page and Wong’s Servant Leadership Profile (2000), Laub’s Organizational Leadership Assessment (2000), and Dennis and Bocarnea’s assessment instrument (2005) proved to be reliable in measuring different characteristics of a servant leader. These tools provide validity to the philosophy and established a foundation of reliability for future research. In an effort to conceptualize and measure the construct of servant leadership, Barbuto and Wheeler (2006) tested 11 dimensions of servant leadership to test “internal consistency, confirm factor structure, and assess convergent, divergent, and predictive validity” (p. 300). Many practical implications were derived from this study. It found a positive relationship between positive outcomes such as employee satisfaction and extra effort on their part. Additionally, the research showed a great infusion of emotional health, wisdom, and service-oriented attitudes (2006).


 Leader self-sacrifice and leadership effectiveness

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A Literature Review of Self-Sacrificial Leadership