January 18, 2019

Leadership - Subject Update


Making others better as a result of your presence, your communication, your direction, decision and action  are at the heart of leadership.

Leaders do not to have a lot of free time on their hands to spend with their followers. .

That’s where the 30-second activities become very useful. There’s a lot you can do in 30 seconds.

In 30 seconds you can a big impact.

You could…

Give 30 seconds of encouragement.

Give 30 seconds of conveying value of a team member. 

Give 30 seconds of acknowledgment.

Give 30 seconds of gratitude.

Give 30 seconds of praise.

Give 30 seconds to change their attitude. No matter what’s in their past, they can always become the best version of themselves.

When leaders acknowledge the role and contribution of team members,  leadership becomes memorable and impactful.



Be selfless - Be compassionate

Become Better Leader – Human Relations First Perspective



Leading So People Will Follow You - The six key behaviour related attributes

Far-sightedness, passion, courage, wisdom, generosity, and trustworthiness

Leadership Coach and Author: Lolly Daskal

Founder and CEO of Lead From Within. Her proprietary leadership program is based on a mix of modern philosophy, science, and nearly thirty years coaching top executives, Lolly’s perspective on leadership continues to break new ground and produce exceptional results.

Lolly was designated a:
Top-50 Leadership and Management Expert by Inc.com
100 Great Leadership Speakers for Your Next by Inc. magazine.
Huffington Post honored Lolly with the title of The Most Inspiring Woman in the World.
Her writing has appeared in HBR, Inc.com, Fast Company (Ask The Expert), Huffington Post,
and Psychology Today, and others.
Lolly Daskal’s new book, The Leadership Gap: What Gets Between You and Your Greatness is
a Wall Street Journal Bestseller.
Previous bestseller is Thoughts Spoken From the Heart

Recently circulated articles of Lolly Daskal

50 Forms of Dysfunction in the Workplace

61 Ways to Get Your Employees Super Engaged

JUN 15, 2018
In Leadership, Influence Is Not A Given
Michelle Braden

MSBCoach CEO, author of 3 leadership books, committed to inspire/challenge leaders, maximize engagement, and impact organizational success.

Servant Leadership for 21st Century



Leadership is not wielding authority; it's empowering others.

6 Mantras That Will Set You Apart as a Genuine Leader

To create the right climate, you need leadership, not GREEDership.



December 2017

If You Aspire to Be a Great Leader, Be Present
Rasmus Hougaard and Jacqueline Carter
HBR, DECEMBER 13, 2017

Nov 11, 2016 Accenture Veterans Day Keynote







The Potential Project Upload

August 2017

 Leadership Instincts: Listen, Amplify, Include
General Martin E. Dempsey
August 25, 2017

22 Qualities That Make a Great Leader

June 2017

The 10 (and a Half) Commandments of Leadership

10 Questions Great Bosses ask periodically

The Dynamics of 8 Different Styles of Leadership
April 11, 2017 - by  Paul E. Fein

Four Behaviors That Define Successful Leaders
Elena Lytkina Botelho

May 2017

45 Questions Every Leader Should Answer

By Frank Sonnenberg

Good Bosses Switch Between Two Leadership Styles

Jon Maner
Jon Maner is a professor of management and organizations at Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University.
DECEMBER 05, 2016, HBR Article

The two styles are termed Dominance and Prestige. They could have been termed Single Person Dominance (Lone Boxer) and Team Decision Making (Foot Ball Team).






Leadership Freak - A popular blog on leadership      https://leadershipfreak.blog/

What Great Managers Do Daily

Ryan Fuller & Nina Shikaloff
DECEMBER 14, 2016

Decoding Leadership: What really matters

Our most recent research, however, suggests that a small subset of leadership skills closely correlates with leadership success, particularly among frontline leaders. Using our own practical experience and searching the relevant academic literature, we came up with a comprehensive list of 20 distinct leadership traits. We did a survey and  found  that leaders in organizations with high-quality leadership teams typically displayed 4 of the 20 possible types of behavior; these 4, indeed, explained 89 percent of the variance between strong and weak organizations in terms of leadership effectiveness .

• Solving problems effectively: The process that precedes decision making is problem solving, when information is gathered, analyzed, and considered.

• Operating with a strong results orientation: Leadership is about not only developing and communicating a vision and setting objectives but also following through to achieve results. Leaders with a strong results orientation tend to emphasize the importance of efficiency and productivity and to prioritize the highest-value work.

• Seeking different perspectives: This trait is conspicuous in managers who monitor trends affecting organizations, grasp changes in the environment, encourage employees to contribute ideas that could improve performance, accurately differentiate between important and unimportant issues, and give the appropriate weight to stakeholder concerns. Leaders who do well on this dimension typically base their decisions on sound analysis and avoid the many biases to which decisions are prone.


The Art of Giving and Receiving Advice.

By: Garvin, David A.; Margolis, Joshua D. Harvard Business Review. Jan/Feb2015, Vol. 93 Issue 1/2, p60-71.

Seeking and giving advice are central to effective leadership and decision making, and they require emotional intelligence, self-awareness, restraint, diplomacy, and patience on both sides. In this article, the authors argue that they are practical skills one  can learn and apply to great effect. The most common obstacles to effectively seeking and giving advice are  thinking one already has the answers, defining the problem poorly, and overstepping boundaries.  They  offer practical guidelines for getting past them.

Five stages of advising are identified: (1) finding the right fit; (2) developing a shared understanding; (3) crafting alternatives; (4) converging on a decision; and (5) putting advice into action. Each stage includes suggestions for seekers and for advisers.

The Authenticity Paradox. 

By: Ibarra, Herminia. Harvard Business Review. Jan/Feb2015, Vol. 93 Issue 1/2, p52-59.

INSEAD professor Herminia Ibarra argues, a simplistic understanding of what authenticity means can limit leaders' growth and impact.  In this article, Ibarra explains how leaders can develop an "adaptively authentic" style.  It's OK to change tactics from one day to the next, she says by figuring  out what's right for the challenges and circumstances we face.



The Skills Leaders Need at Every Level

by Jack Zenger and Joseph Folkman
HBR Blog Post
16 Skills are listed in order of importance. Top 7 are said to be important.

1. Inspires and motivates others.
2. Displays high integrity and honesty
3. Solves problems and analyzes issues
4. Drives for results
5. Communicates powerfully and prolifically
6. Collaborates and promotes teamwork
7. Builds relationships

Leadership Development Beyond Competencies: Moving to a Holistic Approach
Marian N. Ruderman, Cathleen Klerkin, and Carol Connelly
Center for Creative Leadership - White Paper

Book review of Jane Dutton and Gretchen Spreitzer, How to Be a Positive Leader: Small Actions, Big Impact.



How to be a better boss?

Ask a person whether he wants to recommend his boss to his friends as the ideal boss to work under.

Knowledge@Wharton article
Social Technology and the Changing Context of Leadership
Social technology is changing the way leaders do conversations with their group members especially in large organizations. The article presents ideas on this issue

Sloan Management Review Article Spring, March 2012

How to Become a Better Leader

The article describes Big 5 Personality factors and use of them in developing oneself as a better leader.

Leadership Basic Articles

Organizational Behavior Articles

Theories of Leadership 
Cognitive Resources Theory of Leadership
Leadership Styles, Roles, Activities, Skills and Development

Principles of Management Articles

Updated  2019 - 19 January 2019,

2018 - 15 July 2018, 10 July 2018,  8 February,  28 January

22 December 2017,  22 August 2017,  24 June 2017,  6 June 2017,  29 May 2017,  22 February 2017, 6 December 2016, 12 October 2016, 10 December 2015

January 14, 2019

January - Management Knowledge Revision


 Management News

To take care of holidays during December - January revision articles are specified from third week only.

Frederick Taylor
Picture Source:

January 3rd Week  15th to 19th 

Development of Management Subject. Theory of Management developed over a long a period of time with periodic quantum jumps in thinking.
Scientific Management/Shop Management - F.W. Taylor Introduction

Principles of Industrial Engineering - Taylor - Narayana Rao - Derived from Principles of Scientific Management by F.W. Taylor



Taylor - Narayana Rao Principles of Industrial Engineering

Industrial Management and General Management - Henri Fayol
Importance of Human Relations in Management - Elton Mayo and Rothelisberger (Insights from Psychology)

Organization as a Social Group (Insights of Sociologists)
Mathematical Models and Their Optimization

Control of Variation in Inputs and Outputs (Insights from Statistics)
Systems Approach in Management

Business Conceptualization (Insights from Economics, Engineering Economics, Managerial Economics, Industrial Economics)
Peter Drucker - Business Organization - Economic Function - Social Responsibility

January 4th Week   22 to 26,  

Global and Comparative Management
Management: Definition and Process

Process and Functions of Management -

The Nature and Purpose of Planning - Review Notes
Objectives and Goals - Review Notes

Strategies, Policies, and Planning Premises - Review Notes
Business Firm and Society - The External Environment, Social Responsibility and Ethics - Review Notes

Decision Making - Review Notes  -
Summary - Principles of Planning

February Month Management  Knowledge Revision

One Year MBA Knowledge Revision Plan

Month                 Subjects

January      (Principles of Management)
February    (P.of M & Marketing Management ) 
March        (Mktg. Mgmt. & Operations Management)
April          (Supply Chain Management and Financial & Cost Accounting)

May          (Management Accounting & Organizational Behavior)
June          (Innovation, Industrial Engineering and Economics)
July           (Economics, Engineering Economics, & Managerial Ethics)
August      (Statistics, Quality and Six Sigma, OR & BRM)

September (HRM, Mentoring, Training, Project Management, Maintenance, Energy & Environment Management)
October     (Information Technology and Management Information Systems, Warehousing and Transport)
November (Strategic Management & Financial Management)
December (Business Laws, Negotiation, Taxes and Government Relations)

Industrial Engineers support Engineers and Managers in Efficiency Improvement of Products, Processes and Systems

Industrial Engineering - January Knowledge Revision

Updated 15 January 2019,  4 January 2018,   26 December 2016,  4 December 2016, 26 January 2016

December 27, 2018

Creativity Techniques - Individual and Group Based

Creativity is required in research, development, design, and improvement/maintenance.

Creativity is coming up with novel, appropriate solutions to problems/challenges/opportunities.

Creativity and Innovation Techniques

Idea generation: Creativity
Converting ideas into reality: Innovation

Creativity Techniques

Problem Definition - including problem analysis, redefinition, and all aspects associated with defining the problem clearly.
Idea Generation - The divergent process of coming up with ideas.
Idea Selection - The convergent process of reducing all the many ideas into realistic solutions
Idea Implementation - Turning the refined ideas in reality.

Processes - Schemes and techniques which look at the overall process from start to finish.

7 Step Model

Adaptive Reasoning
Advantages, Limitations and Unique Qualities
Algorithm of Inventive Problem Solving
Alternative Scenarios
Anonymous Voting
Assumption Busting
Assumption Surfacing
Attribute Listing


Backwards Forwards Planning
Boundary Examination
Boundary Relaxation
Bug Listing
Bunches of Bananas


Card Story Boards
Cartoon Story Board
Causal Mapping
Cherry Split
Circle of Opportunity
Circle Time
Classic Brainstorming
Cognitive Acceleration
Collective Notebook
Comparison tables
Component Detailing
Concept Fan
Consensus Mapping
Constrained BrainWriting
Contradiction Analysis
Controlling Imagery
Crawford Slip Writing
Creative Problem Solving - CPS
Criteria for idea-finding potential
Critical Path Diagrams


Decision seminar
Dialectical Approaches
Dimensional Analysis
Disney Creativity Strategy
Do Nothing


Escape Thinking
Essay Writing


Factors in selling ideas
False Faces
Fishbone Diagram
Five Ws and H
Flow charts
Focus Groups
Force-Field Analysis
Force-Fit Game
Free Association
Fresh eye


Gallery method
Gap Analysis
Goal Orientation
Greetings Cards


Heuristic Ideation Technique
Hexagon Modelling

Idea Advocate
Idea Box
Ideal Final Result
Imagery for Answering Questions
Imagery Manipulation
Imaginary Brainstorming
Implementation Checklists
Improved Nominal Group Technique
Interpretive structural modeling
Ishikawa Diagram

Keeping a Dream Diary
Kepner and Tregoe method

Lateral Thinking
Listing Pros and Cons

Metaplan Information Market
Mind Mapping
Morphological Analysis
Morphological Forced Connections
Multiple Redefinition

Negative Brainstorming
Nominal Group Technique
Nominal-Interacting Technique

Observer and Merged Viewpoints
Osborn's Checklist
Other Peoples Definitions
Other Peoples Viewpoints

Paired Comparison
Panel Consensus
Paraphrasing Key Words
Personal Balance Sheet
Pictures as Idea Triggers
Pin Cards
Plusses Potentials and Concerns
Potential Problem Analysis
Preliminary Questions
Problem Centred Leadership
Problem Inventory Analysis - PIA
Problem Reversal
Productive Thinking Model
Progressive Hurdles
Progressive Revelation

Quality Circles

Random Stimuli
Rawlinson Brainstorming
Receptivity to Ideas
Reciprocal Model
Reframing Values
Relational Words

Search Conference
Sequential-Attributes Matrix
Similarities and Differences
Simple Rating Methods
Six Thinking Hats
Slice and Dice
Snowball Technique
Soft Systems Method
Stakeholder Analysis
Sticking Dots
Stimulus Analysis
Story Writing
Strategic Assumption Testing
Strategic Choice Approach
Strategic Management Process
Successive Element Integration
SWOT Analysis
Systematic Inventive Thinking

Talking Pictures
Technology Monitoring
Think Tank
Transactional Planning
Trigger Method
Trigger Sessions
Tug of War

Unified Structured Inventive Thinking
Using Crazy Ideas
Using Experts

Value Brainstorming
Value Engineering
Visual Brainstorming
Visualising a Goal

Who Are You
Why Why Why
Working with Dreams and Images

Entries for many of the techniques are available in:

See the chapter on creativity from the book



Handbook of Research on Creative Problem-Solving Skill Development in Higher Education

Zhou, Chunfang
IGI Global, 21-Sep-2016 - Education - 632 pages

Developing students’ creative problem-solving skills is paramount to today’s teachers, due to the exponentially growing demand for cognitive plasticity and critical thinking in the workforce. In today’s knowledge economy, workers must be able to participate in creative dialogue and complex problem-solving. This has prompted institutions of higher education to implement new pedagogical methods such as problem-based and case-based education.

The Handbook of Research on Creative Problem-Solving Skill Development in Higher Education is an essential, comprehensive collection of the newest research in higher education, creativity, problem solving, and pedagogical design. It provides the framework for further research opportunities in these dynamic, necessary fields. Featuring work regarding problem-oriented curriculum and its applications and challenges, this book is essential for policy makers, teachers, researchers, administrators, students of education.


Technology for Creativity and Innovation: Tools, Techniques and Applications: Tools, Techniques and Applications

Mesquita, Anabela
IGI Global, 31-Mar-2011 - Technology & Engineering - 426 pages

It is widely accepted that organizations and individuals must be innovative and continually create new knowledge and ideas to deal with rapid change. Innovation plays an important role in not only the development of new business, process and products, but also in competitiveness and success of any organization.

Technology for Creativity and Innovation: Tools, Techniques and Applications provides empirical research findings and best practices on creativity and innovation in business, organizational, and social environments. It is written for educators, academics and professionals who want to improve their understanding of creativity and innovation as well as the role technology has in shaping this discipline.


Online Tools for Providing Inspiration and Creativity 

Journal of Visual Communication in Medicine
Volume 28, 2005 - Issue 1

Resources for Creativity Teaching

December 10, 2018

Supply Chain Management Under Industry 4.0 - Paper Summaries

What does industry 4.0 mean to supply chain?

Introduction: This paper presents a preliminary analysis of the impact of Industry 4.0 on SCM and aims to provide a thought towards Supply Chain 4.0. The scope of the analysis has been intentionally limited to include only four functions within a supply chain, i.e. procurement, transport logistics, warehouse and order fulfilment. This is presented with respect to the Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) of the SCM. It is hoped that the current output will open up future pathways to draw the bigger picture and thus conduct a fuller analysis of these impacts.

Research Method: The research method for this paper is based on review of researcg papers with SCM focus. SCM components and KPIs for each of the components were identified for better understanding of SCM and then the impacts of the changes in technology on each KPI were analysed. The opportunities and threats exhibited in each of the technologies for each of the KPIs were then discussed by linking them with each area of the SCM under study. KPIs are defined in order to obtain quantifiable measures to compare if there are changes over time. The identification of these KPIs is, however, rather complicated because there are no clear boundaries between the levers (buy, storage, sell, move).

 “Buy” lever :  The performance parameters are, for instance: quality standard for the raw materials, reject rate, service level, order accuracy etc.

“Store”:  The performance parameters selected are for instance truck time at the dock, accurate receipts received, time from receiving to pick location, labor hours consumed per order, time from picked order to departure, etc.

“Move” : The KPIs to be analyzed are for instance: truckload capacity, turnaround time, shipment visibility, on-time pickups, on-time delivery, etc.

“Sell”: The KPIs selected are for instance: product availability, customer experience, response time, time to market, etc.

Results and Discussion: The results were created for technologies affecting each KPI, if a technology is affecting KPI then reason behind it is mentioned in form of template. Technology affecting KPIs in warehouse and transportation logistics were presented in form of template. The opportunities and threats with respect to industry 4.0 technologies were also presented in form of template. The aim of this paper is to fill the gap in the implementation of technologies involved in Industry 4.0 within the supply chain, particularly the warehouse, transport logistics, procurement and fulfilment functions. Through the analysis performed, the results showed that the areas which will be most affected by the introduction of Industry 4.0 are the order fulfilment and transport logistics.   Finally, within the procurement function, Industry 4.0 shows 71.43% of opportunities, the remainder being opportunities or threats.

Conclusion: From the analysis performed, it can be seen that the implementation of certain technologies, such as virtual and augmented realities, 3D-Printing and simulation, results will all result in opportunities. On the other hand, big data analytics, cloud technology, cyber security, the IoT, miniaturization of electronics, AIDC, RFID, robotics, drones and nanotechnology, M2M and BI could be opportunities or threats for the organizations. The fact that some technologies can result in both of opportunities and threats is because all the different areas are interconnected, with no clear boundaries between them, depending on where it was analyzed, it could have a positive or negative connotation. The most relevant benefits are increased flexibility, quality standards, efficiency and productivity. This will enable mass customization, allowing companies to meet customers’ demands, creating value through constantly introducing new products and services to the market.

Limitation and future scope: Author calls for empirical research in this area. Due to the fact that the implementation of these technologies will be accompanied by a new environment where people work with machines, he believes that legal aspects, liabilities, insurance and ethics should be considered. The work should be continued with some empirical work and assessment of how companies should digitally integrate their supply chain with real implementation and data.

Summarised  by Kirti Nayal, 1806007 Fellow Research Scholar  2018 Batch

December 1, 2018

Compassion and Leadership

Compassion is a foundational aspect of leadership. Compassionate leaders appear to have stronger and have more engaged followers. Organizations with more compassionate leaders have better collaboration, lower turnover, and employees who are more trusting, more connected to each other, and more committed to the company.

What is compassion?
It is the intent to contribute to the happiness and well-being of others. A compassionate leader has a genuine interest in seeing their people not just perform and increase profits but thrive.

Compassionate leadership requires having wisdom about how to lead for the greater good and for the long term.
Assessment: Are You a Compassionate Leader?
Rasmus HougaardJacqueline CarterJason Beck
MAY 15, 2018

Compassion is one of the three Servant Leadership “C’s”: Compassion, Character and Competence.

Compassion has many explanations. One explanation is that it is a characteristic or trait that makes a person provide comfort to others.


When leaders and managers are compassionate there is comfort all round in the group or the organization.

Managers can exhibit behaviors at either end of the spectrum on any behavior type. On a voluntary basis majority of the people will choose compassionate persons as their leaders.

Three Servant Leadership “C’s”: Compassion, Character and Competence

Part II: Compassion, Character, Competence Tips, for building a servant leadership environment of trust.

More references


Wikipedia Article on Compassion

All religions term compassion as important virtue.

In the Muslim tradition, foremost among God's attributes are mercy and compassion or, in the canonical language of Arabic, Rahman and Rahim. Each of the 114 chapters of the Quran, with one exception, begins with the verse, "In the name of Allah the Compassionate, the Merciful."

Updated 2 December 2018
First published 27 November 2018

Industry 4.0 Bibliographies - Smart Products, Processes, Organizations and Management Areas - Bibliographies

An attempt is being to develop a bibliography network that will provide references to 100,000 articles, books, blog posts, consultant reports and surveys,  white papers, research theses and papers.

Industry 4.0 Bibliographies - Smart Products and Processes Bibliographies

Agriculture 4.0

Animal Husbandry



Engineering 4.0

  • Architecture
  • Automobile Engineering
  • Biotechnology
  • Civil Engineering
  • Communications Engineering
  • Computer Engineering
  • Construction Engineering
  • Diary Engineering
  • Electrical Engineering
  • Electronics Engineering
  • Industrial Engineering
  • Information Technology
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Mining Engineering
  • Production Engineering
  • Sound Engineering
  • Textile Engineering






Industry 4.0

  • Industry 4.0 - Adoption

  • Industry 4.0 - Consultant Reports

  • Industry 4.0 - Employment Issues

  • Industry 4.0 - Government Regulations

  • Industry 4.0 - Implementation Road Map

  • Industry 4.0 - Productivity

  • Industry 4.0 - SMEs

  • Industry 4.0 - Use Cases and Applications


Management Areas

Construction Management
Information Systems
Supply Chain



Smart Products - Design, Manufacturing, Marketing

Smart Products - Various Products

Smart Cities

Technologies for Industry 4.0

  • a) Autonomous Robots,
  • b) Simulations and Forecasting Techniques
  • c) Vertical/Horizontal Software Integration
  • d) Industrial Internet of Things – IoT
  • e) Direct communication between machines
  • f) Internet of Services
  • g) Big data and analytics
  • h) Innovative methods of collecting and processing large amounts of data, including
  • the use of potential activities in the cloud (Clouds)
  • i) Additive Manufacturing
  • j) Augmented Reality – AR
  • k) Virtual Reality – VR
  • l) Cyber-Physical Systems – CPS
  • m) Digital Twin
  • n) Artificial Intelligence,
  • o) Neural Networks
  • p) Cybersecurity
  • q) Mass Customization

University 4.0

Management of Industry 4.0 Transformation - 2018 - Bulletin Board


December 2018

Technological Developments in Industry 4.0 for Business Applications
Google Book Link, 2018 Book

November 2018

What Will Spark The Blockchain Explosion?

Research firm IDC predicts that worldwide spending on blockchain solutions will reach $2.1 billion in 2018—more than double the $945 million spent in 2017—and will reach $9.2 billion in 2021.


Magnetic Sensors Market Estimated To Grow USD 4,680.3 Million by 2026

January - News, Events and Information

Drivers That  Facilitate Transition to Industry 4.0 Production Systems at National Level
Industry 4.0 - IIoT Technology - Industrial Engineering - Productivity Science

Industrial Engineering 4.0 - IE in the Era of Industry 4.0 - Blog Book

Industry 4.0 - A Note for Industrial Engineers for Industrial Engineering 4.0 (IE 4.0)

Autonomous Robots - A Note for Industrial Engineers for Industrial Engineering 4.0 (IE 4.0)

Book Information

Enhancing Knowledge Discovery and Innovation in the Digital Era

Lytras, Miltiadis D., Daniela, Linda, Visvizi, Anna
IGI Global, 19-Jan-2018 - Education - 363 pages

With the dawn of electronic databases, information technologies, and the Internet, organizations, now more than ever, have easy access to all the knowledge they need to conduct their business. However, utilizing and detecting the beneficial information can pose as a challenge.

Enhancing Knowledge Discovery and Innovation in the Digital Era is a vibrant reference source on the latest research on student education, open information, technology enhanced learning (TEL), and student outcomes. Featuring widespread coverage across a range of applicable perspectives and topics, such as engineering education, data mining, and 3D printing, this book is ideally designed for professionals, upper-level students, and academics seeking current research on knowledge management and innovation networks.


Advancing Industry 4.0 with AI and IoT - IBM Watson Presentation

IBM Watson Internet of Things October 2017


The Fourth Industrial Revolution
Klaus Schwab
Penguin UK, 03-Jan-2017 - Business & Economics - 192 pages

The founder and executive chairman of the World Economic Forum on how the impending technological revolution will change our lives

We are on the brink of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. And this one will be unlike any other in human history.

Characterized by new technologies fusing the physical, digital and biological worlds, the Fourth Industrial Revolution will impact all disciplines, economies and industries - and it will do so at an unprecedented rate. World Economic Forum data predicts that by 2025 we will see: commercial use of nanomaterials 200 times stronger than steel and a million times thinner than human hair; the first transplant of a 3D-printed liver; 10% of all cars on US roads being driverless; and much more besides.

In The Fourth Industrial Revolution, Schwab outlines the key technologies driving this revolution, discusses the major impacts on governments, businesses, civil society and individuals, and offers bold ideas for what can be done to shape a better future for all.


Updated 2018 - 2 December 2018,  19 November 2018,  16 September 2018, 27 January 2018, 19 January 2018