November 18, 2019

Resilience - Self Management




18 November 2019

Resilience is the ability to suffer unexpected negative events without damaging the oneself mentally and physically to a significant extent and then bounce back to normal condition.

People with resilience also feel distress when the negative event happens and their hopes and plans for a different outcome do not materialise. But failure in many walks of life are possible and can happen at the worst expected moment.



In Mayo Clinic's article on resilience there is a tip.

Make every day meaningful.
https://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/resilience-training/in-depth/resilience/art-20046311


You had an awful day till now. You feel sick because of what others have done and what you have done in response. But still if you want to do something to get of our of that sick feeling try and make your day still meaningful. Do something now different that may make you feel happy. Focus on something else. Try forget the day's transactions and relationships. They happened earlier. Still you achieved somethings. Today again try to do something good.

https://www.apa.org/helpcenter/road-resilience

November 16, 2019

SCIENTIFIC METHOD - SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT OF BUSINESS ENTERPRISES



Came across a PhD thesis

THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC METHOD IN THE MANAGEMENT OF
BUSINESS ENTERPRISES of of University of Ottawa in 1944 Orville Eadie
https://ruor.uottawa.ca/handle/10393/21190

The contents are:

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter Page
I. Introduction 3
II. Frederick W. Taylor, Pioneer 5
Part A. Management and Methods
III. Plant Layout and Work Routing 19
IV. Job Analysis, Time and Motion Study, Job Specifications 33
V. Business Forms 57
VI. Special Considerations in the Application of Scientific Methods to Office Management .. . 65
Part B. Management and Men
VII. Employment Procedure 96
VIII. The Use of Tests in Employee Selection and Assignment 107
IX. Employee Training Methods 131
X. Labor Relations as a Problem of Management . . 142
XI. Remuneration of Employees 151
XII. Fatigue 163
XIII. Industrial Health 171
Part C. Present Achievements and the Future
XIV. A Summary of the Contributions Made to Im proved Business Management by the Application
of Scientific Method 183
XV. The Trend of Future Development 190

It is an interesting beginning of the subject in 1944. I have to write on the topic as I recently read a book onMarketing by Cherington, a former Harvard Business School faculty, who links some chapters to Scientific Management.

November 14, 2019

Manufacturing Management - Introduction

Planning, organizing and controlling manufacture of goods is manufacturing management. Chase et al. define operations management as the design, operation, and improvement of the systems that create and deliver the firm's primary products and services. Operations management is a discipline that includes production of goods and services.

Once the company decides to manufacture and sell a product, the specialized responsibility of the manufacturing management starts. But the decision to manufacture a product is based on feasibility analysis. During this analysis also manufacturing management issues are involved. Therefore, the persons doing strategic analysis or corporate planning analysis include persons from manufacturing management discipline with manufacturing management knowledge and bring into the analysis or decision making process the manufacturing view point.

Manufacturing is carried out through processes. A process is any actvity or group of activities that takes one or more inputs, transforms them, and provides one or more outputs. The output could be for an external customer for sale or for an internal customer to use for further processing. In some cases it can be for consumption in the same process or by the consumption by the producer hmself. Manufacturing processes convert materials into goods that have a physical form. The transformation processes change the materials on one or more of the following dimensions:

1. Physical properties
2. Shape
3. Fixed dimension
4. Surface finish
5. Joining parts and materials.

The outputs from manufacturing processes can stored and transported in anticipation of future demand (Krajewski et al. 2007).

Important Developments in Manufacturing Management



Developments in manufacturing management include certain technical developments that made manufacturing systems more productive and flexible.

Shop Management - F.W. Taylor


Shop floor management guidelines provided by F.W. Taylor were landmarks in the field of manufacturing management. Taylor further development Scientific management philosophy. Taylor also brought out the importance of scientific studies in manufacturing processes improvement or design. His studies on machining were considered a very important research contribution. Taylor also introduced time study based best practice identification and training all operators in the best practice. He advocated that manufacturing managers have the responsibility of developing manufacturing methods and training operators in best methods.

Frank Gilbreth developed study of motions of operators to develop efficient operator movements either to do manual work or to operate machines. He and Lilian Gilbreth also introduced the concept of fatigue and proposed ways to prevent the negative consequences of fatigue in operators as well as in manufacturing systems.

Henry Ford introduced moving assembly lines that revolutionized the production systems. Henry Gantt developed charts that helped scheduling production activities.

Harry Emerson wrote a book on principles of efficiency and it became part of industrial engineering and scientific management literature. Focus on efficiency in systems in general and especially manufacturing systems sharpened.

F.W. Harris developed theory of batch quantities in production and purchase. Walter Shewart developed procedures for using statistical thinking in process control. He created methods for determining when to change machine setups based on the measurements of samples taken at random intervals.

Hawthorne studies became another landmark development in manufacturing management. They brought out the importance of psychological variables in improving or decreasing productivity of operators. Unfortunately, the proponents of this line of thought have not integrated their conclusions with the ideas of scientific management appropriately. They chose to attack themes of scientific management. Manufacturing management might have had a different state today, if scientific management movement that had engineering foundations and human relations school of thought that had psychology as its foundation were appropriately integrated by human relations school.

Operations Research


Development of operations research (OR) helped manufacturing managers to understand and optimize their systems better. Study of operations research became a part of studies of manufacturing managers. Use of computers was started in recording store related transactions and data and it was extended to shop floor transaction data. The use was further extended to calculation of batch quantities and preparation of loading sheets and schedules. MRP and MRP II came into existence and they got extended into ERP systems.

Japanese Contribution to Production Management


In 1970s, scholars in USA recognized that Japanese had used their manufacturing management philosophies, strategies and techniques as a strategic capability to win market shares in global markets. A new era of manufacturing strategy thought developed in manufacturing management. Automation increased in factories. With this multi-skilling of operators came into picture as now operators have more time and can operate more machines. As group layout became more popular, an operator was required to operate different machines which were in series. Total quality management, total productive maintenance, total cost management became the strategies. JIT or lean systems became the best practice production systems. While improvement everywhere reached its zenith, the important idea that it is improvement in bottleneck that has the most value was highlighted by Goldratt in the name of 'Theory of Constraints.'

Many new technologies came into existence and were adopted into manufacturing processes. The existing ideas regarding technology adoption did not emphasize the suboptimal use of technology. The full power of technology was not being put to use by many. Theory of BPR brought this into focus and helped systems become more productive by utilizing the power and potential of the new technologies more. Ability to look at bigger and bigger systems using OR models and system dynamics models and the ability to access data anywhere using internet based data communication systems made coordination across distributed national and global facilities. This led to the development of theory of supply chain wherein information can be made visible to anybody and optimization can be done from the point of origin or raw materials to its dumping point. Manufacturing facilities are now a part of supply chains wherein information is available to both suppliers and potential customers in real time and purchasing is done through electronic orders. In a century, manufacturing management theory and practice developed immensely.


Industry 4.0 - Japanese Attempt to Master Implementing New Technologies and Equipment


Machine Work Study - Machine Improvement in Toyota Production System (TPS)


Chase, Richard, B., F. Robert Jacobs, Nicholas J. Aquilano , Operations Management, 11th Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2006.
Krajewski, Lee et al., Operations Management: Processes and Value Chains, 8th Edition, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, 2007.

________________________________________________________________________

Early Books on Manufacturing Management



Factory Organization and Administration
Hugo Dimer, First Professor of Industrial Engineering, Pennsylavania State College
First edition: 1910
Third edition digital copy
http://www.archive.org/stream/factoryorganiza00diemgoog#page/n10/mode/2up

Profit Making in Shop and Factory Management
Charles U. Carpenter, 1908
http://www.archive.org/stream/cu31924002748576#page/n1/mode/2up

Shop Management
Frederick Winslow Taylor, 1911
http://www.archive.org/stream/shopmanagement00taylgoog#page/n10/mode/2up

Factory and Office Administration
Lee Galloway, 1918
http://www.archive.org/stream/factoryofficeadm00galliala#page/n3/mode/2up

Factory Management Wastes: And How to Prevent Them
James F. Whiteford, 1919
http://www.archive.org/stream/factorymanagemen00whit#page/n7/mode/2up

Plant Management
Dexter S. Kimball, 1919
http://www.archive.org/stream/cu31924031222627#page/n7/mode/2up

__________________________________________________________________________


Advances in Production Management Systems. Initiatives for a Sustainable World: IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2016, Iguassu Falls, Brazil, September 3-7, 2016, Revised Selected Papers

Irenilza Nääs, Oduvaldo Vendrametto, João Mendes Reis, Rodrigo Franco Gonçalves, Márcia Terra Silva, Gregor von Cieminski, Dimitris Kiritsis
Springer, 15-Mar-2017 - Computers - 962 pages


This book constitutes the refereed post-conference proceedings of the International IFIP WG 5.7 Conference on Advances in Production Management Systems, APMS 2016, held in Iguassu Falls, Brazil, in September 2016.

The 117 revised full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 164 submissions. They are organized in the following topical sections: computational intelligence in production management; intelligent manufacturing systems; knowledge-based PLM; modelling of business and operational processes; virtual, digital and smart factory; flexible, sustainable supply chains; large-scale supply chains; sustainable manufacturing; quality in production management; collaborative systems; innovation and collaborative networks; agrifood supply chains; production economics; lean manufacturing; cyber-physical technology deployments in smart manufacturing systems; smart manufacturing system characterization; knowledge management in production systems; service-oriented architecture for smart manufacturing systems; advances in cleaner production; sustainable production management; and operations management in engineer-to-order manufacturing. 



Article originally posted in
knol   nrao 3309

Updated  15 November 2019,  22 October 2017, 13 October 2014

November 12, 2019

7 P Framework for Strategic Planning for International Marketing



7Ps for going international:   Potential, Path, Process, Pace, Pattern, Problems and Performance

Toward a 7-P framework for international marketing
Justin Paul &Erick Mas
Published online: 24 Jan 2019

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0965254X.2019.1569111?journalCode=rjsm20




"7 P's" of Marketing: Product, Place, Price and Promotion, Physical Environment, People, Process.
Customer satisfaction,  value and decision to buy depend on the 7Ps.
https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Business_Strategy/Marketing_Plans_and_Strategies


In the 1990s "strategic thinking" concept emerged. Strategic thinking is discovering novel, imaginative strategies and envisioning potential futures very different from the present. In other words, strategic thinking is higher order thinking that should take place to explore potential directions for the company.

Strategic planning is the operationalization of those ideas. These two concepts combine to form strategic management. Scenario planning is a tool for enhancing strategic thinking.
https://open.oregonstate.education/strategicmarketing/chapter/chapter-4-strategy-and-strategic-planning/



2007’s international trade in merchandise exceeded US$10.5 trillion and world trade in services is estimated at around US$2.4 trillion. Whilst most of us cannot visualise such huge amounts, it does serve to give some indication of the scale of international trade today.

The United Nations estimate that global e-business is now worth more than US$10 trillion, most of which is business-to-business (B2B), not business-to-consumer (B2C) purchases.

This global marketplace consists of a population of 6.6 billion people which is expected to reach 10 billion by 2050 according to the latest projections prepared by the United Nations.

The top 500 companies in the world now account for 70 per cent of world trade and 80 per cent of international investment.

2015 Ten Highest Population Cities in the World
City Country Population (millions)
Tokyo Japan 26.4
Mumbai India 26.1
Lagos Nigeria 23.2
Dhaka Bangladesh 21.1
Sao Paulo Brazil 20.4
Karachi Pakistan 19.2
Mexico City Mexico 19.2
New York USA 17.4
Calcutta India 17.3
Jakarta Indonesia 17.3

194 countries in the world. Gross national income in the world is US$62 trillion (purchasing power parity [ppp]); 

 75 per cent of the world’s population is poor, that is, they have a per capita income of less than US$3470.  Only 11 per cent of the population  have a per capita income of more than US$8000.

FIFTH EDITION
INTERNATIONAL MARKETING STRATEGY: ANALYSIS, DEVELOPMENT AND
IMPLEMENTATION
ISOBEL DOOLE and ROBIN LOWE
2008 Cengage Learning

November 11, 2019

Productivity Science, Productivity Engineering and Productivity Management




Productivity Science - Principle of Industrial Engineering

Develop a science for each element of a man - machine system's work related to efficiency and productivity.

The productivity science developed is the foundation for industrial engineering in productivity engineering and productivity management phases.
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2017/06/productivity-science-principle-of.html


Productivity Engineering - Principle of Industrial Engineering

Industrial engineering is concerned with redesign of engineering systems with a view to improve their productivity. Industrial engineers analyze productivity of each  resource used in engineering systems and redesign as necessary to improve productivity.

It has to be ensured that the increase in productivity due to the use of low-cost materials, processes and increasing speed of machines and men, should not lead to any decrease in quality of the output.

Similarly, operators should not feel any discomfort, not have any health problems or safety issues in the redesigned more productive processes.
https://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2017/06/productivity-engineering-principle-of.html

Productivity Management- Principle of Industrial Engineering

Every industrial engineer is a productivity manager.
He has to plan for productivity and achieve productivity improvement year after year.

As a part of productivity management, he has to assess management actions of the organization for effect on productivity and has to recommend changes if they have an adverse effect on productivity or if there is scope for increasing productivity by modifying them.
https://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2017/06/productivity-management-principle-of.html


Productivity Thinking - An Explanation

Productivity thinking of a manager includes awareness of body of knowledge of  productivity science, productivity engineering and productivity management.
https://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2019/11/productivity-thinking-explanation.html






________________________
________________________

IISE Annual Conference Program 2019


Work Systems & Services
Oral Presentation (20 minutes)

580470 - Productivity Science and Systems - Developments During 1895 to 1945

Tuesday, May 21
11:20 AM - 11:40 AM
Location: Gatlin A2

Learning Objectives:

  • F.W. Taylor described the system, he had used to increase productivity in 1895. More productivity improvement practices were described in his papers, "Shop Management" and "Scientific Management." Scientific management’s first principle advocates development of productivity science. Frank Gilbreth developed the science of productive human effort and proposed number of principles which became popular as "Principles of Motion Economy." In the paper, an attempt is made to highlight some important research works carried out in the area of productivity up to the year 1945 to trace the development of productivity science and systems after the need for developing them was indicated by F.W. Taylor. The purpose of the paper is to present an illustration of a collection of some scientific developments in productivity improvement that may motivate systematic development of body of productivity science in various issues related to productivity so that productivity engineering and productivity management activities are provided with scientific foundation for productivity improvement. Presently, an attempt to consolidate research output into productivity science is not taking place. Industrial engineering will have a more powerful knowledge framework if a well structured productivity knowledge base is made available as foundation for the phases of productivity engineering and productivity management.
  1. F.W. Taylor described the system, he had used to increase productivity in 1895. More productivity improvement practices were described in his papers, "Shop Management" and "Scientific Management." Scientific management’s first principle advocates development of productivity science. Frank Gilbreth developed the science of productive human effort and proposed number of principles which became popular as "Principles of Motion Economy." In the paper, an attempt is made to highlight some important research works carried out in the area of productivity up to the year 1945 to trace the development of productivity science and systems after the need for developing them was indicated by F.W. Taylor. The purpose of the paper is to present an illustration of a collection of some scientific developments in productivity improvement that may motivate systematic development of body of productivity science in various issues related to productivity so that productivity engineering and productivity management activities are provided with scientific foundation for productivity improvement. Presently, an attempt to consolidate research output into productivity science is not taking place. Industrial engineering will have a more powerful knowledge framework if a well structured productivity knowledge base is made available as foundation for the phases of productivity engineering and productivity management.
https://www.eventscribe.com/2019/IISE/fsPopup.asp?efp=SVNBQlBFWkY3NDMw&PresentationID=549392&rnd=0.9559785&mode=presinfo
_______________________
_______________________



Engineering Management
Oral Presentation (20 minutes)

580223 - Evolution of Productivity Management - Present Scope, Opportunity and Challenges

Tuesday, May 21
8:20 AM - 8:40 AM
Location: Wekiwa 7

Learning Objectives:

  • Frederick Taylor started productivity management theory development with his 1895 paper on piece rate system, and developed it further in "shop management" and "scientific management" papers. His methods were adopted in industrial engineering and operations management disciplines. Productivity, efficiency improvement and cost reduction as objectives of industrial engineering were indicated by many authors and scholars. AIIE also indicated the same by specially mentioning that performance from systems will be evaluated and predicted in industrial engineering. Scott Sink and David Sumanth came out with textbooks on productivity management. But a review of the curricula of industrial engineering and a survey reveal that productivity management is not yet an important area in teaching and practice. In this paper, an attempt is made to highlight the development of important productivity management theories and practices through literature review, curricula review, opinion of IE faculty and profit center managers. The current scope, opportunity and challenges for productivity management are brought out in the paper. The purpose of the paper is to point out the need for further development of the subject to convince academicians and practitioners of the utility of teaching and using productivity management systems and practices.
  1. Frederick Taylor started productivity management theory development with his 1895 paper on piece rate system, and developed it further in "shop management" and "scientific management" papers. His methods were adopted in industrial engineering and operations management disciplines. Productivity, efficiency improvement and cost reduction as objectives of industrial engineering were indicated by many authors and scholars. AIIE also indicated the same by specially mentioning that performance from systems will be evaluated and predicted in industrial engineering. Scott Sink and David Sumanth came out with textbooks on productivity management. But a review of the curricula of industrial engineering and a survey reveal that productivity management is not yet an important area in teaching and practice. In this paper, an attempt is made to highlight the development of important productivity management theories and practices through literature review, curricula review, opinion of IE faculty and profit center managers. The current scope, opportunity and challenges for productivity management are brought out in the paper. The purpose of the paper is to point out the need for further development of the subject to convince academicians and practitioners of the utility of teaching and using productivity management systems and practices.




https://www.eventscribe.com/2019/IISE/fsPopup.asp?Mode=presenterInfo&PresenterID=643406





Industrial Engineering ONLINE Course

Online Handbook of Industrial Engineering


________________________
________________________



Process Industrial Engineering - Video Presentation

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yIpkLPpsA18


Updated on 12 November 2019, 16 September 2019

November 8, 2019

Economic Theory of Production and Production Cost

Economics Revision Article Series





Economic theory of the firm begins with theory of production. What is a firm? The essence of a firm is to buy inputs, convert them to outputs, and sell these outputs to consumers, firms or government. Therefore a firm is poised between two markets. It is a demander in factor markets. It buys the inputs required for production in factor markets (markets that supply inputs for firms). It is a supplier in market for goods and services. It has to adjust its production to satisfy the demand curve of its customers at profit.

It is assumed that the firm or the owner of the firm always strives to produce efficiently, or at lowest cost. He will always attempt to produce the maximum level of output for a given dose of inputs avoiding waste whenever possible.



Production function

The production function is the relationship between the maximum amount of output that can be produced and the inputs required to make that output. Put in other way, the function gives for each set of inputs, the maximum amount of output of a product that can be produced.  It is defined for a given state of technical knowledge (If technical knowledge changes, the amount of output will change.)

Importance of the Concept of Production Function

In an economy there will be thousands and millions of production functions because each firm will have one for each of the products that it is making. From the production function, the cost curves of a firm for each of its products can be determined.  Contribution of each factor of production i.e., land, land, capital is also determined from production functions. The price that a factor of production will command in the market will be determined by the production functions from the demand side.


___________ ___________ 

 Total, Average and Marginal Products


Total product or output is the total output produced in physical units by using a set of inputs. It is given by the product function directly.

Marginal product of an input is the extra product or output produced when 1 extra unit of that input is added while other inputs are held constant at any given set of inputs.
Average output is total output divided by total units of input. It can be calculated for each input separately also.

Law of diminishing marginal returns

It holds that the marginal product of each unit of input will decline as the amount of that input increases, holding all other inputs constant.

Returns to scale

Returns to scale reflect the responsiveness of total product when all the inputs are increased proportionately.

The scale effect can be constant returns, decreasing returns,and increasing returns.
Constant returns to scale means, if inputs are doubled output also will double.
Decreasing returns to scale means if inputs are doubled output is not doubling.
Increasing returns to scale means if inputs are doubled, output is getting more than double.

Time Horizon of Analysis

Three different time periods are used to develop theories of production and production costs

Momentary run: The period of time is so short that no change in production can take place.

Short run: The period of time in which labor and material can be changed, but all inputs cannot be changed simultaneously. Especially,  equipment and machinery cannot be fully modified or increased.

Long run: All fixed and variable factors employed by the firm can be changed.

Technology change

Technology change is said to occur when more output can be produced from the same inputs.
Example: Wide-body jets increased the number of passenger-miles per unit of input by almost 40 percent.


Technology change refers to a change in the underlying techniques of production, as when a new product is invented, an old product is improved, or a process of production is made more efficient. In  situations, if the same output is produced with fewer inputs, or more output is produced with the same inputs, the technological change would shift the production in the upward direction.

In the engineering discipline, industrial engineering branch is undertakes product industrial engineering and process industrial engineering and shifts production function in the upward direction on a continuous basis.

Analysis of Production Costs


The content above focused on theory of production quantity.  Production cost is another important attribute of firm.

Costs are important in production and supply decision making by entrepreneurs. Every dollar of cost reduces the firm's profit. The deeper reason to study costs by an economist is that supply of an item depends upon incremental or marginal cost when the price is constant. Otherwise it depends on marginal cost as well as marginal price or revenue. In all the market structures (perfect competition to monopoly) marginal cost is key concept for understanding a firm's production quantity behavior.

Concepts Related to Cost


Total Cost, Fixed Cost, Variable Cost
Marginal Cost
Average or Unit Cost, Average Fixed Cost, Average Variable Cost, Minimum Average Cost
Opportunity Cost
U-Shaped Cost Curves

Total Cost

Total cost is the cost incurred to produce a quantity of output. A total cost schedule shows the total cost for various output amounts. The total cost schedule is derived from the production function of the product for a firm. As per definition of production function and assumption of a businessman's behavior (operating at maximum efficiency and lowest cost), it will be the lowest cost for that output. But Samuelson clearly highlighted that there is hard work of the businessman involved to attain this lowest level of costs. The firm's managers have to make efforts and make sure that they are paying the least possible prices for necessary materials and supplies. The wages are to be fixed or bargained so that neither they are high to raise the firms production costs nor they are so low that sufficient labor is not there to produce as per market requirement. Also various engineering techniques are to be utilized in equipment purchase decisions, factory layout and production processes. Countless other decisions are to be made in most economical fashion.

Fixed Cost
Fixed and variable cost are categorized based on a period. Firms have to commit costs for production capacity at the start of a period and they have to incur these costs irrespective of the production output. Such committed capacity costs are termed fixed cost for a period.

Variable Cost
Variable cost is incurred when production is there and it varies with the level of output.

Marginal Cost
At each output level or at any output level, marginal cost of production is the additional cost incurred in producing one extra unit of output.

Marginal cost can be calculated as the difference between the total costs or producing two adjacent output levels. The difference in variable cost of two adjacent output levels also gives marginal cost, as fixed cost is constant for the two levels.

Marginal cost is a central economic concept with a crucial important role to play in resource allocation decisions by organizations.

Average Costs or Units Costs


Average cost or unit cost is the total cost divided by number of units produced.
Average fixed cost is total fixed cost divided by number of units produced. It keeps on decreasing as output increases.
Average variable cost is total variable cost divided by number of units produced.

Minimum Average Cost
In the average cost curve, it is normally seen that average cost initially comes down (as average fixed cost comes down) as output increases, reaches a lowest point and then starts rising. Hence on this curve there is a minimum average cost point or output level. Hence average cost curves have 'U' shape.



Choice of Inputs by the Firm


Every firm or entrepreneur has to decide how much of each input it should employ: how much labor, capital, land, energy, various materials and services.

The fundamental assumption that economists make in this context is that of cost minimization. Firms are assumed to choose their combination of inputs so as to minimize the total cost of production.

Least-cost Rule: To produce a given level of output at least cost, a firm will hire factors until it has equalized the marginal product per dollar spent on each factor of production. This implies that

Marginal product of labor/price of labor  = Marginal Product of Capital Equipment/Price of capital equipment = ...

Thus the firm will choose a factor combination or resource combination that minimizes the total cost of production.

Technology Change


References 

Paul Samuelson and William D. Nordhaus, Economics, 13th Edition,  McGraw-Hill, 1989, Chapters 21 and 22

Online Books to be added
___________________________________________________________________________________________
Related Knols

_______________________________________________________________________________

Related Web pages

Theory of Production and Cost - Class Presentation - Stamford

_______________________________________________________________________________

Originally posted in
http://knol.google.com/k/narayana-rao/economic-theory-of-production-and/ 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 228


Updated on 9 November 2019, 11 December 2011