December 31, 2017

December - Management Knowledge Revision


December (Business Laws, Negotiation, Taxes and Government Relations)

New

First Week - 1 to 5 December

Business Law - USA
https://www.sba.gov/category/navigation-structure/starting-managing-business/starting-business/business-law-regulations


Advertising and Marketing Law
https://www.sba.gov/starting-business/learn-about-business-laws/advertising-marketing-law

Employment and Labor Law
https://www.sba.gov/starting-business/learn-about-business-laws/employment-labor-law

Finance Law
https://www.sba.gov/starting-business/learn-about-business-laws/finance-law

Online Business Law
https://www.sba.gov/starting-business/learn-about-business-laws/online-business-law

Regulation of Financial Contracts
https://www.sba.gov/starting-business/learn-about-business-laws/regulation-financial-contracts


Business Taxes - USA
https://www.irs.gov/Businesses


Small Business Tax Center
https://www.irs.gov/businesses/small-businesses-self-employed

Large Business and International Tax Center
https://www.irs.gov/businesses/large-business-and-international-tax-center

Deducting Business Expenses
https://www.irs.gov/businesses/small-businesses-self-employed/deducting-business-expenses

Excise Tax
https://www.irs.gov/businesses/small-businesses-self-employed/excise-tax


Second Week - 8 to 12, December

Negotiation Related Knowledge

Negotiations - Knowledge, Research and Skills
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2017/12/negotiations-knowledge-research-and.html


Six Surprising Negotiation Tactics That Get You The Best Deal
http://www.forbes.com/sites/work-in-progress/2013/12/05/six-surprising-negotiation-tactics-that-get-you-the-best-deal/
(Based on Wharton Professor Adam Grant's Book Give and Take

7 Negotiation Techniques Every Small Business Owner Should Know
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/10/30/negotiating-tips-small-business_n_4058588.html


10 Techniques for Better Negotiation
http://www.startupnation.com/articles/10-techniques-for-better-negotiation/

Archive - Program on Negotiation - Harvard Law School
http://www.pon.harvard.edu/tag/negotiation-techniques/


http://www.pon.harvard.edu/daily/dealmaking-daily/negotiation-skills-and-negotiation-techniques-predicting-negotiator-decisions-and-behavior/

Negotation Techniques - An Introduction
http://web.mit.edu/negotiation/www/NTintro.html


Ten Tips to Convince Buyer to Pay More
http://www.negotiationbootcamp.com/NegotiationArticles/TipsForPriceNegotiation.html

Principled versus Positional Negotiation for Purchasing Professionals
79th Annual International ISM Conference Proceedings - 1994 - Atlanta, GA
https://www.instituteforsupplymanagement.org/pubs/Proceedings/confproceedingsdetail.cfm?ItemNumber=5205&SSO=1


Third and Fourth Weeks are left free as year-end vacation.

Bookmark and Visit on 15 January to start 2018 Revision


Industrial Engineers support Engineers and Managers in Efficiency Improvement of Products, Processes and Systems



One Year MBA Knowledge Revision Plan


January  - February  - March  - April  - May   -   June

July  - August     - September  - October  - November  - December


Old


First Week

Economics of Advertising - Economics for the CEO - Managerial economics

Managerial Economics of Basic Price - Joel Dean


Product-Line Pricing - Managerial Economics

Economics of Price Differentials - Joel Dean


Economics of Capital Budgeting - Joel Dean


Operations Management

Introduction to the Field of Operations Management
Operations Strategy and Competitiveness - Review Notes

Optimizing the Use of Resources with Linear Programming

Operations Management shifted to March

Third and Fourth Weeks are left free as year-end vacation.

One Year MBA Knowledge Revision Plan

January  - February  - March  - April  - May   -   June

July  - August     - September  - October  - November  - December



Updated 8, 6 December  2017, 1 December 2016,  11 December 2015






December 18, 2017

New CEO's Turnaround Effort - Success and Failure




The Transformations That Work—and Why
BCG.com
NOVEMBER 7, 2017
By Hans-Paul Bürkner , Lars Fæste , Jim Hemerling , Yulia Lyusina , and Martin Reeves
https://www.bcg.com/publications/2017/transformations-people-organization-that-work-why.aspx


A New CEO's Turnaround Success Based on Listening to Employees and Customers

A New CEO's Turnaround Project - Important Points

I spent most of my first 90 days out in operations and in the field listening — to my employees,  to customers, to suppliers. Listening, watching, evaluating the situation, the opportunity, the constraints and the possible solutions to decide  the steps were that needed to be taken. The decision making was made into a more decentralized model.

You should not attempt to fix a company without data from the trenches. You have get into your employee’s shoes, and your customer’s shoes. Know what problems are to be solved and then only come with solutions.

People at their core want to be part of something successful. To make them a part of successful venture from now make them believe that they’re part of planning the venture. Make them feel good of their 5, 10, 15 years of experience. Tell them it is worth something. Their opinions were worth something. You give that respect to  an equipment operator, a plant foreman, and plant manager. Make them feel proud of their knowledge and skill.

As a CEO who joined recently, trust them first. Back them in their routine activities and they will trust you and participate in strategy development. Make progress and share the benefits of the progress with all employees.

The new CEO has to harvest the collective wisdom gained over years of experience by large number of employees, and then motivate them through good leadership demonstrated to the next level of managers and asking them to exhibit similar style down the line. A CEO can’t be everywhere. But leadership style, performance culture, and a work environment that was supportive of each other can be everywhere in the organization.

The CEO: Sandbrook of US Concrete

http://www.leadersmag.com/issues/2016.4_Oct/ROB/LEADERS-William-Sandbrook-U.S.-Concrete.html

https://www.dallasnews.com/business/business/2017/06/01/toyotas-hq-one-world-trade-center-union-dallas-common-euless-based-concrete-company

http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/what-leaders-gain-by-listening-closely-to-employees/

http://chiefexecutive.net/bill-sandbrook-shoring-u-s-concrete/

Updated 19 December 2017, 3 July 2017

December 7, 2017

Negotiations - Knowledge, Research and Skills



Negotiation Skills



Negotiation skills are becoming increasingly recognized as important to effective management and personal success.

Research at one time identified some common mistakes being made in negotiations.

1. Negotiating persons tend to be overly affected by the frame, or form of presentation, of information in a negotiation.
2. Even when a course of action is no longer the most reasonable alternative, negotiators tend to nonrationally escalate commitment to a previously selected or advocated course of action.
3. Negotiators tend to assume that their gain must come at the expense of the other party and thereby miss opportunities for mutually beneficial trade-offs  between the parties.
4. Negotiators judgments tend to be anchored on irrelevant information, such as initial offer.
5. Negotiators tend to rely on readily available information.
6. Negotiators tend to fail to consider information that is available by focusing on the opponent's perspective.
7. Negotiators tend to be overconfident concerning the likelihood of attaining outcomes that favor the individual(s) involved.

 Traditionally, negotiators have depended on distributed and positional bargaining. Distributed bargaining assumes a "fixed pie" and focuses on how to get the biggest share, or "slice of the pie" for the benefit of the negotiating party. Positional bargaining approach involved successively taking and then giving up, a sequence of positions. A position involves telling the other side what you want.

Strategies called soft and hard are used in traditional ways of negotiating.  Characteristics of the "hard strategy" include the following: the goal is victory, distrust others, dig into your position, make threats, try to win contest of will, apply pressure.

Soft strategy includes characteristics: The goal is agreement, trust others, change your position easily,  make offers,  try to avoid a contest of will, and yield to pressure.


The traditional approach is now being challenged by more effective alternative negotiation skills.

Whetten and Cameron suggest an approach that takes an "expanding the pie" perspective and advocates finding win-win outcomes. The approach recommends:
1. Establishing superordinate goals.
2. Separating people from the problem
3. Focusing on interests, not positions
4. Inventing options for mutual gain.
5. Using objective criteria.

In terms of negotiation techniques or manoevres the following are identified as in use by negotiators.

 Practical low-risk strategies include flattery, addressing the easy points first, silence, inflated opening position, and "oh, poor me."

High-risk strategies include unexpected temper losses, high-balling, Boulwarism, and waiting until the last moment.

Harvard Negotiation Project came up with principled negotiation approach or negotiation on the merits approach. This is an  integrative approach, which uses a problem-solving, collaborative strategy, and the principled, or negotiation on the merits approach, which emphasizes people, interests, options, and criteria. These negotiation skills  change the game, leading to a win-win, wise agreement.

Along with social, emotional, behavioral, leadership, team, and communication skills, negotiation skills are becoming increasingly recognized as important to effective management.



Principled Negotiation Approach



Positional style of negotiation,

With the positional style of negotiation, each party starts with an extreme (may be unjustified) position. The basis for this approach is the belief that the ultimate solution will be favorable only if the initial offer is extreme and concessions are done. But it is zero-sum game. One party will win and one will lose and in many case of street buying situations, seller comes down drastically.

But deals and settlements in positional negotiations come with a steep non- monetary price. Trust becomes the victim and in the next negotiation also both parties bargain heavily. Thus, the process creates (or perpetuates) an adversarial relationship between the two parties.

Principled negotiation seeks to establish a foundation and climate where parties can be creative in searching for mutually beneficial solutions to a shared problem. This approach preserves, and may even enhance, ongoing relationships.

Four basic elements of principled negotiation were put forth by Fisher and Ury (1991) in their book Getting to Yes (1981).


FOUR PRINCIPLES -  PRINCIPLED NEGOTIATION


People -- Separate the people from the problem.
Interests -- Focus on interests, not positions.
Options -- Generate a variety of possibilities before deciding what to do.
Criteria -- Insist that the result be based on some objective standard.


Four Negotiation Skills For Regular People
https://www.thehedgescompany.com/four-negotiation-skills-regular-people/


Principled versus Positional Negotiation for Purchasing Professionals
79th Annual International ISM Conference Proceedings - 1994 - Atlanta, GA
 https://www.instituteforsupplymanagement.org/pubs/Proceedings/confproceedingsdetail.cfm?ItemNumber=5205&SSO=1



Recent Articles on Negotiations - Quotes

Negotiation Is Changing
Noam Ebner
Journal of Dispute Resolution, Vol. 2017 (1), 99-143.
https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2915204


Abandon zero-sum games in transactions and deals  

Claim up to 42% more value.
(quote created by NRao)

At MarketWatch Centre for Negotiation, we’ve found that negotiators can claim up to 42% more value in a deal by abandoning zero-sum games and creating a relationship based on trust and collaboration.
Why Negotiators Still Aren't 'Getting To Yes'
Keld Jensen, FEB 5, 2013
https://www.forbes.com/sites/keldjensen/2013/02/05/why-negotiators-still-arent-getting-to-yes/#1b6c1a9f2640


More References on Negotiation

IVY EXEC - Articles on Negotiation
https://www.ivyexec.com/executive-insights/category/advancing/negotiation-skills/


Books on Negotiation Skills


Negotiating at Work: Turn Small Wins Into Big Gains

Deborah M. Kolb, Jessica L. Porter
John Wiley & Sons, 27-Jan-2015 - Business & Economics - 288 pages


Understand the context of negotiations to achieve better results

Negotiation has always been at the heart of solving problems at work.  What has been missed in much of the literature of the past 30 years is that negotiations in organizations always take place within a context—of organizational culture, of prior negotiations, of power relationships—that dictates which issues are negotiable and by whom. When we negotiate for new opportunities or increased flexibility, we never do it in a vacuum. We challenge the status quo and we build out the path for others to negotiate those issues after us. In this way, negotiating for ourselves at work can create small wins that can grow into something bigger, for ourselves and our organizations.

Negotiating at Work offers practical advice for managing your own workplace negotiations: how to get opportunities, promotions, flexibility, buy-in, support, and credit for your work. It does so within the context of organizational dynamics, recognizing that to negotiate with someone who has more power adds a level of complexity.

 Negotiating at Work is rooted in real-life cases of professionals from a wide range of industries and organizations, both national and international.

Strategies to get the other person to the table and engage in creative problem solving, even when they are reluctant to do so
Tips on how to recognize opportunities to negotiate, bolster your confidence prior to the negotiation, turn 'asks' into a negotiation, and advance negotiations that get "stuck"
A rich examination of research on negotiation, conflict management, and gender
By using these strategies, you can negotiate successfully for your job and your career; in a larger field, you can also alter organizational practices and policies that impact others.
Preview
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=F7FYBQAAQBAJ






Training Materials

Advanced Labor Negotiations
US Army, 1985
https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uva.x030450211;view=1up;seq=1


Updated 8 December 2017, 5 December 2017

November 30, 2017

Manufacturing Sector - Business and Management Issues and Trends



September 2017

The McKinsey Global Institute finds that the United States could boost annual manufacturing value added by up to $530 billion (20 percent) over current trends by 2025.

By 2025, consumption in emerging markets will hit $30 trillion.

Industry 4.0, is driven by developments in data aquisition, storage and analytics,  machine learning, new forms of human–machine interaction (such as touch interfaces and augmented-reality systems), and the ability to transmit digital instructions to the physical world. In combination, the technologies can run smart, cost-efficient, and automated plants that produce large volumes—or, conversely, plants that turn out highly customized products.

https://www.mckinsey.com/global-themes/americas/making-it-in-america-revitalizing-us-manufacturing

November 28, 2017

Business Model Innovation




Managerial Opportunity Recognition in Business Model Innovation

Marijan Topic
GRIN Verlag, 06-Nov-2017 - Business & Economics - 159 pages


Master's Thesis from the year 2017 Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg


The goal of this Master’s thesis is to examine the relationship between managerial Opportunity Recognition (OR) and business model innovations (BMIs) in established organizations. In order to meet the complexity of the topic, this thesis is focused on factors that hinder or help managers in recognizing business opportunities. Focusing on incumbent firms, this paper conducts further research to identify the main influencing factors, including challenges, vulnerabilities, and obstacles. The thesis is divided into six parts, starting with a brief description of the research topic, including the problem position and objective.

Second, a literature review is conducted to summarize the state of research, including theoretical foundations. The results are then synthesized into a summary

The third part of the thesis consists of expert interviews. Derived from the literature review, a guideline for interviews is developed to treat the research gaps in an appropriate way and to meet the complexity of the task setting. The explorative survey aims to identify the challenges and drivers of managerial OR in BMI and to identify approaches that have not yet been addressed in scientific literature to a significant extent.

The core of the analysis is the splitting of the BM into the elements value proposition, value creation, and value capture. This ensures that all the facets of a company ́s BM are accurately addressed and form the basis for high-quality results.

https://books.google.co.in/books?id=9DI9DwAAQBAJ



40 Principles for Business Model Innovation

The 40 principles for innovation, based on TRIZ adjusted for business problems, is the result of an analysis of close to three million successful inventive solutions from areas such as science, arts, politics.

http://tbmdb.blogspot.in/2009/03/40-principles-for-business-model.html

October 23, 2017

The Strategic Management Process - Review Notes





The tasks of developing  and executing company strategies are the heart and soul of managing a business enterprise and winning in the marketplace.

A company's strategy is the plan management is using to acquire a market position and  conduct its operations. This involves  attracting and pleasing customers, competing successfully against and the current and future rivals, and achieving organizational objectives.

The central thrust of a company's strategy is undertaking moves to build and strengthen the company's long-term competitive position in its chose target market segments as well as in the overall market and  gain a competitive advantage over rivals that then becomes a company's ticket to above-average profitability and performance. A company's strategy typically evolves over time as a blend of (1) proactive and purposeful actions on the part of company managers and (2) as-needed reactions to unanticipated developments and fresh market conditions.

Closely related to the concept of strategy is the concept of a company's business model.

A company's business model is management's story line for how and why the company's product offerings and competitive approaches will generate a revenue stream and have an associated cost structure that produces attractive earnings and return on investment—in effect, a company's business model sets forth the economic logic for making money in a particular business, given the company's current strategy.  Business model must have a demand model, that explains how the company's product or products sell a particular quantity at a particular price. The model has to satisfy the criterion that as price increases demand decreases for each product. The cost model is also a part of the business model. It tells how a particular quantity of a product is produced and distributed at a particular cost. Thus profit is determined from the demand model and cost model for a specified price. The company then has the option to select a price that maximizes the profit or a price that maximizes the demand given a minimum profit to be achieved.

A winning strategy fits the circumstances of a company's external situation and its internal resource strengths and competitive capabilities, builds competitive advantage, and boosts company performance.

Crafting and executing strategy are core management functions and especially the core top management functions in an organization. Whether a company wins or loses in the marketplace is directly attributable to the potential of that company's strategy and the zeal and controls with which the strategy is executed.

Managerial Process



The managerial process of crafting and executing a company's strategy consists of five interrelated and integrated phases:

Developing a strategic vision of where the company needs to head and what its future product/market/technology focus should be. This managerial step provides long-term direction, infuses the organization with a sense of purposeful action.


Objectives are derived from the  strategic mission and  vision and larger in number and they address the aspirations of all the stakeholders. Goals spell out how much of what kind of performance by when.  Companies need to both financial objectives and goals and strategic objectives and goals. A balanced scorecard approach provides the basis for both.


Crafting a strategy to achieve the objectives and move the company along the strategic course that management has charted. Crafting strategy is concerned principally with forming responses to changes under way in the external environment, devising competitive moves and market approaches aimed at producing sustainable competitive advantage, building competitively valuable competencies and capabilities, and uniting the strategic actions initiated in various parts of the company. The more that a company's operations cut across different products, industries, and geographical areas, the more that strategy making becomes a collaborative effort involving managers and company personnel at many organizational levels. The total strategy that emerges in such companies is really a collection of strategic actions and business approaches initiated partly by senior company executives, partly by the heads of major business divisions, partly by functional-area managers, and partly by operating managers on the frontlines.

The larger and more diverse the operations of an enterprise, the more points of strategic initiative it has and the more managers and employees at more levels of management that have a relevant strategy-making role.

Three Levels of Strategy


A single-business enterprise has three levels of strategy—business strategy for the company as a whole, functional-area strategies for each main area within the business, and operating strategies undertaken by lower-echelon managers to flesh out strategically significant aspects for the company's business and functional area strategies.

Four Levels of Strategy


In diversified, multibusiness companies, the strategy-making task involves four distinct types or levels of strategy: corporate strategy for the company as a whole, business strategy (one for each business the company has diversified into), functional-area strategies within each business, and operating strategies. Typically, the strategy-making task is more top-down than bottom-up, with higher-level strategies serving as the guide for developing lower-level strategies.


Implementing and executing the chosen strategy efficiently and effectively. 


Managing the implementation and execution of strategy is an operations-oriented (Marketing, Production, Sales, Distribution and Service), make-things-happen activity aimed at shaping the performance of core business activities in a strategy-supportive manner. Management's handling of the strategy implementation process can be considered successful if  the company meets or beats its strategic and financial performance targets and shows good progress in achieving management's strategic vision.


Evaluating performance and initiating corrective adjustments in vision, long-term direction, objectives, strategy, or execution in light of actual experience, changing conditions, new ideas, and new opportunities.

This phase of the strategy management process is the trigger point for deciding whether to continue or change the company's vision, objectives, strategy, and/or strategy execution methods.
A company's strategic vision plus its objectives plus its strategy equals a strategic plan for coping with industry and competitive conditions, outcompeting rivals, and addressing the challenges and issues that stand as obstacles to the company's success.

Activities -  The Managers have to do


Successful managers have to do several things in leading the drive for good strategy execution and operating excellence.

First, they stay on top of things. They keep a finger on the organization's pulse by spending considerable time outside their offices, listening and talking to organization members, coaching, cheerleading, and picking up important information.

Second, they are active and visible in putting constructive pressure on the organization to achieve good results. Generally, this is best accomplished by promoting an esprit de corps that mobilizes and energizes organizational members to execute strategy in a competent fashion and deliver the targeted results.

Third, they keep the organization focused on operating excellence by championing innovative ideas for improvement and promoting the use of best practices to ensure value creating activities are performed in a first-rate fashion.

Fourth, they exert their clout in developing competencies and competitive capabilities that enable better execution.

Fifth, they serve as a role model in displaying high ethical standards, and they insist that company personnel conduct the company's business ethically and in a socially responsible manner. They demonstrate unequivocal and visible commitment to the ethics enforcement process.

Sixth and finally, when a company's strategy execution effort is not delivering good results and the organization is not making measured progress toward operating excellence, it is the leader's responsibility to step forward and push corrective actions.

Role of The Company Board


Boards of directors have a duty to shareholders to play a vigilant role in overseeing management's handling of a company's strategy-making, strategy-executing process. A company's board is obligated to (1) critically appraise and ultimately approve strategic action plans; (2) evaluate the strategic leadership skills of the CEO and others in line to succeed the incumbent CEO; (3) institute a compensation plan for top executives that rewards them for actions and results that serve stakeholder interests, most especially those of shareholders; and (4) ensure that the company issues accurate financial reports and has adequate financial controls.





References
http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073530425/student_view0/chapter1/
17th edition site

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0073530425/student_view0/chapter2/


Updated 25 October 2017,  13 August 2016,  21 May 2012

October 21, 2017

Psychology for Managers - Introduction

Manufacturing Management - Text Books - Bibliography














Early Books on Manufacturing Management


Shop Management
Frederick Winslow Taylor, 1903
http://www.archive.org/stream/shopmanagement00taylgoog#page/n10/mode/2up


Factory Organization and Administration
Hugo Dimer, First Professor of Industrial Engineering, Pennsylavania State College
First edition: 1910
Third edition digital copy
http://www.archive.org/stream/factoryorganiza00diemgoog#page/n10/mode/2up

Profit Making in Shop and Factory Management
Charles U. Carpenter, 1908
http://www.archive.org/stream/cu31924002748576#page/n1/mode/2up

Scientific Management
Frederick Winslow Taylor, 1911
http://www.archive.org/stream/shopmanagement00taylgoog#page/n10/mode/2up

Factory and Office Administration
Lee Galloway, 1918
http://www.archive.org/stream/factoryofficeadm00galliala#page/n3/mode/2up

Factory Management Wastes: And How to Prevent Them
James F. Whiteford, 1919
http://www.archive.org/stream/factorymanagemen00whit#page/n7/mode/2up

Plant Management
Dexter S. Kimball, 1919
http://www.archive.org/stream/cu31924031222627#page/n7/mode/2up






2017

Advances in Production Management Systems. Initiatives for a Sustainable World: IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2016, Iguassu Falls, Brazil, September 3-7, 2016, Revised Selected Papers

Irenilza Nääs, Oduvaldo Vendrametto, João Mendes Reis, Rodrigo Franco Gonçalves, Márcia Terra Silva, Gregor von Cieminski, Dimitris Kiritsis
Springer, 15-Mar-2017 - Computers - 962 pages


This book constitutes the refereed post-conference proceedings of the International IFIP WG 5.7 Conference on Advances in Production Management Systems, APMS 2016, held in Iguassu Falls, Brazil, in September 2016.

The 117 revised full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 164 submissions. They are organized in the following topical sections: computational intelligence in production management; intelligent manufacturing systems; knowledge-based PLM; modelling of business and operational processes; virtual, digital and smart factory; flexible, sustainable supply chains; large-scale supply chains; sustainable manufacturing; quality in production management; collaborative systems; innovation and collaborative networks; agrifood supply chains; production economics; lean manufacturing; cyber-physical technology deployments in smart manufacturing systems; smart manufacturing system characterization; knowledge management in production systems; service-oriented architecture for smart manufacturing systems; advances in cleaner production; sustainable production management; and operations management in engineer-to-order manufacturing.

https://books.google.co.in/books?id=khBhDgAAQBAJ

October 20, 2017

Manufacturing Management Subject Update


Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journal/jmtm

2017

Advances in Production Management Systems. Initiatives for a Sustainable World: IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2016, Iguassu Falls, Brazil, September 3-7, 2016, Revised Selected Papers

Irenilza Nääs, Oduvaldo Vendrametto, João Mendes Reis, Rodrigo Franco Gonçalves, Márcia Terra Silva, Gregor von Cieminski, Dimitris Kiritsis
Springer, 15-Mar-2017 - Computers - 962 pages


This book constitutes the refereed post-conference proceedings of the International IFIP WG 5.7 Conference on Advances in Production Management Systems, APMS 2016, held in Iguassu Falls, Brazil, in September 2016.

The 117 revised full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 164 submissions. They are organized in the following topical sections: computational intelligence in production management; intelligent manufacturing systems; knowledge-based PLM; modelling of business and operational processes; virtual, digital and smart factory; flexible, sustainable supply chains; large-scale supply chains; sustainable manufacturing; quality in production management; collaborative systems; innovation and collaborative networks; agrifood supply chains; production economics; lean manufacturing; cyber-physical technology deployments in smart manufacturing systems; smart manufacturing system characterization; knowledge management in production systems; service-oriented architecture for smart manufacturing systems; advances in cleaner production; sustainable production management; and operations management in engineer-to-order manufacturing. 


March 2015


Questions by Manufacturing Managers on Industrial Engineering and Cost Management
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.in/2014/11/manufacturing-managers-questions-on.html
You can provide your answers in comments


Advances in Production Management Systems
Conference APMS 2013
Proceedings Vol. 2
Preview Google Books
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=MGS7BQAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false

Early Books on Manufacturing Management



Factory Organization and Administration
Hugo Dimer, First Professor of Industrial Engineering, Pennsylavania State College
First edition: 1910
Third edition digital copy
http://www.archive.org/stream/factoryorganiza00diemgoog#page/n10/mode/2up

Profit Making in Shop and Factory Management
Charles U. Carpenter, 1908
http://www.archive.org/stream/cu31924002748576#page/n1/mode/2up

Shop Management
Frederick Winslow Taylor, 1911
http://www.archive.org/stream/shopmanagement00taylgoog#page/n10/mode/2up

Factory and Office Administration
Lee Galloway, 1918
http://www.archive.org/stream/factoryofficeadm00galliala#page/n3/mode/2up

Factory Management Wastes: And How to Prevent Them
James F. Whiteford, 1919
http://www.archive.org/stream/factorymanagemen00whit#page/n7/mode/2up

Plant Management
Dexter S. Kimball, 1919
http://www.archive.org/stream/cu31924031222627#page/n7/mode/2up


Updated 2017, 10 December 2015

Scope and Definition of Manufacturing - Production Management



Manufacturing creates man-made goods from various materials. The goods, more specifically called finished  goods are created through manufacturing processes. Modern manufacturing employs machines to produce goods. Manufacturing management plans, organizes, acquires resources required for manufacture, allocates those resources to various departments, directs and controls manufacturing activity.The aims of manufacturing management are producing goods according to the specifications of the customer or of the product design department if it is made to stock product developed by the company, in amounts and by the schedule demanded at minimum cost. Manufacturing is carried out in factories or manufacturing plants. A manufacturing plant and the various activities carried out in it can also be described as a manufacturing system. Modern manufacturing systems have machines, methods, men, material, motive power, money and management essential components of the system. In terms of assets used in accounting terminology, we can say manufacturing system has both long term assets (fixed assets) and current assets (short term assets).

Manufacturing management involves plans and  decisions regarding long term assets and short term assets, manufacturing methods and manpower.

We can say the long term decisions are in the areas of design, installation and improvement of specified products, manufacturing processes to produce those products, equipment for production, transportation, inspection etc., industrial buildings, location of the plant, layout of the plant. recruitment of permanent manpower and training to develop them into skilled operators in the processes employed by the organization etc. Manufacturing management has to be effective and efficient. Effectiveness refers to producing what customers want in quantities according to the delivery time requested. Efficiency refers to the cost dimension and wastes that occur in manufacturing systems if special attention is not paid to eliminate them.  Industrial engineering is a specialized discipline providing efficiency improvement service at design, installation and improvement stages of manufacture.  

The short term decisions of manufacturing are related production quantities in year, quarter, month etc., inventories, temporary increases or reductions in manpower, overtime decisions to take care of sudden increases in demand, or some exigencies, short term cost budgets, and other incidental  day to day activities. Production planning and control, inventory planning and control, cost control, quality control, maintenance planning and control etc. are some of the well known short term manufacturing management areas that are well developed as independent subjects in manufacturing management degree curriculums. Similarly, new product development, process planning, facilities planning, manufacturing strategy, industrial engineering etc. are well developed subjects dealing with long term aspects of manufacturing management. Industrial engineering became a degree level curriculum as number of methods were developed in this area providing a scope for specially educated and trained professionals in this discipline. Value engineering, Methods Efficiency Engineering, Motion Study, Work Measurement, Ergonomics, Operations Research, Engineering Economics, Applied Statistics, Six Sigma, SMED, Poka Yoke Design etc. are full subjects in industrial engineering curriculums apart  from the basic engineering knowledge in various engineering branches, knowledge of business processes and managerial processes.

Manufacturing managers at various levels are responsible for both effectiveness and efficiency. But they can employ industrial engineers in their department either on full time basis or on assignment basis from their organization industrial engineering department or on consultancy basis from outside industrial engineering organizations.

Elwood S. Buffa, well known author of Modern Production Management first published in 1961 included the following topics to introduce the scope of production management. 

Long Term Decision Areas

Production processes
Automation and Use of Computers (Presently CAD-CAM or CIM)
Design of Jobs and Work Methods
Design of The Working Environment
Production Design of Products and Process Planning
Plant Location
Layout of Physical Facilities

Short Term Decision Areas

Inventory and Production Control
Maintenance
Control of Quality
Production Standards and Work Measurement
Wages and Labor Costs
Control and Improvement of Production Costs.


It is important to state that managerial skills are classified as business conceptual skills, people related skills and technical skills. So manufacturing managers need to have the knowledge to conceive a business opportunity to their department assets and people, knowledge to manage people related to the supply chain that starts  from suppliers of materials and ends with the customer, and technical skills in various methods involved in the manufacturing establishment to plan them, organized them, acquire resources, allocate resources, and direct and control the activities.

References

Elwood S. Buffa, Modern Production Management, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1961.

Related Article
Manufacturing Management - Introduction


Planned Revision of Operations Management/Production Management Book Chapters  - March Month



Advances in Production Management Systems. Initiatives for a Sustainable World: IFIP WG 5.7 International Conference, APMS 2016, Iguassu Falls, Brazil, September 3-7, 2016, Revised Selected Papers

Irenilza Nääs, Oduvaldo Vendrametto, João Mendes Reis, Rodrigo Franco Gonçalves, Márcia Terra Silva, Gregor von Cieminski, Dimitris Kiritsis
Springer, 15-Mar-2017 - Computers - 962 pages


This book constitutes the refereed post-conference proceedings of the International IFIP WG 5.7 Conference on Advances in Production Management Systems, APMS 2016, held in Iguassu Falls, Brazil, in September 2016.

The 117 revised full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 164 submissions. They are organized in the following topical sections: computational intelligence in production management; intelligent manufacturing systems; knowledge-based PLM; modelling of business and operational processes; virtual, digital and smart factory; flexible, sustainable supply chains; large-scale supply chains; sustainable manufacturing; quality in production management; collaborative systems; innovation and collaborative networks; agrifood supply chains; production economics; lean manufacturing; cyber-physical technology deployments in smart manufacturing systems; smart manufacturing system characterization; knowledge management in production systems; service-oriented architecture for smart manufacturing systems; advances in cleaner production; sustainable production management; and operations management in engineer-to-order manufacturing.

https://books.google.co.in/books?id=khBhDgAAQBAJ

Updated 22 October 2017, 17 March 2017

October 5, 2017

Business Logistics - An Introduction

Logistics – Introduction

A dictionary definition of logistics is “the branch of military science having to do with procuring, maintaining, and transporting material, personnel, and facilities.”
The definition promulgated by the Council of Logistics Management (CLM), is: “Logistics is the process of planning, implementing, and controlling the efficient, cost-effective flow and storage of raw materials, in-process inventory, finished goods and related information from point of origin to point of consumption for the purpose of conforming to customer requirements.”
Ballou explained that in the context of manufacturing it appears from the definition that the logistician is concerned with flow of goods to and from his firm. But the responsibility extends to the flow of components and goods through the production process as well. But the logistician may not deal with detailed production processes, machine scheduling, quality control etc. in the production process. Also the manufacturing logistics definition excludes maintenance which is a part of military logistics.
The mission of logistics in a business firm is to get the right goods or services to the right place, at the right time, and in the desired condition, while making the greatest contribution to the firm. Value in logistics is a combination of time, place and cost.
Logistics is about creating value – value for customers, value for suppliers and value for the firm’s stakeholders.

The Activities of Logistics Function

Council of Logistics Management identified the following:


  • Customer Service
  • Demand Forecasting
  • Distribution Communications
  • Inventory Control
  • Material handling
  • Order Processing
  • Part and Service Support
  • Plant and Warehouse Site Selection
  • Purchasing
  • Packaging
  • Return Goods Handling
  • Salvage and Scarp Disposal
  • Traffic and Transportation
  • Warehousing and Storage


Case for Organizing a Separate Logistics Department

Both marketing and production have recognized the importance of logistical activities. According to Philip Kotler, “Marketing management is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges with target groups that satisfy individual and organizational objectives.”

Therefore distribution of goods is identified as an important activity in marketing. Ballou quotes, McClain and Thomas, who stated that operations management has the responsibility for the production and delivery of physical goods and services. Hence delivery of goods at destinations required by the customer or the sales department is recognized as a part of operations management function.

But Ballou argued that both marketing and production have more important core activities to perform and hence logistic activities may not get adequate attention. According to him marketing may be given the job of creating possession value and production may be given the job of creating form value. A separate logistics department would be concerned with providing time and place value. Ballou recognized the interface problems that arise as more departments are created and hence stresses the need for coordination.

Objectives of Business Logistics Function

The logistics function has to earn the highest possible return on investment over time as far as internal objective is concerned. But to achieve this internal objective it has to first achieve external objectives. It has to earn revenue and minimize costs.

Therefore a logistics system has to be designed and operated considering its impact on revenue contribution that comes through the quality of customer service provided and cost of logistics facilities, system and operation.

Costs of logistics function include capital costs are operating costs. Wages, public warehousing (rented warehouses or warehouse space) expenses, public transport expenses, financial expenses related to inventory investment, other administrative expenses are examples of operating costs. Capital costs are one time costs, own warehouse, own trucks are examples of capital costs.

The financial objective of the logistics function can be expressed as “Maximize over the time the ratio of the annual revenue (due to the customer level provided) less the operating costs of the logistics system to the annualized investment in the logistic system.”

Time value of money may be considered and the objective can be expressed in net present value (NPV) terms or internal rate of return (IRR) terms.


Study of Logistics

Study of logistics can focus on management process and the skills needed to perform the activities involved. Management process can be briefly described as planning, organizing and controlling. The three important domain areas of logistics are facilities location, inventory levels and mix, and transport facilities. Logistics function is concerned with providing service levels to customers and managing costs appropriately for the company. All decision making requires information. Study of logistics includes principles and practices related to the above issues.  Some of the issues are discussed in detail in specialized texts related to those areas and a logistician has to examine them now in the context of logistics.

References


The Handbook of Logistics and Distribution Management: Understanding the Supply Chain

Alan Rushton, Phil Croucher, Peter Baker
Kogan Page Publishers, 03-Jan-2017 - Business & Economics - 912 pages

The definitive guide to supply chain philosophy, strategy AND the practicalities of logistics and distribution. The Handbook of Logistics and Distribution Management is a step-by-step guide to setting up and managing supply chains to add maximum value to the organisations they serve. Benefiting from the author team's years of practical field-based experience in some of the most challenging environments across the world from developed economies to third world countries and war zones, this is a book that will enthuse students and be an invaluable desk reference throughout the careers of practitioners.

Packed with worked examples and real-world data The Handbook of Logistics and Distribution Management offers complete coverage on all the key aspects of distribution, logistics and supply chain planning and management with clear and straightforward explanations. This is not a compilation of work drawn from a disparate collection of research papers and miscellaneous projects but a logical and complete holistic view of how supply chains fit together including the detailed, nitty gritty of the distribution and logistics.

Globalisation, increased competition and new technologies have all changed the landscape in which supply chains operate. This fully revised 6th edition of The Handbook of Logistics and Distribution Management provides solutions to the key challenges. With new material on international freight forwarding, environmental best practice, cool chain, intermodal shipping and outsourcing and a new, detailed index of contents this is the ultimate study/reference companion.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=g_vTDQAAQBAJ

Ronald H. Ballou, Business Logistics Management, Fourth Edition,  Prentice Hall Int. Inc., USA,  1999.
Joh O. McClain and L. Joseph Thomas, Operations Management: Production of Goods and Services, Second Edition, Prentice Hall, USA, 1985.

http://www.bms.co.in/elements-of-logistics-management-notes/




http://knol.google.com/k/narayana-rao/business-logistics-an-introduction/ 2utb2lsm2k7a/ 1384


Updated 6 October 2017, 30 May 2012

October 4, 2017

October - Management Knowledge Revision



October  (Information Technology and Management Information Systems, Logistics - Warehousing and Transport)


October 1 to 5

Principles of Information Systems - Ralph M. Stair and George W. Reynolds
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2015/10/principles-of-information-systems-ralph.html

An Introduction to Information Systems

2.
Foundations of Information Sytems
http://www.comp.polyu.edu.hk/~csajaykr/introduction.pdf

E-Business
http://www.comp.polyu.edu.hk/~csajaykr/E_Business.pdf

3.
Competitive advantage with information systems
http://www.comp.polyu.edu.hk/~csajaykr/CA.pdf

IT Infrastructure
http://www.comp.polyu.edu.hk/~csajaykr/ITI.pdf

4.

Communication and Networking
http://www.comp.polyu.edu.hk/~csajaykr/CN.pdf

Improving decision making and managing knowledge
http://www.comp.polyu.edu.hk/~csajaykr/IDM.pdf

5.
Enterprise Applications
http://www.comp.polyu.edu.hk/~csajaykr/EAP.pdf

Economics of Information Technology - Hal Varian
people.ischool.berkeley.edu/~hal/Papers/mattioli/mattioli.pdf


October 8 - 12

Logistics - Warehousing and Transport




October 15 - 19



October  22 - 26







October 23  - 29



Industrial Engineers support Engineers and Managers in Efficiency Improvement of Products, Processes and Systems



One Year MBA Knowledge Revision Plan

January  - February  - March  - April  - May   -   June

July  - August     - September  - October  - November  - December


Updated 6 October 2017, 6 June 2014

October 2, 2017

Product Management in Digital World - Recent Trends



What Makes a Truly Great Product Great - Digital Products Related
Published on March 2, 2015
Jeff Weiner
CEO at LinkedIn
https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/what-makes-truly-great-product-jeff-weiner/


The one-stop product management guide
http://www.experiox.com/productmanagementguide/

Down the Book - Strategic Role of Product Management
http://pragmaticmarketing.com/strategic-role-of-product-management.aspx


The evolving role of product management
What product management is and why it’s so relevant today.
By Martin ErikssonRichard BanfieldNate Walkingshaw June 22, 2017
Excerpt from Chapter 1 of “Product Leadership.
https://www.oreilly.com/ideas/the-evolving-role-of-product-management

“The job of a product manager is to discover a product that is valuable, usable, and feasible.”
Product management is the intersection between business, user experience, and technology

Product managers for the digital world
By Chandra Gnanasambandam, Martin Harrysson, Shivam Srivastava, and Yun Wu
May 2017
http://www.mckinsey.com/industries/high-tech/our-insights/product-managers-for-the-digital-world


Product managers connect many functions related to  a product— market research, design, engineering,  marketing, sales, marketing, operations, finance, legal, and more. They are involved in the decisions about what gets built but also influence every aspect of how it gets built and launched.

The product manager of today is increasingly given the role of  the mini-CEO of the product.

16 Killer Videos on Product Management Essentials
June 9, 2016
https://userbrain.net/blog/12-killer-product-management-videos

A Panel Discussion on Product Management
12 March 2010
Stanford Graduate School of Business
Features executives formerly at Apple Computer, Hewlett-Packard, PeopleSoft, and Sybase:
Rita Iorfida, VP Products, Liquid Engines;
Rich Mironov, former VP Product Marketing, AirMagnet;
Tiffany Riley, VP Marketing at Nextance;
David Straus, SVP Worldwide Sales and Marketing, Corticon.
_________________

_________________


Product Management At Google
http://a-knol.blogspot.com/2010/01/product-management-at-google.html


Updated 3 October 2017, 15 July 2017

September 18, 2017

10 - 15 - 20 - 25 Activities and Skills for Success as Manager at All Levels



4P Model of Management


I developed 4P Model of Management. Managers have to undertake Four major activities.

Providing Value  - They have to identify opportunities to add value to potential consumers, communicate value to them and exchange value with them.

Purchase Inputs - Managers have to purchase inputs to provide value.

Process Inputs and Convert them into Valuable Outputs

People Relations - Business is for People, Business is by People and Business is with People

The 4Ps fall into Business Skills, Process Skills and People Skills.

Detailed article
http://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2015/05/4-ps-of-management-4-essential-tasks-in.html


You can see how various authors only prescribe these skills in their articles.




Peter Economy - 10 things that super successful leaders do.


It was published in the Corporate Dossier of Economic Times (22 May 2015). Peter Economy was the author.

The 10 things listed were:

1. Acknowledge
2. Motivate
3. Be Decisive
4. Communicate
5. Trust
6. Be Confident
7. Develop
8. Direct
9. Partner
10. Be Honest and Transparent.


Jack Zenger and Joseph Folkman wrote in article in HBR Blogs.

The Skills Leaders Need at Every Level


The list given by them

Inspires and Motivates others
Displays High Integrity and Honesty
Solves Problems and Analyzes Issues
Drives for Results
Communicates Powerfully and Prolifically
Collaborates and Promotes and Teamwork
Builds Relationships
Displays Professional or Technical Expertise
Develops Others
Takes Initiative
Innovates
Champions Change
Connects the Group to the Outside World
Establishes Stretch Goals
Practices Self Development.

https://hbr.org/2014/07/the-skills-leaders-need-at-every-level


Updated 19 September 2017, 21 May 2015

4 Ps of Management - 4 Essential Tasks in Business Management - Production or Service Businesses








Provide value - Procure inputs - Process inputs (Produce outputs) - People focus



Providing Value to Customers
Purchasing or Procuring Input Resources
Processing the Inputs into Outputs
People Relations


Every business manager has to do these four essential tasks. 
Every MBA must learn these four tasks.

They are classified by some management scholars as conceptual skills (business conceptual skills), technical skills (process skills) and people skills.

This blog,"Management Theory Review" provides you knowledge in all the essential activities through subjects - Principles of Management,  Marketing Management,  Supply Chain Management, Operations Management, Industrial Engineering and Organizational Behavior.

In the blog, chapter summaries of chapters from world famous textbooks are provided. Additionally, important developments and articles of each subject are provided as subject updates of the year.  Readers comments are invited as suggestion, feedback, questions etc. for improving the content to make it more useful to the readers to utilize the ideas in practice and increase production and profits for the organization and the society. Management as a profession must increase pleasure of the society and reduce pain of the society. Management as a profession has social purpose. But we need to fulfill organizational purpose and purposes of individuals working for the organization to fulfill the social purpose.

Business is done by people, Business is done for the people , Business is done with the people.
People dimension is important for business.

But there is no business if someone cannot find a business opportunity. Marketing is important. Providing value to people is marketing and sales.

If unfulfilled demand for a category is found, there have to be sources of inputs and a process to convert inputs into useful products. Supply chain and  production process are important.

2Ps  of Industrial engineering - Productivity and Profits


Industrial engineering is profit engineering. Industrial engineers analyze systems and make them more productive and profitable. Industrial engineering is concerned with 2Ps - Productivity and Profits

An effective and efficient business organization or an industrial organization is created by managers or entrepreneur managers using multiple skills.   Acquire the knowledge, use the procedures under guidance for some time and become proficient in them. Have a successful managerial career.



Principles of Industrial Engineering

________________


________________

Download full Paper - https://www.xcdsystem.com/iise/abstract/File7673/UploadFinalPaper_2569.pdf


Updated 19 September 2017, 17 May 2015

September 11, 2017

Lean Management - Management for Value and Productivity Enhancement

Lean Management for Productivity Enhancement
Presentation at Tata Steel
Dr. K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao, Professor , NITIE, Mumbai
Industrial Engineering Knowledge Center
http://www.nraoiekc.blogspot.com


____________________


____________________

Lean Management

Lean management gives importance to both effectiveness and efficiency.

Lean Managers simultaneously take care of customer satisfaction and productivity/ cost reduction responsibilities.

Hence lean management leads to more productivity in the organization.

It is appropriate that NPC came out with the theme “Lean Management for Productivity Enhancement”

"The core idea of the lean management system is to maximize customer value while minimizing waste." (7.3.2014)
http://www.winnipegfreepress.com/local/the-dean-of-lean-248954871.html

Management

Management is achieving objectives prescribed by owners/superiors, set by the manager himself and set in collaboration with the team members, together with the team with the resources provided to the team or acquired by the manager/team.

Soldier and Commander
Commander is a manager.
He may be a very good soldier himself.
Management is a lot more than being an expert doer.
But managers require the technical skills of a function they are managing.

Management Process

Planning
Organizing
Resourcing (Acquiring various resources including human resources known as staffing)
Directing (Executing describes the management steps at this stage better)
Controlling

Effectiveness and Efficiency

Managers have to be effective and efficient.
Effectiveness is achievement of objectives.
Efficiency is effectiveness combined with minimum consumption of resources.

No effectiveness - no efficiency.
Effectiveness first, efficiency next.


Scientific Management

F.W. Taylor advocated scientific management that highlighted the importance of efficiency in production shops.
Development of science of using machines and men in productive work is the theme of his management thought – scientific management
Taylor was responsible for development of industrial engineering discipline.

Principles of Management – Fayol

Management as a subject to be taught was advocated by Henri Fayol.
He gave 14 principles of management and explained management process.
He appreciated Taylor’s thought and advocated its wide adoption.

Principles of Management – Koontz

Koontz extended the 14 principles of management to around 30 and  embedded them in the five functions.
He stressed importance of effectiveness and efficiency in his first chapter. Also included some principles of efficiency in his list.

Koontz – Definition of Management
Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplish selected aims.

Koontz on Productivity
In a real sense, this book (Management) is about the improvement of productivity.
But  still, efficiency got neglected on a holistic basis in his book.
Industrial engineering is not mentioned in the book


Effectiveness and Efficiency as opposing ideas – An Error in Management Thought

Certain management authors positioned effectiveness and efficiency as opposing concepts.
They created tables showing differences between them.
Managers became isolated from the efficiency dimension.

Lean Management

Lean management philosophy brings efficiency back into the management discipline as a major component.
Managers must also have efficiency/productivity improvement skills
The Toyota Motors’ managers are to be given credit for this development.

Developments in Japan

Japanese executives captured the spirit of scientific management and industrial engineering almost from its birth in USA.
Industrial engineering was given a Buddhist religious dimension in the slogan-
Eliminate muda, mura, muri

Kiichiro Toyoda – Toyota Motors Founder
Kiichiro Toyoda was sure of the quality of his car.
But he was worried about its price.
He said unless its cost was reduced and price was reduced Toyota motors will not survive.

Effectiveness is there but Efficiency is the need.
So according to Kiichiro Toyoda, effectiveness was there.
Japanese customer is happy with the car.
But efficiency is not there.
Cost of production is high and hence price is high.


Manager’s Focus on Productivity/Efficiency
Therefore Kiichiro Toyoda’s focus shifted to productivity.
More and more managers were asked to focus on productivity.
Productivity in other words is cost reduction

Taichi Ohno
Taichi Ohno is a production manager.
Started concentrating on cost reduction.
Used Industrial Engineering.
Toyota Style Industrial Engineering.

Industrial Engineering

Industrial engineering is reducing cost of a product and increasing profit by increasing sales due to low prices.
Industrial engineering is profit making engineering (Ohno).
The other engineering is market-establishing and fulfilling engineering.


Industrial Engineering –  Definition or Explanation by Narayana Rao K.V.S.S. 


Industrial Engineering is Human Effort Engineering and System Efficiency Engineering.

JIT Systems - Lean Management

Kiichiro Toyoda looked around his production-distribution system for eliminating muda (excess resources).
Inventory seemed to him an excess resource.

He told his managers, that they have to think of JIT systems or low inventory systems.
Thus Kiichiro Toyoda is the man who first advocated JIT.

Taichi Ohno – JIT, IE and Productivity Activities

Reduce inventory – Create flow production.
Increase worker productivity
Use more automatic machines
 Make a worker attend more machines.
Make machines intelligent. No defective unit production


Kaizen
The change must be good.
The change must be profitable.
Do proper economic analysis.
Importance of Engineering Economic Analysis.
Low “lot size” inventory requires lower setup times.
Reduce setup times.

SMED
Shigeo Shingo, now a famous industrial engineer, helped Ohno.
Setup times for big presses were reduced to 3 minutes from earlier 2 to 4 or even 8 hours.

Low Safety Stocks
Systems have to be reliable and production should not result in defective parts.
Involve people in process quality improvement - TQM
Machines should not breakdown.
Improve maintenance and involve production workers also in machine upkeep

OEE
Emphasize on high availability of machines for production.
Do preventive and planned maintenance.
Condition monitoring employed for planned maintenance.
Maintenance for high available production time.
Total productive maintenance.

Low Inventory
Only a day’s inventory as buffer
Between components and assembly section only a days maximum consumption of each item is kept (as an illustration).
Components are made in small batches as per the use on that day.
Communication by Kanban.
Low inventory systems are lean systems

What is a lean system?

A system that satisfies customer requirements with a very low level of inventory.
It is a system that uses less resources than mass production systems based on traditional inventory principles.
Hence lean systems produce products at lower costs vs. high inventory systems.

Lean Manager


Lean managers use all management principles and techniques along with all the industrial engineering tools and also tools specially developed in Toyota Production System and its further development as Lean Enterprise System (Womack and Jones, The Machine that changed the World)

Is Lean Applicable to Steel Plants?
Yes.
Tata Steel is itself following some lean practices.
Its managers are talking of lean at least since 2001. May be lean movement started some time before.

Recent Publications
2003 Phd thesis on application of lean in a steel plant.
Lean supply chain practices in steel plants
Value stream mapping and reduction of production lead time in steel plants.
Optimizing inplant supply chain(PPC) using Lean.

Traditional Industrial Engineering Tools Applied in Lean Systems

Value engineering
Process and Operation Analysis (Method Study )
Standardization of Processes and Working Conditions
Motion Study and Principles of Motion Economy (5S)
Standardization of the Process
Time Study and Time Standards

Optimization and Operations Research
Statistical Methods to Control Variation
Engineering Economics
Ergonomics
Simulation

A Different IE Tool Classification
Product Design Efficiency Engineering
Process Efficiency. Engg.
Human Effort Eff. Engg.
Efficiency Engg. Of Various Resources


Process Efficiency Engineering - Classification
Technical Processes
Business Processes
Managerial Processes

New Ideas and Tools in Lean Systems

Just in Time Production - Change in Inventory Control Practices
Just in Time Supply
Kanban Communication System - Change in Production Planning and Control Procedure
Special Focus on Seven Wastes
Zero Defect Movement

Total Quality Control (Inspection by production persons only - no additional inspector) Total Productive Maintenance (Involving production operators significantly in preventive maintenance) Aggressive Kaizen (Team leaders responsible for monthly improvement in processes)

Visual Communication (Standard Work Sheets, Daily Targets and Production, and Problems)
Value Stream Mapping to identify and remove obstructions to flow
SMED (Application of methods study to setup time reduction)
U-shape layouts
Poka Yoke

Leveled production or production smoothing
Mixed model assembly or flexible production facilities
Supplier process improvement
Supply chain cost reduction led by Assembler.

Seven Waste Model – Waste and Elimination Principle or Technique
Waste of overproduction - One cannot produce without a production Kanban
Waste of time on hand (waiting)  - Multiple machines to an operator, all producing as per tact time.
Waste in transportation - Machines in line or flow placed close together

Waste of processing itself - Standardized Methods
Waste of stock on hand - JIT system
Waste of movement (of workers) - Machine layout changes
Waste of making defective products - Problem solving approach to produce zero defects. 5 Why’s?-Poka Yoke

Let us Hope


Hope Management Professors, Managers, Executives, Supervisors and Operators learn the new development in management – Lean Management.
High Customer Satisfaction and High Productivity  (No tradeoff).
Hope Industrial Engineers become Lean System IEs and Support Managers at all levels.


Thank You

Additional reading:
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.in/2014/02/lean-management.html
http://nraoiekc.blogspot.in/2013/10/lean-systems-industrial-engineering.html

Toyota Production System - IE Point of View - Shigeo Shingo


Industrial Engineering - Foundation of Toyota Production System Chapter 1 to 3 of the book - Presentation
Toyota Production System Industrial Engineering - Shigeo Shingo Chapters 4 to 10
Introducing and Implementing the Toyota Production System - Shiego Shingo Chapter 11 of the book

Presentation was done on 14 February 2014 at Tata Steel, Jamshedpur, Steelenium Hall


A McKinsey Article - Next Frontiers for Lean - Feb 2014 - Ewan Duncan and Ron Ritter

The further development in lean has to provide more scientific insight into how product and service attributes contribute to customer value; what matters most for improving classic lean variables, such as lead time, cost, quality, responsiveness, flexibility, and reliability; and new opportunities for cross-functional problem solving to eliminate anything that strays from customer-defined value.
http://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/operations/our-insights/next-frontiers-for-lean

Principles of Industrial Engineering - Presented by Dr. K.V.S.S. Narayana Rao in the 2017 Annual Conference of IISE

________________

________________


Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan - One Year Plan


January - February - March - April - May - June



July - August - September - October - November - December


Updated 12 September 2017, 18 February 2014