February 23, 2020

Smart Factories - Cotonomous Machine Systems

Autonomous - Cotonomous - Robot - Cobot

Smart factories are systems comprising operating machines in the area of production, material handling, transport and decision making units, which are basically computers and computing services like edge computing and cloud computing services. The human element cooperates with the computers during operations. During maintenance they deal with the physical elements or the machines as well as computer hardware.

Thus smart factories have hardware, software and thoughtware - They are cotonomous machine systems that require less human intervention and command.

February 22, 2020

Best Smart Manufacturing Plants - Industry 4.0 Technology Implementation

High Productivity Through Smart Factories - Industry 4.0 - Bulletin Board


Lighthouse Smart Factories - WEF

WEF judged these nine factories as lighthouses for others to model their smart factory implementation. 7 more were added later making a list of 16 in total

Bayer Pharmaceuticals Division (Garbagnate, Italy): At a time of major volume growth for the site, the company has deployed a digital twin-based scheduling programme to drive improvements in its quality-control lab.

Bosch Automotive (Wuxi, China): Advanced data analytics are helping the company to “deeply understand and eliminate output losses, simulate and optimise process settings, and predict machine interruptions before they occur”.

Fast Radius/UPS (Chicago, US): Industrial-grade 3D printing is helping to tackle demand for fast-turnaround times and mass customisation of products, while a centralised, proprietary operating system drives real-time analytics and orchestrates design, production, and global fulfilment.

Haier (Qingdao, China): Artificial intelligence has been at the heart of work to create an ‘order-to-make’ mass customisation platform and a remote, AI-supported intelligent cloud platform for predictive maintenance.

Johnson & Johnson DePuy Synthes (Cork, Ireland): The factory has used IoT technology to create digital twins of physical assets for advanced machine insights, lower operating costs, and machine downtime reductions.

Phoenix Contact (Bad Pyrmont/Blomberg, Germany): ‘Customer-driven digital twinning’ has involved creating digital copies of each customer’s specifications, cutting production times by 30 percent.

Proctor & Gamble (Rakona, Czech Republic): The factory has developed a Web-based analytics model for supply chain improvements, speeding up time to market, and increasing inventory efficiency and customer satisfaction.

Schneider Electric (Le Vaudreuil, France): Operators have increased visibility into operations, maintenance, and energy use, leading to energy cost reductions of 10 percent and maintenance cost reductions of 30 percent.

Siemens Industrial Automation Products (Chengdu, China): A new platform for flexible production takes customer orders and immediately allocates resources and schedules production time, leading to 100 percent compliance and 100 percent traceability.


BMW Regensburg - Smart Factory

1986 This plant began producing automobiles for world markets.
1990 A paintwork shop and facilities for manufacturing body components were completed
1997 The press shop was built.
2004 The Regensburg plant started producing the BMW 1 Series in addition to the 3 Series.
Current - bout 10,000 employees are taking care for the 880 BMW cars leaving the assembly lines daily.

In BMW factory digitization is happening constantly and in many places - and often the ideas come from the team itself.
The assembly has now anchored this innovative ability in the organization - in the InnoLab.
Team is composed of  heads of different departments. They bundle the competence and the curiosity from the process improvement, the maintenance and of course the IT.
The InnoLab is supported by students from the region.


Press shop.
The beginning of every car is a tin roll. But no tin is like the other.
This is exactly where the project started: BMW systems  sensory-adjusted so that they recognize the nature of the sheets, their individual properties - for example with regard to material strength, surface roughness or thickness of the oil film.
The data obtained in this way enable the plants to adjust themselves exactly to the delivered sheets - and to regulate themselves independently.


Here company finds an expression of Industry 4.0, which allows the employee to work directly and without a protective fence with an industrial robot. This is possible because the robot were made so intelligent that it recognizes independently whether and how the colleague man gets in his way.
In practice, both man and machine can work hand in hand: the robot handles the arduous lifting and turning of the engine block. And the employee can - unlike in the old process - concentrate on putting the nut runner in the engine block. Industry 4.0 can not only make processes simpler and more efficient, but also more ergonomic.


With development of technology, BMW have established a Rapid Prototyping Center, a competence center with seven 3D printers. Using this technology, they have now started to produce tools.
3D printers build objects in layers from a meltable plastic. Much of the work for their Rapid Prototyping Center comes from development. Because it often needs components for the prototypes of new vehicles. And as fast as possible. Whether they are bumpers, seat shells, rear axles, rear or front flaps: the parts do not have to be functional.

Assembly & Logistics

During assembly, the painted body becomes a finished BMW. Approximately 23,000 components must be installed in the vehicle. All vehicles go through several assembly lines. These are interconnected and have a total length of about 5.5 kilometers. The Regensburg plant produces several models in a mix on one and the same assembly line. These include models of the 1, 2, 4 and X series. Each car is assembled according to the individual wishes of customers from all over the world. A large number of parts assemble trained employees by hand. In order to relieve the employees of individual tasks, handling devices support the installation of large and heavy parts.
Individual process steps are taken over by robots.

Assembly & Logistics

Individual components such as engine, gearbox, axles, doors or bumpers are pre-assembled in separate areas and then delivered to the final assembly area "just in sequence". Even important parts such as the exhaust system, the seats or the wheels are brought "just-in-sequence" from external suppliers directly to the assembly line. In the final assembly, the actual highlight of automobile production, the so-called welding, comes about: The drive train (engine, chassis, axles) is automatically connected to the body and bolted.

IoT System

BMW's own IoT platform currently connects over 3,000 machines, robots and autonomous transport systems and is built on Microsoft's Azure cloud computing service.

Shubham Parikh 1904038
Shah Shubham Bholabhai 1902209


SURA BHARAT - 1902233


Before digitization for big data
Bosch began its journey towards big data analysis in 2015.
Operational data from shop floor such as machine cycle times or part failure modes
Data typically required a significant amount of manual collection and pre-processing.
Shop floor improvement activities were impacted due to this delayed data availability and suboptimal data quality


Real time data and insights from its analysis would provide a path to better and faster decision making
Business agility, vital for competition in China


Workforce management was carried so smoothly after the implementation along with smarter way to handle machines by employees
One device will be in  a position to monitor all the machines in the factory from providing input raw materials into machines to the final end product
In case of inventory or storage RFIDs are implemented in the warehouse and factory where human errors can be reduced
Logistics is one of the major part of a factory where we implemented IOT. Also future might shift to driver less vehicles

Wuxi site set up an industrial IOT framework

100% Newly installed machine-condition sensors
100% Individual cutting tool information
100% data analysts Visualize the data and develop customizable reports with increasingly powerful analyses

Bosch implemented IOT in 2013 and provides IOT suite for other businesses
Ref: https://www.bosch-presse.de/pressportal/de/en/likeabosch-bosch-to-launch-iot-image-campaign-179328.html

Ref: https://www.bosch-connected-industry.com/en/connected-manufacturing/nexeed-production-performance/starter-kit/production-performance-starter-kit/


Bosch strives to complete the proof-of-concept (PoC) phase very rapidly.
Able to focus its resources and to maintain an innovation spped of approx. 10 PoCs per year.
To achieve this Bosch, Wuxi created Production Innovation Center with small assembly line for training and development purpose.

Fast Radius/UPS (Chicago, US) - Smart factory 

The structure of a smart factory can include a combination of production, information, and communication technologies, with the potential for integration across the entire manufacturing supply chain.

Industrial-grade 3D printing is helping to tackle demand for fast-turnaround times and mass customisation of products, while a centralised, proprietary operating system drives real-time analytics and orchestrates design, production, and global fulfilment.

Rather than having a physical inventory of parts, manufacturers and users can have virtual inventory in the form 3D designs in digital form. They can digitize legacy items through 3D scanning. For new components,  3D-printable, virtual versions are developed. Then, when these items are requested by a customer, they can be pulled from a digital drawing inventory and be 3D printed on demand. Fast Radius has 3D printing centers located throughout the world and this part printing can be performed on demand at a hub that is as close to the end-use location of the users as possible and delivered to the user in 24 hours through UPS.

About Additive manufacturing

It is a technological advancement made possible by the transition from analog to digital processes. In recent decades, communications, imaging, architecture and engineering have all undergone their own digital revolutions. Now, AM can bring digital flexibility and efficiency to manufacturing operations.

Additive manufacturing uses data computer-aided-design (CAD) software or 3D object scanners to direct hardware to deposit material, layer upon layer, in precise geometric shapes. As its name implies, additive manufacturing adds material to create an object. Although the terms "3D printing" and "rapid prototyping" are casually used to discuss additive manufacturing, each is actually a subset of additive manufacturing. In the right applications, additive manufacturing delivers a perfect trifecta of improved performance, complex geometries and simplified fabrication. As a result, opportunities abound for adopting components produced by additive manufacturing.

 Fast Radius

Fast Radius’ technology platform and team of engineers help clients unlock value from additive manufacturing across a product’s lifecycle. The platform supports clients in identifying potential applications, conducting engineering and economic evaluations, accelerating new product development, and ultimately manufacturing industrial-grade parts at scale with the latest additive technologies.

Fast Radius offers manufacturing solutions for an increasingly digital supply chain. The company couples additive manufacturing expertise, across metals and polymers, with traditional methods such as CNC machining and injection molding.

A key part of Fast Radius’ service is a strategic partnership with United Parcel Service (UPS) enabling a 24 hour turnaround for part manufacturing and shipping.

Whether you're looking to unlock new business opportunities through additive, or want to innovate your supply chain with Virtual Warehouse, they can help. Companies can get a price today and the  part tomorrow. No matter the process - whether it's advanced additive, CNC, or rapid injection molding  Fast Radius can get  that critical part, fast.

With their additive manufacturing capabilities, you can redesign or reengineer a part. Or, you can discover and produce a new-to-the-world product - enabling you to launch a new business model powered by mass customization and global fulfilment. The company has one of the most advanced industrial-grade additive manufacturing (“3D printing”) facilities in North America. It also houses the largest Carbon production facility in the Western Hemisphere and extensive HP MultiJet Fusion technology.

To date, Fast Radius has raised over $17M in venture funding from top-tier investors including Drive Capital, United Parcel Service (UPS), Jump Capital, Skydeck Ventures, and Hyde Park Venture Partners.

 Logistics Aspect

Fast Radius has a production facility onsite at UPS Worldport, the world’s largest automated packaging facility, located at Louisville International Airport in Kentucky. As of 2016, the company also has a 3D printing factory in Singapore aligned with UPS’s intra-Asia transportation network. The partnership with UPS puts Fast Radius in competition with other logistics companies, such as PostNord, FedEx and RSA Global, that have launched 3D printing on demand services around the globe.

Along with an expansion of production, the company is scaling up its software development teams and sales department.

Technological Aspects in Fast Radius factories

The firm has customized its array of systems for an automated distributed manufacturing environment. After a customer places an order, it will automatically find the proper printer and begin printing. Once finished, the machine resets for the next print. In turn, Fast Radius requires minimal print management. Though the company has systems that print with a wide range of materials from hard, engineering-grade thermoplastics to metals, it has begun reaching out to service bureaus in other locations, expanding both the types of orders it can perform and its distributed manufacturing network.

The contract manufacturer,  succeeds at two things extremely well: speed and quality.

The WEF cited them for "Accelerating innovation and "meeting increasing demand for fast-turnaround and mass customization of products through distributed, industrial-grade 3D printing and proprietary operating system that drives real-time analytics and orchestrates, design, production and global fulfillment."

Fast Radius has its sister service bureau, ZYCI, a large CNC machining operation. At their Atlanta location, the firm will expand to include some industrial AM systems, and, likewise, the Fast Radius facility in Kentucky is in the process of expanding to include CNC machines.

To introduce its 3D printing services to potential OEMs, Fast Radius has partnered with about a dozen companies that are looking to make the shift to a virtual inventory. The companies that they are  working with are identifying 1,000 or 1,500 parts that are excellent candidates for on demand production.  As costs of additive manufacturing drop precipitously and quality continues to rise over time,  a larger and larger percentage of physical inventory will be moved to a virtual inventory model.”

Some applications

Fast Radius created a virtual parts warehouse (parts exist only digitally until needed) comprising 3,000 items for a heavy equipment manufacturer, which really adds up over time.

Husqvarna Group, a Swedish global leading producer of outdoor power products for forest, park and garden care. The Fast Radius team has worked closely with Husqvarna Group over the past year to identify parts that could be made more efficiently and sustainably through additive manufacturing — driving a reduced carbon footprint,  improved customer experience, and lower costs. The parts  identified for production using  AM, have to be validated for their performance and durability, and certify them for production and sale. This meant performing UV resistance tests, chemical resistance tests, days-long cycle tests, and then evaluating real-world performance in the field. All were done successfully. The ongoing transition to production-grade additive manufacturing is adding value to Husqvarna Group’s spare parts supply chain in three key ways:

  • Reducing company carbon footprint through less material waste.
  • Improving the customer experience with spare parts never being out of stock.
  • Eliminating inventory carry costs - including working capital, warehousing, and obsolescence.

The Need for Eliminating supply chain waste with virtual warehousing and on-demand production

Inventory comes at a high cost — nearly $550 billion is tied up in inventory in the manufacturing industry alone, according to a report from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
Because the additive manufactured parts will be stored digitally and produced on demand in any quantity, transitioning to additive manufacturing eliminates the supply chain costs of traditional manufacturing, such as:

1.Warehousing costs.
2.High minimum order quantities.
3.Unnecessary material waste.
4.Part obsolescence.
5.Working capital tied up in tooling and inventory.

SIVARAM S  (1902220)        SOMYA JAIN(1902223)


Interview: Fast Radius CEO on embracing additive manufacturing for production
25 April 2019 16:27

30 September 2019
Fast Radius Puts Curtiss Motorcycles on a Manufacturing Fast Track

A hybrid manufacturing approach, including AM for complex parts, helped the firm meet an accelerated design and build cycle for its new Zeus 8 electric motorcycle.

The company had only three weeks to exhibit the motor cycle in a show and there was no chance for the traditional approach to manufacturing to do it. The company partnered with Fast Radius and used the hybrid manufacturing approach that leveraged CNC milling, hot tube bending and additive manufacturing. Instead of trying to force a single manufacturing process for Zeus, the team leveraged the strengths of the different methods when and where it made sense and delivered the model for the show.

Fujitsu Smart Factory

Digitally Connected Plant using IoT

People, machines and processes are all digitally connected, causing free flow of information.

Using that information factories speed up the decision-making process, making it possible for people to move on to the next action appropriately and dynamically.

Predictive analysis with machine learning is an application of AI, which can alert plant managers and engineers to anomalies in the functioning of machines.
it can prolong the life of parts and reduce excess spare parts inventories that the plant needs to keep on hand

Customer validated benefits

Shreyash Ajit Pande 1902216 & Stutu Rajgarhia 1902227

Fujitsu Partners with KUKA to pioneer human-robot collaboration in mainboard handling and testing
Latest Newsby Sarah Mead, Web Editor, 12/04/2018

Building a Factory of the Future with SAP Leonardo and Fujitsu
July 18, 2017

P&G - Smart Factory

Proctor & Gamble (Rakona, Czech Republic)

Market shifts from dry to liquid washing products effected a significant drop in demand between 2010 and 2013. Facing this challenge, the site triggered a programme to cut costs significantly in order to attract new business.

Two essential enablers have supported Rakona’s successful Fourth Industrial Revolution innovations
Exploit the external digital environment:
Improve people’s skill levels, shape the jobs of the future.



The digital direction-setting tool shows live KPIs on touchscreens directly on the shop floor, which allows users to explore the data at multiple levels in order to understand performance drivers and identify the root causes of deviations.
Additionally, the system is used for operator task scheduling and tracking.


Quality control is now based on real-time analytics applied on data collected by various sensors that monitor pH value, color, viscosity, active level, etc.
Enabled by IT/OT integration, it was first tested with a new production line and then rolled out to legacy systems.
Reworking & complaints have been cut by 50%, scrap is down & quality inspections have been reduced significantly.


Allows for recipe change propagation through the packaging line while the line is running.
The fully integrated sensor, camera, scanner and wrapper system detects and verifies the current status of each zone.
UPack enables each zone of the packaging line to be in a different phase (e.g. start-up, production, empty or changeover


Distributor Connect” connects P&G with distributors
Digitally enabled operational program, it allows the supply managers to track the status of the delivery
Incorporates “GDSN,” Global Data Synchronization Network with the operation with retailers. GDSN enables 100% automated commerce without human intervention


Rakona’s innovation experience showcases the kind of substantial impact that can be achieved by a lighthouse facility embracing Fourth Industrial Revolution approachesand technology. In three years:

Productivity has increased by 160%.
Customer satisfaction has increased by 116%.
Customer complaints have been reduced by 63%.
 Full plant cost has been reduced by 20%.
Inventory has been reduced by 43%.
Off-quality products have been reduced by 42%.
Time for changeover has been reduced by 36%.

Shivamkumar Pandey & Satyabh Kumar

November 14, 2019
Elisa rolls-out 5G for  industrial IoT to 100 P&G factories, says ‘world will change’ with 5G
Finnish telecoms company Elisa is supporting the digital upgrade of around 100 factories owned by US consumer goods company Procter & Gamble, following an initial rollout of IoT monitoring and insights at 10 sites.


Qualcomm Incorporated founded in 1985 is an American multinational semiconductor and telecommunications equipment company that designs and markets wireless telecommunications products and services. It derives most of its revenue from chipmaking and the bulk of its profit from patent licensing businesses.[2] The company headquarter is located in San Diego, California, United States, and has 224 worldwide locations.






AI solution that is designed to meet cloud AI inferencing needs for datacenter providers. The Qualcomm® Cloud AI 100 is built from the ground up to help accelerate AI experiences, providing a turn-key solution that addresses the most important aspects of cloud AI inferencing including

low power consumption
process node leadership
signal processing expertise

SImulation softwares like VERDI(Visualize gridded netCDF data with this easy-to-use Java program) Automated Debug System is the centerpiece of the Verdi SoC Debug Platform and enables comprehensive debug for all design and verification flows.​

IoT(Internet of Things)​
Qualcomm Technologies and Bosch Announce Research Collaboration on 5G NR for Industrial IoT​
Connectivity solutions that support a wide range of devices.




Suman Sekhar 1902229 Section G (2019-21)

Collaborating with industry leaders to expand 5G for Industry 4.0 [video]
DEC 17, 2019

How Qualcomm develops its AI and machine learning workforce
MAY 14, 2018

ROLD  - Cerro Maggiore, Milan.


Located in Cerro Maggiore, Milan.

It implemented digital manufacturing technologies to drive financial and operational gains.

Of the 16 factories chosen from a shortlist of 1,000 factories to be highlighted as WEF’s ‘Factories of the Future’  Rold’s Cerro Maggiore factory stands out as the only SME on the list.

 Rold –  has only 250 full-time employees. But it  has demonstrated that SMEs can adopt Industry 4.0 with limited investment by using off-the-shelf technology and collaborating with technology providers and universities. Rold hired only three programmers to implement industry 4.0.

Applications and Benefits

Comprehensive use of touch screens, smart phones and smart watches to drive notifications .
Result- Quick response time
Rapid design prototyping through 3D additive manufacturing has shortened the time to market for new product introductions.
Cost modelling to support make vs buy decisions using the data collected from sensors on machines.

Hemant Kumar Singh 1901114 and Sudarsha S


February - Management Knowledge Revision


Frank Gilbreth
Picture Source:

Febuary 1st Week  1 - 5 ,

The Nature of Organizing - Review Notes
Departmentation in Organizations - Review Notes

Line-Staff Authority and Decentralization - Review Notes
Effective Organizing and Organizational Culture - Review Notes

Summary - Principles - Organizing
Human Resource Management and Selection

Performance Appraisal and Career Strategy
Manager and Organization Development

Summary - Principles - Staffing
Resourcing; A Function of Management

February 2nd week,  8 to 12

Human Factors and Motivation
Leadership - Koontz and O'Donnell - Review Notes

Supervision - Introduction - Public Administration Point of View
Committes and Group Decision Making - Review Notes

Communication - Koontz and O'Donnell - Review Notes
Summary of Principles - Directing - Leading

The System and Process of Controlling - Review Notes
Control Techniques and Information Technology

Productivity Control
Overall Control and Preventive Control - Review Notes

February 3rd Week  (15 - 19)

Summary - Principles of Controlling
Global and Comparative Management

Organizing - Global Management Issues - Review Notes
Staffing - Global Management Issues

Leading - Global Management Challenges
Controlling - Global Management Challenges - Review Notes

Management and Entrepreneurship: Science, Theory and Practice
Managerial Skills

Principles of Management - List
Principles of Management - Subject Update Articles Recent Years

February 4th Week  (22 to 26)

Marketing Management Revision Articles

The Marketing Concept Kotler
Marketing Strategy - Marketing Process - Kotler's Description

Scanning of Environment for Marketing Ideas and Decisions
Marketing Strategy - Differentiating and Positioning the Market Offering

Management of Marketing Department and Function
Marketing Research and Market Demand Forecasting

Consumer Behavior
Analysis of Consumer Markets

Organizational Buying Processes and Buying Behavior
Market Segmentation and Selection of Target Segments

To March - Management Knowledge Revision

Industrial Engineers support Engineers and Managers in Efficiency Improvement of Products, Processes and Systems

One Year MBA Knowledge Revision Plan

January  - February  - March  - April  - May   -   June

July  - August     - September  - October  - November  - December

Updated 2020 23 February
2018 - 24 February

  1 Februry 2017, 16 Feb 2016, 22 Feb 2016


New Posts

Best Smart Manufacturing Plants - Industry 4.0 Technology Implementation 2020 updates

February 21, 2020

Digital Supply Chain Planning

Defining Digital Supply Chain Planning
Published: 03 June 2019

Table Of Contents

Digital Supply Chain Planning
Dimension 1: Horizontal Alignment of Decisions
Dimension 2: Vertical Alignment of Decisions
Dimension 3: Degree of Decision Automation
Dimension 4: Mix of Decision Type
Dimension 5: Latency of Decision Data
Dimension 6: Granularity of Decision Data
Dimension 7: Degree of Bimodal Planning


Demand Planning

Sales and Operations Planning

Employee Welfare, Technology and Employers

Are employers concerned about their employess? Do they consider employee welfare when they are taking technology decisions?

When they consider, there is positivity in the organization.



Many companies are embracing new technologies like IoT, robotics, and AI as good for business. But how do workers who have to adopt these technologies feel? A recent Deloitte global survey examined individuals’ feelings about the effects specific technologies have on their lives and careers–do they expect help or hindrance?

Survey author is Mark Cotteleer, Managing Director for Supply Chain & Network Operations.

In the video, he breaks down the study’s findings: which technologies had the highest positive rating, what factors drive positivity, geographic differences in perception, and how to best manage technology anxiety.

Manufacturing 4.0 - Manufacturing Management 4.0

24 January 2020

Discussion about smart factory solutions


Manufacturing 4.0: The Use of Emergent Technologies in Manufacturing
by O. Perez, S. Sauceda, and  J. Cruz.

Manufacturing 4.0 The Use of Emergent Technologies in Manufacturing This book provides a comprehensive framework to understand and use Industry 4.0 emergent technologies in manufacturing for the hands-on engineers. It details the contribution of Lean and Manufacturing 4.0 to reduce and handle the increasing complexity experienced in the production floor. In addition, it classifies manufacturing under three attributes describing the way each of them modify it: Digital, Automated, and Additive. Each of these modifiers is presented as a chapter with a strategy, a detail description of the set of tools around them, and examples to make it easy to understand for the reader. The hype of industry 4.0 and its derivative technologies inevitably creates new business models but it also significantly impacts key process indicators. The integration, and exploitation of a subset of Industry 4.0 technologies is baptized as manufacturing 4.0 in this book. The book also outlines a manufacturing 4.0 implementation Strategy as part of the continuous improvement journey to assess, outline solutions, evaluate the benefit and risk, review with stakeholders, and create a portfolio. A roadmap provides a guideline together with all the explanations of the different technology applications in order to use it as a reference. The goal is for you to apply these technology enablers on the right problems to benefit your organization.

How smart is your factory?
Experience how AI and IoT power a factory in the Industry 4.0 era. Let's put smart to work.™

Industry 4.0 technologies: Implementation patterns in manufacturing companies
Alejandro Germán Franka,  Lucas Santos Dalenogare, Néstor Fabián Ayalac.
International Journal of Production Economics
Volume 210, April 2019, Pages 15-26

Audi Smart Factory
17 November 2016


Updated on 22 February 2020,
12 September 2019

Supply Chain Leadership

Supply Chain Leaders - SCM Laggards - Performance Differences - Deloitte
2014 Report

9’C of Supply Chain Leadership Every Leader Should Master

Command, Control, Consensus,  Collaboration, Competency, Consistency, Commitment, Concern for the People, Creativity

Command is a management function according to Henri Fayol

Control - is the job of manager to see that activities are being according to prescribed standard processes.

Consensus - is important during planning.

Collaboration - has to be ensured in organization and staffing. 

Competency - refers to the technical abilities of execution.

Consistency - Adhering to standard practices gives consistency.

Commitment to purpose, mission and visioin

Concern for the People - Commitment to human dignity and satisfaction.

Creativity - Developing to novel and useful solutions to the challenges of the business.

Updated on 22 Feb 2020
15 May 2019

Supply Chain 4.0 - Supply Chain of Things

The customer interacts with single point marketing channel digitally. The goods or services are delivered as per the accepted instructions. Supply chain 4.0 is composed of things that sense, communicate, analyze and modify their activities. Intelligent things or things with senses and even brain constitute the supply chain things. Human control is there but that is the back end. The actual operations of the supply chain are performed by things - production machines, robots, drones, AGVS, stacks, products, autonomous vehicles, autonomous fork lifts, computers  - cloud, edge, and device-embedded.

A supply chain of things: The EAGLET ontology for highly visible supply chains
Author links open overlay panelGuido L.GeertsaDaniel E.O'Learyb
Decision Support Systems
Volume 63, July 2014, Pages 3-22

The supply chain of things: IoT in supply chain
By Scott Nalick on SAS Voices October 15, 2018

December 10, 2018
Supply Chain Management Under Industry 4.0 - Paper Summaries
What does industry 4.0 mean to supply chain?

Internet of things and supply chain management: a literature review
Mohamed Ben-Daya,Elkafi Hassini &Zied Bahroun
International Journal of Production Research
Volume 57, 2019 - Issue 15-16: Special Issue: Selected Surveys on Cutting-edge Problems in Production Research
Full paper is available

February 20, 2020

Digital Supply Chain - Design, Management and Transformation

https://www.supplychaindigital.com/  Magazine

Digital Supply Chain - Design, Management and Transformation

20 February 2020

SAP Digital Supply Chain Success Stories
SAP Digital Supply Chain Success Stories covering Digital Products & Projects, Digital Business Planning, Digital Manufacturing, Digital Logistics and Digital Asset Management

Digital Capabilities Model for Supply Networks

Interconnected Synchronized Planning  <-> Connected Customer <->   Intelligent Supply <->  Smart Operations <-> Dynamic Fulfillment <-> Digital Development

All components of the network are interconnected with visibility of activities and information available at each component.

The 7 Dimensions of Digital Supply Chain Planning
October 1, 2019 Contributor: Sarah Hippold
A systematic approach to help supply chain planning leaders make the right decisions on which digital technologies to deploy in their specific organization.

Digital Supply Chain
Digitizing the supply chain can transform a company’s ability to anticipate and serve customer needs; manage the supply chain for agility, reliability, and efficiency; and use supply chain excellence as a source of competitive advantage.

Digital supply chain transformation: Taking the first step
By Arun Kochar | From the Quarter 3 2019 issue
Arun Kochar is a partner in the Operations & Performance Transformation Practice of A.T. Kearney, a global strategy and management consulting firm.

KPMG - Creating a digital supply chain
The supply chain management of the past won’t work anymore; companies are looking for a digital supply chain that can provide more agile, efficient, and transparent service delivery.

KPMG - Chapters from Technology Optimization and Change Management for Successful Digital Supply Chains

Digital Transformation Roadmap for India’s Automotive Industry

Deloitte SupplyPRISM™
A holistic analytics platform of cognitive-enabled products, managed services, and integrated solutions designed to drive powerful visibility into your digital supply network with timely predictive and prescriptive insights.

Digital Supply Chains Carry Brands to the Future
Mohammed (Mo) Hajibashi (Accenture)

September 12, 2019
Preparing Your Business for the Digital Supply Chain - Oracle Blog

Digital Supply Chain - Cap Gemini


14 May 2019 - Gartner - Converging Physical and Digital Supply Chains






28 March 2017


A more connected, intelligent, scalable and rapid supply network.

Digital supply networks

Turn your supply chain into an “always-on” strategic differentiator
Organizations are achieving operational performance breakthroughs as digital supply networks enable supply network visibility—and unprecedented insights.

Digital Supply Chain Transformation

Today’s best supply chains use state-of-the-art information and communication technologies such as scanners, GPS, PDAs and tagging methods such as barcodes or RFID. Paper based supply chain documents are increasingly being replaced by Electronic Document Management.
Capgemini Consulting helps our clients build new operating models which incorporate seamless supplier integration, optimal inventory management and efficient execution of pull strategies in order to optimize working capital and transportation cost.

March 2017

Industry 4.0: The Five Steps Towards A Digital Supply Chain
by Strategy&, part of the PwC network


February 2016
Three Paths to Advantage with Digital Supply Chains
FEBRUARY 01, 2016 by Amit Ganeriwalla, Gideon Walter, Libor Kotlik, Robert Roesgen, and Stefan Gstettner

Supply Chain Management Software

Top 15 SCM Software Systems in 2020

Perfect Commerce
Oracle SCM
Infor SCM
Manhattan SCM
Dassault Systemes SCM
Descrates SCM
Highjump SCM
Watson Supply Chain
Blujay SCM


Updated on 21 February 2020,
28 March 2017

February 18, 2020

Supply Chain Management - Five Main Tasks - James Ayers - Summary

1. Designing Supply Chains for Strategic Advantage

2. Internal Organization of Supply Chain Processes

3. Partnership with External Organizations

4. Managing Supply Chain Information

5. Managing Physical Flows

6. Managing Financial Flows

7. Improving Supply Chain Processes

8. Improving Products and Services of the Supply Chain

Linking The Supply Chain With The Customer - James Ayers - Summary

Effective Supply Chains - Marshall Fisher's Framework

Quality Function Deployment

Model for Competing Through SCM - James Ayers - Summary

1. Strategic or Not Strategic

2. Level of Impact of Supply Chain Projects

Department level

Supply Chain Level

Business Unit Level

Evolution of Supply Chain Models- James Ayers - Summary

Eight decision categories of manufacturing strategy - Hayes & Wheelwright




Vertical Integration



Production Quantity Planning and Materials Control

People Organization and Reward Policies

What are decision categories of supply chain

Supply Chain 2025 - Vision, Forecasts and Plans


AIAG and Thomson Reuters Release Final Supply Chain 2025 Report
The Automotive Industry Action Group and Thomson Reuters have launched the third and final report on current and emerging automotive supply chain trends impacting the industry through 2025.




Supply chain 2025 — trends & implications for India
A joint Kearney-CSCMP study


Supply Chain 2025: The Future of Work
Published: 30 November 2018

ID: G00705327

Analyst(s): Geraint John, Patrick Van Hull, Pierfrancesco Manenti

Supply Chain Potency - James Ayers - Summary

James Ayers - Handbook of Supply Chain Management - 2001 - Information - Summary

Chapter 3  Supply Chain Potency

Supply chain projects can be undertaken for building "potent" supply chains and improving them.

This book is less about running supply chains than it is about improving them.

Supply Chain Management - The "Right" Way - James Ayers - Summary

Supply Chain Management Initiatives in Companies


Supplier reduction programs, vendor managed inventory (VMI), partnering with the supplier

Companies in which supply chain management initiatives are mainly in procurement, the procurement executive is chosen as the supply chain executive.


Typical activities including modeling or automating warehouses, distribution centers, or transportation networks to reduce cost.


Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is an early example of improving communication among supply chain participants, Wal-mart was successfully move point-of-sales data of its retail outlets to its suppliers. This increased demand driven planninng in the supply chain

Strategic Management

Some companies have taken the view that design and operation of supply chain is a strategic decision or a lever which provides strategic advantage of competitive advantage. A effective and efficient supply chain will increase customer satisfaction, sales volume, sales prices and reduce costs. To achive this supplier relations have to be improved, logistics has to be improved, information systems are to be improved, and industrial engineering (It is basically reengineering engineering elements) and  business process reengineering have to be implemented across the supply chain.

The authors stated that they were presented tools that help the companies to design and operate supply chains as part of strategy,

BPR's Application to Supply Chain

Introduction to the Supply Chain Management - James Ayers - Summary

Definition of Supply Chain Management (SCM)

Design, maintenance and operation of supply chain processes for satisfaction of end user needs.

February 16, 2020

James Ayers - Handbook of Supply Chain Management - 2001 - Information - Summary

Handbook of Supply Chain Management
Edited By James B. Ayers
Edition 1st Edition
First Published 2000
eBook Published 29 August 2000
Pub. location Boca Raton
Imprint CRC Press
DOI   https://doi.org/10.1201/9781420025705
Pages 488 pages

When you invest millions on new systems you don't want yesterday's solutions. You need a global view of end-to-end material, information, and financial flows. Managers today have the same concerns managers had last year, 10 years ago, or 50 years ago: products, markets, people and skills operations, and finance. New supply chain management processes


Chapter 1|6 pages  Introduction to the Supply Chain

Chapter 2|12 pages  Supply Chain Management — The “Right” Way

Chapter 3|4 pages  Supply Chain Potency

Chapter 4|10 pages  Evolution of Supply Chain Models

Chapter 5|8 pages  Model for Competing through SCM

Chapter 6|16 pages  Linking the Supply Chain with the Customer

Chapter 7|10 pages  Supply Chains as Activity Systems

Chapter 8|6 pages  QFD Case Study

Chapter 9|4 pages  The Supply Chain and New Products

Chapter 10|8 pages  Foundation for Supply Chain Change

Chapter 11|6 pages  Functional Roles in Supply Chain Change

Chapter 12|10 pages  Supply Chain Design — A Team Framework

Chapter 13|10 pages  Institutionalizing Supply Chain Changes

Chapter 14|10 pages  Motivations for Partnerships

Chapter 15|6 pages  Emerging Partnership Model

Chapter 16|6 pages  Planning for Partnerships

Chapter 17|4 pages  Core Competence and Partnerships

Chapter 18|8 pages  Organizing Improvement Efforts

Chapter 19|6 pages  Stage 3 Supply Chain Structure

Chapter 20|8 pages  The Extended Enterprise at DaimlerChrysler

Chapter 21|6 pages  SCM and Information Technology

Chapter 22|12 pages  Topography of Supply Chain Applications

Chapter 23|10 pages  Supply-Chain Council

Chapter 24|12 pages  Cost and the Supply Chain

Chapter 25|28 pages  Root Cause — Clarity

Chapter 26|28 pages  Root Cause — Variability

Chapter 27|8 pages  Root Cause — Design

Chapter 28|8 pages  Root Cause — Information

Chapter 29|8 pages  Root Cause — Weak Links

Chapter 30|6 pages  Supply Chain Prestudy

Chapter 31|12 pages  Implementation Roadmap

Chapter 32|6 pages  From Purchasing to Strategic Sourcing — A Road Map

Chapter 33|8 pages  Selecting Supply Chain Software

Chapter 34|6 pages  Partnership Barriers in the Nuclear Industry

Chapter 35|6 pages  Wholesale Grocer: Supply Chain “Streamlining”

Chapter 36|10 pages  Plumbing Supplies: Manufacturer/Distributor

Chapter 37|8 pages  Supply Chain Management in Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul Operations

Chapter 38|8 pages  Retail Distribution: From Low Tech To Leading Edge Distribution Center

Chapter 39|8 pages  British Telecom — Capacity Planning in a Deregulating Industry

Chapter 40|6 pages   Semiconductor Equipment: Supply Chain Links

Chapter 41|4 pages  Footwear Distribution

Chapter 42|6 pages  Bicycle Manufacturer: Internet Strategy

Chapter 43|10 pages  Consolidation Centers in the Lean Supply Chain

Chapter 44|10 pages  Demand-Driven Supply Chain in a Start Up

Chapter 45|4 pages  Automobile Industry: Incoming Material

Chapter 46|4 pages  Water Utility: Logistics Services Partnerships

Chapter 47|6 pages  Auto Parts Retailer — Logistics Partnership

Chapter 48|6 pages  Improving Furniture Manufacturer EVA

Chapter 49|10 pages  Performance Improvement Through Metrics for Buyers

February 13, 2020

Thought Leadership and Blogging

What is thought leadership?

  • Thought leadership is based on the power of ideas to transform the way we think.
  • It is because new knowledge often speaks for itself that thought leadership does not depend on the power of personality, larger than life influencing skills or the authority of position.
  • Thought leadership can be shown by example, logical argument, factual presentation, or an emotional appeal where necessary. 
  • It is simply the championing of new ideas laterally to peers or upwards to superiors. 
  • Some thought leaders are quiet innovators who demonstrate the merits of their ideas. Other thought leaders are not personally creative but they are early adopters of new technology or new ways of doing something, and hence, quick to champion new ideas. 
  • Thought leadership can range from high risk, revolutionary products through minor changes to operating procedures.

Rausch, E. and McCrimmon, M. (2005), "Thought leadership: a radical departure from traditional, positional leadership", Management Decision, Vol. 43 No. 7/8, pp. 1064-1070. https://doi.org/10.1108/00251740510610062


How to communicate an idea? What are channels available?

Does Blogging Help in Spreading Thoughts and Establishing Thought Leadership in Specific Thoughts?

Is thought leadership still controlled by gate keeping journals and magazines who decide what will be printed or included in their collection based on their editorial and review policies?

What is your answer? (13 February 2020)

February 12, 2020

Digital Marketing - Introduction, Evolution, Trends and Bibliography

Introduction - Digital Marketing

Interactive Marketing - Philip Kotler's (Keller) Chapter Topic Summary

Philip Kotler on Digital Marketing


Bibliography on Digital Marketing








Gartner World Digital Marketing Conference 2015 Presentation





Longitudinal Study of Digital Marketing Strategies Targeting Millennials
Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 29, No. 2, (2012)
22 Pages Posted: 26 Oct 2016 Last revised: 23 Nov 2016
Katherine Taken Smith
Murray State University - College of Business


Training Programmes




Updated on 13 Feb 2020
16 March 2017

February 10, 2020

Two New Methods of Marketing in Interactive Digital Era

Interactive Marketing

Interactive Marketing - Philip Kotler's Book Chapter Summary


Omni Channel Marketing
Experts say the future of retailing is omni-channel marketing;

Developments in Retailing - Omni-Channel


Developments in Retailing - New Retail - Omni-Channel

"New retail" is  a phenomenon recently coined by Chinese e-commerce group Alibaba, entails retailers integrating their online and offline businesses, and leveraging the Internet and customer data to sell better.

24 July 2017

Omni-channel experience is a multi-channel approach to marketing, selling, and serving customers in a way that creates an integrated and cohesive customer experience no matter how or where a customer reaches out.

Omin-channel uses multiple channels but integrates them so that customers gets similar experience when using any channel. The store salesman is not ignorant of the product information presented on website. He is not ignorant of price discounts offered on mobile marketing channel.

15 Examples of Brands With Brilliant Omni-Channel Experiences


The future of retail is omni-channel, say brand leaders
16 Jul 2019,

updated on 11 February 2020
21 August 2017

February 8, 2020

Line-Staff Authority and Decentralization - Review Notes

Authority and Power

Without authority - the power to exercise discretion in making decisions and using resources, managers cannot achieve the goals or targets assigned to them. What kind of authority is provided in the organization structure to each manager and employee is an important issue to be determined in the organization activity.

It will be useful to distinguish between authority and power. Power is a much broader concept than authority.  Power is the ability of individuals or groups to induce or influence the beliefs or actions of other persons or groups. Authority is a concept used in organizations or theory of organizations to refer to the right in a position (and, through it, the right of the person occupying the position) to exercise discretion to making decisions relating to the group of people and activities they are asked to do.

Line authority gives a superior a line of authority over a subordinate.

Staff relationship is advisory. The function of person in a staff role is to investigate, research, and give advice to his line manager.

Line and staff are characterized by relationships and not by departmental activities. Today staff advice is far more critical. Operating managers are now faced with making decisions that require expert knowledge in economic, technical, political, legal and social areas. The expert knowledge is to be applied on vast amounts of data of published as well as interview data. Line managers may not have the time to conduct interviews or go through the published data. Hence services of staff are utilized by line managers to do the data collection, summarize it, analyze it and make recommendation which can be verified the line managers to take decisions.

Completed Staff Work

The recommendations of staff work should be complete. Completed staff work implies the presentation of a clear recommendation based upon full consideration of a problem, clearance or discussions with persons importantly affected, suggestions about avoiding difficulties involved, and often preparation of the paper work - job descriptions, specifications and related directives - so that the managers can consider the proposal with less effort and if accepted the proposal can be put into effect. Many time-consuming conferences could be avoided or materially shortened if staff work were truly complete.

Staff Specialists - Giving and Taking Credit

Staff specialist must remember that the operating manager who accepts the idea actually bears responsibility for making it a success and is also responsible for solving the problems or difficulties or the confusion that appears during implementation. Hence a staff specialist cannot claim all the credit for himself for any implemented idea. But the staff must sell and keep selling itself to other executives. Staff is selling its service and also the persons engaged in it apart from the idea. The selling of an idea by staff does not mean that a manager automatically buys the idea. It is important for the manager responsible for a decision understand the disadvantages as well as advantages of the course of action proposed and then only take the decision.

The staff specialist must, through precept and example, convince his line colleagues that his prime interest is their welfare, and he must deprecate his own contributions while embellishing theirs.

Functional Authority

Functional authority is the right delegated to an individual or a department to control specified processes, practices, policies, or other matters relating to activities undertaken by persons in other departments.  It is delegated by a common superior of line managers to a staff specialist or a specific line manager. This is to take care of specialized knowledge, or to avoid diverse interpretations of policies.


Decentralization implies more than delegation. Delegation is generally discussed in the context of a superior and subordinate. But decentralization is a philosophy of organization and management. The management specifically specifies which decisions are taken at what levels in the organization and creates policies accordingly.

Personal Attitudes and Delegation

Certain personal attitudes underlie real delegation.

Superior must have a willingness to give other people's ideas a chance. The subordinate's decision is not likely to be exactly the same a superior would have made. So a superior must be willing to accepts different decisions and complement them on their ingenuity also.

Willingness to Let Go
A manager must be willing to release the right to make decisions. The manager must concentrate on tasks that contribute most to the organization and assign other tasks to subordinates even though he could accomplish them better himself. It is law of comparative advantage in management.

Willingness to Allow Mistakes by Subordinates
Since everyone makes mistakes,  a subordinate must be allowed to make some, and their cost must be considered an investment in personal development.

Willingness to Trust Subordinates
Superiors have to trust subordinates to delegate authority to them.

Willingness to Establish and Use Broad Controls
The manager must have the ability to develop control points and measures that are broad and provide space for the subordinate to function as for his plan of doing things.

Updated  9 February 2020,   3 Feb 2015, 6 Jan 2014, 12 Dec 2011

MBA Core Management Knowledge - One Year Revision Schedule

January 22, 2020

IAS - Civil Services Examination - Management Subject - June Study Materials


First Week  1 to 5 June 2015

Industrial Engineering

Industrial Engineering assists managers in achieving the second important performance dimension of management - Efficiency. Effectiveness is the first dimension. Industrial engineering has its primary focus engineering activities, processes and organizations. The principles and practices developed in this subject have application in non-engineering areas. Managers have to be aware of basics of industrial engineering and recent developments. Even service sector organizations have engineering activities like construction and maintenance of buildings, operation and maintenance of transport facilities, information technology operations etc.

Detailed Presentation on Industrial Engineering PrinciplesPresented by Narayana Rao at IISE 2017 Annual Conference at Pittsburgh on 23 May 2017.



Industrial Engineering Introduction
Industrial engineering Principles, Methods Tools and Techniques

Functions and Focus Areas of Industrial Engineering
Pioneering Efforts of Taylor, Gilbreth and Emerson

Motion Study - Human Effort Engineering
Ergonomics - Introduction

Industrial Engineering Data and Measurements
Work Measurement

Methods Efficiency Engineering
Product Design Efficiency Engineering

2 week - 8 to 12 June

Plant Layout - Efficiency
Value Engineering - Introduction

Statistical Quality Control – Industrial Engineering
Inspection Methods Efficiency Engineering

Operations Research - An Efficiency Improvement Tool for Industrial Engineers
Engineering Economics is an Efficiency Improvement Tool for Industrial Engineers

Industrial Engineering and Scientific Management in Japan
Shigeo Shingo - The Japanese Industrial Engineer

System Engineering Process and Its Management
Systems Improvement Process

3rd Week  15 to 19 June

Systems Installation - Installing Proposed Methods
Productivity, Safety, Comfort, and Operator Health Management

Organizing for Industrial Engineering: Historical Evolution of Thinking
Current Research in IE

Managing Change in Improvement Projects - Comfort Zone to Comfort Zone
Supply Chain Cost Reduction

Total Improvement Management
Total Industrial Engineering - H. Yamashina

Opportunities or Areas for Innovation
Market Development for New Products, Processes and System

4 Week - 22 to 26 June 

Organizing for Innovation
Research and Development Management

Economics - Revision

Introduction to Economics - Basic Economic Concepts and Theories
Elements of Supply and Demand - Review Notes

Theory of Aggregate Supply and Demand
Business Cycles

Macroeconomic Objectives
Money and Monetary Policy

Fiscal and Debt Policies of the Government
Theory Demand, Supply and Equilibrium in Market

June Month Birthdays - Management Scholars and Professors

To July - Management Knowledge Revision

Industrial Engineers support Engineers and Managers in Efficiency Improvement of Products, Processes and Systems

One Year MBA Knowledge Revision Plan

January  - February  - March  - April  - May   -   June

July  - August     - September  - October  - November  - December

Updated 28 May 2019, 4 June 2017, 26 May 2016

IAS - Civil Services Examination - Management Subject - May Study Materials

First Week  1 May to 5 May

Cost Information for Pricing Decisions
Cost Behavior Analysis and Relevant Costs

Costing for Strategic Profitability Analysis
Cost Information for Customer Profitability Analysis

Costing for Spoilage, Rework and Scrap
Costing for Quality, Time and the Theory of Constraints

Costing for Inventory Management, JIT and Backflush
Cost Information and Analysis for Capital Budgeting

Cost Information for Management Control and Performance Control
Cost Information for Transfer Pricing

Second Week 8 May to 12 May

Managerial Accounting or Management Accounting - Review Notes
Relevant Information and Decision Making - Marketing Decisions

Relevant Information and Decision Making - Production
Relevant Information and Decision Making - HR

The Master Budget - Accounting Information
Flexible Budgets and Variance Analysis - Review Notes

Responsibility Accounting for Management Control
Accounting Information for Management Control in Divisionalized Companies

Capital Budgeting - Accounting and Cost Information

Revision of Organizational Behavior



Introduction to Organizational Behavior

Third Week   15 May to 19 May

Environmental context: Information Technology and Globalization
Environmental context: Diversity and Ethics

Organizational Context: Design and Culture
Organizational Context:: Reward Systems

Perception and Attribution
Personality and Attitudes

Motivational Needs and Processes
Positive Psychology Approach to OB

Decision Making

Fourth Week  22 May to 26 May

Stress and Conflict
Power and Politics

Groups and Teams
Managing Performance through Job Design and Goal Setting

Principles of Industrial Engineering Presented by Professor K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao (Author of this blog) on 23 May 2017 at the Annual Conference of Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers in Pittsburgh, USA.  Industrial Engineering is a management subject or discipline with Engineering as the foundation. Its primary application area is engineering systems. It augmented application area is any system.  INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING IS SYSTEM EFFICIENCY ENGINEERING AND HUMAN EFFORT ENGINEERING (Definition by Narayana Rao - Published in Udyog Pragati, Jounral of NITIE in 2006)


Behavioral Performance Management
Effective Leadership Process

Great Leaders: Styles, Activities, and Skills
Principles of Innovation

Innovation - Strategic Issues and Methodology
Idea Generation in Organizations

29 May
Financial - Cost and Management Accounting - Subject Update Articles

To June - Management Knowledge Revision

Industrial Engineers support Engineers and Managers in Efficiency Improvement of Products, Processes and Systems

May Month - Birthdays of Management Scholars and Business and Industry Magnates and Accomplished Professionals - Biographies

3 - Sidney S. Alexander (1916)
5 - Jerry A. Hausman (1946)
6 - Sigmund Freud (1856), Kenneth Blanchard (1939)
8 - Benjamin Graham (1894)  [Graham - Rao Method]
10 - Daniel Bell (1919), William James Reddin (1930),  Ikujiro Nonaka (1935)
11 - Morris Llewellyn Cooke (1872)
12 - Thomas H. Carroll II (1914)
14 - William R. Spriegel (1893), Mark Zuckerberg (1984) [Zuckerberg - Narayana Rao Reading Challenge 2015]
15 - Paul Samuelson (1915)
16 - Edward T. Hall (1914), Merton Miller (1923), Robert Butler Wilson Jr. (1937),  Catherine Tucker (1977)
19 - Harold Koontz (1908) Biography: http://mtrrp.blogspot.com/2014/05/prof-dr-harold-koontz-biography-and.html
20 - Henry Gantt (1861), Edwin C. Nevis (1926)
23 - Michael Porter (1947)
24 - Lilian Gilbreth (1878),
25 - Paul Cootner (1930)
27 - Philip Kotler (1931)

One Year MBA Knowledge Revision Plan

January  - February  - March  - April  - May   -   June

July  - August     - September  - October  - November  - December


Updated  29 May 2019,  26 May 2017