December 25, 2019

Artificial Intelligence - AI Solutions in Marketing

Five AI Solutions Transforming B2B Marketing
February 13, 2019
Brian Kardon (@bkardon) is the chief marketing officer at Fuze.

Lead Scoring and Predictive Analytics
Automated Email Conversations
Customer Insights
Personalizing With Data
Content Creation

Principles of Management - Subject Update

Basic Chapter Summaries of Principles of Management Based on Koontz and O'Donnell's Book

4 Ps of Management - 4 Essential Tasks in Business Management
Provide value (Customers) - Procure inputs (Suppliers) - Process inputs (Produce output) (Production Facilities) - People focus (Within the Organization)


Our Favorite Management Tips from 2019
Harvard Business Review Staff
December 20, 2019

What Management Needs to Become in an Era of Ecosystems
Richard Straub
June 05, 2019

The Power of Shared Beliefs

"When shared beliefs exist, effort, obstacles, sacrifice, and hardships are no longer measures of the challenge, but, instead, rallying cries to come together and deliver as a high-performance team."  - Andrew Lambert, Vice President, Production and Supply Chain, SpaceX. In Preface to the book:

Building agile capabilities: The fuel to power your agile ‘body’
August 2019

3 Elements of Trust
Positive Relationships - Good Judgement/Expertise - Consistency
Jack Zenger is the CEO of Zenger/Folkman, a leadership development consultancy.
Joseph Folkman is the president of Zenger/Folkman.
They are coauthora of the October 2011 HBR article “Making Yourself Indispensable” and the book Speed: How Leaders Accelerate Successful Execution (McGraw Hill, 2016).

The 2 Cs of management excellence
What is good management? For years at McKinsey, we have applied science and measurement to that question.

Improving the management of complex business partnerships
March 2019 | Article


The agile manager
July 2018 | Article

Management Tools & Trends
Five key trends emerged from Bain's survey of 1,268 managers.
By Darrell Rigby and Barbara Bilodeau
April 05, 2018

Getting Teamwork Right at the Top
C-suite teams with four specific traits beat the competition.
By Phil Kleweno, Imeyen Ebong and Paul Stansik
October 19, 2018

The Leader's Guide to Corporate Culture
Boris GroysbergJeremiah LeeJesse PriceJ. Yo-Jud Cheng
HBR Jan - Feb 2018

Productivity Focus of Management  - Industrial Engineering

Taylor - Narayana Rao Principles of Industrial Engineering

Download full paper: Full Paper -

June 2017

Change Management - How to manage the eight ‘change personalities’ at work?

Making Decisions in Meetings

May 2017

How to Retain Employees Through 'Servant' Leadership

April 2017

By studying and writing on Principles of Management, I became the original author of Principles of Industrial Engineering, a Management Subject with foundation in engineering.

Basic and Detailed Principles of Industrial Engineering

March 2017

Leaders have to manage the current activity to change it to make it better

State of Readiness: Operational Excellence as Precursor to Becoming a High-Performance Organization

Joseph F. Paris Jr.
Greenleaf Book Group, 16-May-2017 - Business & Economics - 400 pages

March 2016

Seven Quality management principles (QMPs) 

by ISO  - Read them compulsorily if you have not read so far.

One of the definitions of a “principle” is that it is a basic belief, theory or rule that has a major influence on the way in which something is done. “Quality management principles” are a set
of fundamental beliefs, norms, rules and values that are accepted as true and can be used as a basis for quality management.

The QMPs can be used as a foundation to guide an organization’s performance improvement. They were developed and updated by international experts of ISO/TC 176, which is responsible for
developing and maintaining ISO’s quality management standards.

The seven quality management principles

QMP 1 – Customer focus
QMP 2 – Leadership
QMP 3 – Engagement of people
QMP 4 – Process approach
QMP 5 – Improvement
QMP 6 – Evidence-based decision making
QMP 7 – Relationship management

These principles are not listed in priority order.  All are important and the relative importance
of each principle will vary from organization to organization and can be expected to change over time in the same organization.

Seven Principles of Supply Chain Management

Principle 1: Segment customers based on the ser­vice needs of distinct groups and adapt the supply chain to serve these segments profitably.

Principle 2: Customize the logistics network to the service requirements and profitability of customer segments.

Principle 3: Listen to market signals and align demand planning accordingly across the supply chain, ensuring consistent forecasts and optimal resource allocation

Principle 4: Differentiate product closer to the customer and speed conversion across the supply chain

Principle 5: Manage sources of supply strategically to reduce the total cost of owning materials and services

Principle 6: Develop a supply chain-wide technology strategy that supports multiple levels of decision making and gives a clear view of the flow of products, services, and information

Principle 7: Adopt channel-spanning performance measures to gauge collective success in reaching the end-user effectively and efficiently

Seven Principles of Change Management

Senders and Receivers
Authority for Change
Value Systems
Incremental vs. Radical Change
The Right Answer Is Not Enough
Change Is a Process

The APICS Principles of Operations Management consists of five classroom-based, instructor-led courses.

         The Principles of Inventory Management

         The Principles of Operations Planning

         The Principles of Manufacturing Management

         The Principles of Distribution and Logistics

         The Principles of Managing Operations

A HBR article on Negotiation

Free Open Access Book


Source: In the World of Scientific Discoveries / V Mire Nauchnykh Otkrytiy . 2014, Vol. 60 Issue 11.11, p4244-4261. 18p.
Author(s): Danakin, N. S.; Shutenko, A. I.; Ospishchev, P. I.

Developing a Theory and Philosophy of Management
Chapter 1 of Pearson Book

November 2015

Innovation Excellence requires Ambidextrous Management

September 2015
New and Updated articles in area

Systems Approach in Management - Very detailed treatment is now posted

Execution is an important function of management

Planning and Execution - Theory and Practice

Resourcing is an important activity for all managers to accomplish set goals

May 2015

Negotiation: What Makes the Right Business Deal

Get the Boss to Buy In.

By: Ashford, Susan J.; Detert, James. Harvard Business Review. Jan/Feb2015, Vol. 93 Issue 1/2, p72-79.

Middle managers  gather valuable intelligence from direct contact with customers, suppliers, and colleagues; they can often see when the market is ripe for a certain offering, for instance, or spot signs that a partnership won't work. But in a top-down culture, they may not voice their ideas and concerns -- and even when they do, they often struggle to persuade the people at the top.

The authors suggest that middle managers should tailor their pitch to the goals, values, and knowledge of decision makers; frame the issue to show how it supports a strategic goal; manage emotions (their own and their audience's); get the timing right by, say, attending to a boss's preoccupations or watching larger trends; involve others, both in and out of their networks; and  adhere to organizational norms, such as how leaders prefer to receive information.


By: IHRIG, MARTIN; MACMILLAN, IAN. Harvard Business Review. Jan/Feb2015, Vol. 93 Issue 1/2, p80-87. 8p. 2 Color Photographs, 2 Diagrams.

Large-scale, sustainable growth is  possible when people take insights from one knowledge domain and apply them in another -- when deep technical expertise in one business unit is applied in a different business unit, for example, or when a best-in-class marketing group pulls a product development unit into the 21st century by sharing market insights gleaned from customer data.

The authors describe how to map your organization's strategic knowledge.  When knowledge assets are placed in a grid along two dimensions -- unstructured (tacit) versus structured (explicit) and undiffused (restricted) versus diffused (shared) -- it becomes easier to manage them for future competitive advantage.

Playbook - AMA NET

Interesting Source for Management Articles

Managing Power Dynamics in International Negotiations
About The Author: Yadvinder S. Rana is Professor of Cultural Management at the Catholic University in Milan, Italy, lecturer on intercultural negotiation and influence in leading international business schools, and founder of Neglob, a management consultancy firm that assists companies in international negotiations and global teams performance improvement. For more information about Rana and his new book, The 4Ps Framework: Advanced Negotiation and Influence Strategies for Global Effectiveness, please visit

The New Rules of Motivation: Unleash Employee Reciprocity
About The Author: Rodd Wagner is the New York Times bestselling author of the new book Widgets: The 12 New Rules for Managing Your Employees As If They’re Real People (McGraw-Hill, April 2015).

Only 10% are great managers.
Around 35% OK.

Principles of Management - Subject Update - 2014

Updated 26 Dec 2019,  26 October 2019,  29 March 2019,  19 Sep 2017,  7 June 2017,  7 May 2017,  8 April 2017,   12 March 2017, 26 Mar 2016, 16 Feb 2016, 11 Dec 2015

December 24, 2019

Stephen Covey's Principle-Centered Leadership Model - Summary

Natural laws also called principles operate in the nature whether you discover them or not, and whether you use them or not. If you use, natural laws, and act in their direction you will succeed. If want a result contrary to them and act against them you are bound to fail. This is the essence of Covey's Principle-centered leadership model. It is scientific leadership. Develop science, find out or discover natural laws and develop your leadership method based on it. Find the principles and develop practice based on it.

People have to recognize and live in harmony with such basic principles as fairness, equity, justice, integrity, honesty, and trust.

Stephen Covey proposed a wheel of personal life centered on principles. Principles are at the center of the wheel. This center of principles guides us in four dimensions specified by Covey.

1. Security dimension of a person: It represents sense of worth, identity, emotional anchorage, self-esteem and personal strength.

2. Guidance: It is the direction was one receives and absorbs in life. There is an internal monitor that compares the conduct of a person with the standards and principles that he has accepted and he has to accept. Covey gives the name conscience to it.

3. Wisdom: Wisdom refers to a sage perspective on life. It is a keen understanding of how the various parts and principles apply and relate to each other. The development of wisdom involves observation (discernment), comprehension and judgment.

When people are low on wisdom, their maps are inaccurate, and their actions and thinking are based on distorted and discordant principles. A person with high end wisdom dimension has a good life compass that shows him the true north and all the parts of his behavior and the principles he uses in developing his behavior are properly related to each other. Also as we move from low end to high end in wisdom, there is higher commitment to the ideal (things as they should be) in managing the realities (things as they are). Wisdom also provides the ability to identify pure joy (sat-chidananda) from temporary pleasure.

4. Power: Power is the capacity to act and accomplish something. It also includes the strength and courage. It is also the vital energy to observe or identify choices and to take a decision, that is selection of one of them as the right way. At the low end, we have powerless people. At the high end are visionaries who plan and make things happen which seem to be impossible to many in the existing conditions.

These four dimensions or factors are interdependent. When these four factors are developed in a balanced and harmonious manner, a noble personality emerges. A great leader becomes available to the organization.

While principles are the center of a wheel of relationships and a person develops certain dimensions of his personality based on the principles, the relations are with self, spouse, other family members,, money, possessions, work, pleasure, friend, enemy and church. Many more can be named. It is in these relations that principles and the four great personality dimensions come into behavioral manifestations that give effectiveness and efficiency.

In the case of organizations, the relationships are with owner, customer, employee, supplier, programs, policies, competition, image, technology, and profit. Some more can be added.

Real empowerment comes from educating a person in both principles and practices. Principles are the why to do explanations. Practice is how to do explanation.

The challenge for a leader is to be a light. He should not be judge. He has to be a model, not a critic.

In the words of Stephen Covey, "The Challenge is to be a light, not a judge; to be a model, not a critic."

Principle centered leadership is to be practiced from the inside out on four levels.

1. Personal or self level (leading self)
2. Interpersonal (leading others)
3. Managing task (short term with existing people and processes)
4. Managing an organization  (developing it, recruiting people, training them, building teams, solving problems, compensating them, creating alignment etc. strategy and systems development)

There are certain master principles to be used at each level.

Level                                -             Principles

At personal level             -  trustworthiness at the personal level (Character and Competence)
(My relation with myself)

At interpersonal level -      trust - Trust at the interpersonal level
(my relationships and interactions with others)  -  If two people trust each other they can enjoy clear communications, empathy, synergy, and productive interdependency.

At task level - management -       empowerment
(My responsibility to get a job done with others)

At organizational level management - alignment
(My need to organize people - to recruit them, train them, compensate them, build teams, solve problems, and create aligned structure, strategy and systems.)

Chapter 1  Characteristics of Principles-Centered Leaders

1. They are continually learning.
2. They are service oriented.
3. They radiate positive energy
4. They believe in other people
5. They lead balanced lives.
6. They see life as an adventure.
7. They are synergistic: Principles centered leaders practice the principle of synergy. Synergy is a state in which the whole is more than the sum of the parts. The output from the combination of a synergistic leader and a follower is always more than the individual outputs of the leader and the follower. The leader increases his followers and a follower follows a leader for this benefit. Leader who practice this principle are amazingly productive with  new and creative ways and help their followers to increase their output helping them to work smartly. In team endeavors, these leaders strive to complement the weaknesses of some members with the strengths of some others so that team becomes more productive
8. They exercise for self-renewal: This is the practice of the seventh habit. Sharpen the Saw. In a way, it is restatement of first principle. They are continually learning and practicing to increase their productive capability.

Chapter 2 Seven Habits of Highly Effective People

1. Be Proactive

2. Begin with the End in Mind

3. Put First Things First

4. Think Win - Win

5. Seek First to Understand, Then to be Understood.

6. Synergise

7. Sharpen the Saw

More on the 7 Habits

1. Be Proactive
Proactive people feel control of their life is in their hands.

Proactivity is the essence of real leadership.

Every great leader has a high level of proactive energy and vision - a sense that (they feel: )

 "I am not a product of my culture, my conditioning and the conditions of my life; I am a product of my principles, values, attitudes, beliefs and behavior - and those things I control."

7. Sharpen the Saw
Detailed article on Sharpen the Saw
Sharpen the Saw - The Mental Dimension - Stephen Covey's Explanation

A Poem on Sharpening the Saw and Seven Habits

I keep myself fit by exercising and  eating right
I improve my knowledge I read and write
I help my friends and feel delight
I wish in the world all enjoy without a fight

I live my life according to Covey's principles
I  remember them as important values
I try to understand what is said by others
Covey said that gives victories

Let me recount the effective seven
Be proactive, think of end and begin
Do first thing first and think win win
Understand first, synergize, and sharpen

Poem written by Narayana Rao K.V.S.S. on 1 March 2015

Chapter 3. Three Resolutions

1. To overcome the restraining forces of appetites and passions:

I resolve to exercise self-discipline and self-denial.

2. To overcome the restraining forces of pride and pretension:

I resolve to work on character and competence.

3. To overcome the restraining forces of unbridled aspiration and ambition:

I resolve to dedicate my talents and resources to noble purposes and to provide service to others.

Chapter 4. Primary Greatness

Three Essential Character Traits

Integrity: As we clearly identify our values and proactively organize and execute around our priorities on a daily basis, we keep meaningful promises and commitments.

Maturity: Balance between Courage and Consideration
If a person can express his feelings and convictions with courage balanced with consideration for the feelings and convictions of another person, he is mature.

Abundance Mentality: Our thinking that there is plenty out there for everybody.

Chapter 5 A Break with the Past

Five Suggestions

  • Never make a promise we will not keep.
  • Make meaningful promises, resolutions, and commitments to do better and to be better - and share with a loved one.
  • Use self-knowledge and be very selective about the promises we make.
  • Consider promises as a measure of our integrity and faith in ourselves.
  • Remember that our personal integrity or self-mastery is the basis for our success with others.
Chapter 9

Principles Centered Power

  • Persuasion
  • Patience
  • Gentleness
  • Teachableness
  • Acceptance
  • Kindness
  • Openness
  • Compassionate Confrontation
  • Consistency
  • Integrity

Eight ways to enrich marriage and family relationships

1. Retain a long-term perspective.
2. Rescript your marriage and family life.
3. Reconsider your roles.
4. Reset your goals.
5. Realign family systems.
6. Refine three vital skills (time management, communication, and problem-solving).
7. Regain internal security.
8. Develop a family mission statement.

Making Champions of Your Children

1. Build your children’s self-esteem.
2. Encourage primary greatness.
3. Encourage your children to develop their own interests.
4. Try to create an enjoyable family culture.
5. Plan ahead for family events.
6. Try to set an example of excellence.
7. Teach them to visualize so that they can recognize their own potential.
8. Adopt their friends.
9. Teach your children to have faith, to believe and trust others, and to
affirm, build, bless, and serve others.

Chronic Problems of the Organization

The organization has:

1. No shared vision or values.
2. No strategic path.
3. Poor alignment.
4. Wrong style.
5. Poor skills.
6. Low trust.
7. No self-integrity.

Quality leadership values people. It is rooted in the timeless principles of faith and hope, constancy and consistency, and virtue and truth in human relations.

 Principle-centered leadership “embraces the principles of fairness and kindness and makes better use of the talents of people for increased efficiency, but also leads to quantum leaps in personal and organizational effectiveness” (p. 180).

Leader has to empower the followers and trust them. They in turn empower the leader and trust him.

Updated 25 December 2019,  2 May 2019, 29 July 2016, 2 March 2015,

Leadership - Subject Update


How to Be a Leader Everyone Loves to Work With

Care about the people along with the process and results.
Listen instead of thinking I  know it all.
Empower and make others feel good about themselves and their contribution to group activity.
Create small wins - Appreciate and Celebrate.
Display high EQ instead of only high IQ.

Buddhist tradition describes three styles of compassionate leadership

Buddhist tradition describes three styles of compassionate leadership: the trailblazer, who leads from the front, takes risks, and sets an example; the ferryman, who accompanies those in his care and shapes the ups and downs of the crossing; and the shepherd, who sees every one of his flock into safety before himself. Three styles, three approaches, but what they have in common is an all-encompassing concern for the welfare of those they lead. - Dalai Lama., 2019, HBR article

Making others better as a result of your presence, your communication, your direction, decision and action  are at the heart of leadership.

Leadership is not wielding authority; it's empowering others.

It is the ability to transfer power. It is the ability to make others powerful.
Lolly Doskal - TedX Talk


4 Ways to make sure people working for you love you.

1. Create a work place you love as a person.
2. Encourage creativity and involvement.
3. Don't focus only on pay, make work flexible and comfortable
4. Give rest breaks and allow persons to recover from fatigue. Insert work gaps for even small durations.

Seven Stages of Strategic Leadership

30-second activities for Leaders

Leaders do not to have a lot of free time on their hands to spend with their followers. .

That’s where the 30-second activities become very useful. There’s a lot you can do in 30 seconds.

In 30 seconds you can a big impact.

You could…

Give 30 seconds of encouragement.

Give 30 seconds of conveying value of a team member.

Give 30 seconds of acknowledgment.

Give 30 seconds of gratitude.

Give 30 seconds of praise.

Give 30 seconds to change their attitude. No matter what’s in their past, they can always become the best version of themselves.

When leaders acknowledge the role and contribution of team members,  leadership becomes memorable and impactful.


Be selfless - Be compassionate

Become Better Leader – Human Relations First Perspective


Leading So People Will Follow You - The six key behaviour related attributes

Far-sightedness, passion, courage, wisdom, generosity, and trustworthiness

Leadership Coach and Author: Lolly Daskal

Founder and CEO of Lead From Within. Her proprietary leadership program is based on a mix of modern philosophy, science, and nearly thirty years coaching top executives, Lolly’s perspective on leadership continues to break new ground and produce exceptional results.

Lolly was designated a:
Top-50 Leadership and Management Expert by
100 Great Leadership Speakers for Your Next by Inc. magazine.
Huffington Post honored Lolly with the title of The Most Inspiring Woman in the World.
Her writing has appeared in HBR,, Fast Company (Ask The Expert), Huffington Post,
and Psychology Today, and others.
Lolly Daskal’s new book, The Leadership Gap: What Gets Between You and Your Greatness is
a Wall Street Journal Bestseller.
Previous bestseller is Thoughts Spoken From the Heart

Recently circulated articles of Lolly Daskal

50 Forms of Dysfunction in the Workplace

61 Ways to Get Your Employees Super Engaged

JUN 15, 2018
In Leadership, Influence Is Not A Given
Michelle Braden

MSBCoach CEO, author of 3 leadership books, committed to inspire/challenge leaders, maximize engagement, and impact organizational success.

Servant Leadership for 21st Century



Leadership is not wielding authority; it's empowering others.

6 Mantras That Will Set You Apart as a Genuine Leader

To create the right climate, you need leadership, not GREEDership.


December 2017

If You Aspire to Be a Great Leader, Be Present
Rasmus Hougaard and Jacqueline Carter
HBR, DECEMBER 13, 2017

Nov 11, 2016 Accenture Veterans Day Keynote







The Potential Project Upload

August 2017

 Leadership Instincts: Listen, Amplify, Include
General Martin E. Dempsey
August 25, 2017

22 Qualities That Make a Great Leader

June 2017

The 10 (and a Half) Commandments of Leadership

10 Questions Great Bosses ask periodically

The Dynamics of 8 Different Styles of Leadership
April 11, 2017 - by  Paul E. Fein

Four Behaviors That Define Successful Leaders
Elena Lytkina Botelho

May 2017

45 Questions Every Leader Should Answer

By Frank Sonnenberg

Good Bosses Switch Between Two Leadership Styles

Jon Maner
Jon Maner is a professor of management and organizations at Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University.
DECEMBER 05, 2016, HBR Article

The two styles are termed Dominance and Prestige. They could have been termed Single Person Dominance (Lone Boxer) and Team Decision Making (Foot Ball Team).



Leadership Freak - A popular blog on leadership

What Great Managers Do Daily

Ryan Fuller & Nina Shikaloff
DECEMBER 14, 2016

Decoding Leadership: What really matters

Our most recent research, however, suggests that a small subset of leadership skills closely correlates with leadership success, particularly among frontline leaders. Using our own practical experience and searching the relevant academic literature, we came up with a comprehensive list of 20 distinct leadership traits. We did a survey and  found  that leaders in organizations with high-quality leadership teams typically displayed 4 of the 20 possible types of behavior; these 4, indeed, explained 89 percent of the variance between strong and weak organizations in terms of leadership effectiveness .

• Solving problems effectively: The process that precedes decision making is problem solving, when information is gathered, analyzed, and considered.

• Operating with a strong results orientation: Leadership is about not only developing and communicating a vision and setting objectives but also following through to achieve results. Leaders with a strong results orientation tend to emphasize the importance of efficiency and productivity and to prioritize the highest-value work.

• Seeking different perspectives: This trait is conspicuous in managers who monitor trends affecting organizations, grasp changes in the environment, encourage employees to contribute ideas that could improve performance, accurately differentiate between important and unimportant issues, and give the appropriate weight to stakeholder concerns. Leaders who do well on this dimension typically base their decisions on sound analysis and avoid the many biases to which decisions are prone.


The Art of Giving and Receiving Advice.

By: Garvin, David A.; Margolis, Joshua D. Harvard Business Review. Jan/Feb2015, Vol. 93 Issue 1/2, p60-71.

Seeking and giving advice are central to effective leadership and decision making, and they require emotional intelligence, self-awareness, restraint, diplomacy, and patience on both sides. In this article, the authors argue that they are practical skills one  can learn and apply to great effect. The most common obstacles to effectively seeking and giving advice are  thinking one already has the answers, defining the problem poorly, and overstepping boundaries.  They  offer practical guidelines for getting past them.

Five stages of advising are identified: (1) finding the right fit; (2) developing a shared understanding; (3) crafting alternatives; (4) converging on a decision; and (5) putting advice into action. Each stage includes suggestions for seekers and for advisers.

The Authenticity Paradox. 

By: Ibarra, Herminia. Harvard Business Review. Jan/Feb2015, Vol. 93 Issue 1/2, p52-59.

INSEAD professor Herminia Ibarra argues, a simplistic understanding of what authenticity means can limit leaders' growth and impact.  In this article, Ibarra explains how leaders can develop an "adaptively authentic" style.  It's OK to change tactics from one day to the next, she says by figuring  out what's right for the challenges and circumstances we face.



The Skills Leaders Need at Every Level

by Jack Zenger and Joseph Folkman
HBR Blog Post
16 Skills are listed in order of importance. Top 7 are said to be important.

1. Inspires and motivates others.
2. Displays high integrity and honesty
3. Solves problems and analyzes issues
4. Drives for results
5. Communicates powerfully and prolifically
6. Collaborates and promotes teamwork
7. Builds relationships

Leadership Development Beyond Competencies: Moving to a Holistic Approach
Marian N. Ruderman, Cathleen Klerkin, and Carol Connelly
Center for Creative Leadership - White Paper

Book review of Jane Dutton and Gretchen Spreitzer, How to Be a Positive Leader: Small Actions, Big Impact.



How to be a better boss?

Ask a person whether he wants to recommend his boss to his friends as the ideal boss to work under.

Knowledge@Wharton article
Social Technology and the Changing Context of Leadership
Social technology is changing the way leaders do conversations with their group members especially in large organizations. The article presents ideas on this issue

Sloan Management Review Article Spring, March 2012

How to Become a Better Leader

The article describes Big 5 Personality factors and use of them in developing oneself as a better leader.

Leadership Basic Articles

Organizational Behavior Articles

Theories of Leadership 
Cognitive Resources Theory of Leadership
Leadership Styles, Roles, Activities, Skills and Development

Principles of Management Articles

Updated  2019 - 25 December 2019, 25 August 2019, 4 August 2019, 29 April 2019,  19 January 2019,

2018 - 15 July 2018, 10 July 2018,  8 February,  28 January

22 December 2017,  22 August 2017,  24 June 2017,  6 June 2017,  29 May 2017,  22 February 2017, 6 December 2016, 12 October 2016, 10 December 2015

December 23, 2019

Resourcing - A Function of Management

A Manager's Job is to get results through people and other resources. Hence acquiring all resources (including human resources) is a function of management. - Narayana Rao (2010)

Resourcing is a function of Management. Resource Efficiency Improvement is a function of Industrial Engineering. Narayana Rao (5 February 2019)

Linkedin Post in IISE Group

The article was first published on Knol in 2010.

Replace the Function Staffing by Resourcing in Functions of Management

Koontz and O'Donnell outlined Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing and Controlling as the five functions of management and explained the process of management of these five functions.

In the place of staffing, using the word resourcing, could be a better description of management function at the current stage.

A plan to achieve something (objective) is to be  converted into an organizational plan that has resources,  facilities and people. The manager has to acquire these resources to set up the organization to implement his plan. Acquisition of human resources is staffing. But normally in modern business, the manager has to acquire money resources or finance. Then, using capital and finance, he has to  acquire land, buildings, machinery, materials and various other services. Then comes directing and resource allocation (execution).

During control phase, replanning takes place, reorganization can take place, resource adjustment (resource acquisition or disposal) may take place, and redirecting may take place to achieve the goals set forth for a period.

Planning involves choosing a direction and an intermediate destination. It has to be a profitable and a useful endeavor. In the process of planning cost benefit analysis is done.  Organizing follows and the means by which one reaches the chosen destination is defined during this activity of management.

Organizing is a process of

  • determining, grouping and structuring activities
  • creating roles for individuals for effective performance at work
  • allocating necessary authority (over resources) and responsibility for results for each role
  • determining detailed procedures and systems for different problem areas such as coordination, communication, decision-making, motivation, conflict resolution and so on.

The resources required to achieve a goal are to be identified during the organizing step of management. How many operators are required and how many supervisors are required is a function of technology employed in the organization and this decision has to be taken during the process of organization. Resourcing follows the organizing phase in the acquiring of the resources planned in the organizing phase. Organizing this way is just the planning stage. Resourcing is the stage during which all resources planned in the organizing stage are acquired by the manager.

Resource Planning 

Resource planning is an economic decision and entrepreneurs have to use it. It is discussed adequately in economics.

Choice of Inputs by the Firm

Every firm or entrepreneur has to decide how much of each input it should employ: how much labor, capital, land, energy, various materials and services.

The fundamental assumption that economists make in this context is that of cost minimization. Firms are expected to choose their combination of inputs so as to minimize the total cost of production.

Least-cost Rule: To produce a given level of output at the least cost, a firm will hire factors until is has equalized the marginal product per dollar spent on each factor of production. This implies that

Marginal product of labor/price of labor  = Marginal Product of Capital Equipment/Price of capital equipment = ...

Thus the firm will choose a factor combination or resource combination that minimizes the total cost of production.  (Source:  )


Recognition of Role of Resources in Management Process by Various Authors of Principles of Management or Management Process Books

Ernest Dale

Goals and Resources

Once objectives have been set,the planners must decide how far they can proceed toward them in view of the resources available, which include the money on hand, the money that sales will bring, and the funds that may be obtained by borrowing or selling equities. The decision to borrow or sell new stock will, of course, be part of the planning process and will depend on the return expected on the investment.

Finally, the planners must decide on the allocation of the funds to the various company activities and the way in which these funds will be used to generate greater income in the form of sales.  The volume of sales is, in fact, the key factor in all corporate planning.

Ernest Dale, Graduale School of Business, University of Virginia, Management: Theory and Practice, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1965, p.352, Chapter 22. Planning and Forecasting.

An interesting entry in Wikipedia - Resource Management

In organizational studies, resource management is the efficient and effective deployment for an organization's resources when they are needed. Such resources may include financial resources, inventory, human skills, production resources, or information technology (IT). In the realm of project management, processes, techniques and philosophies as to the best approach for allocating resources have been developed. These include discussions on functional vs. cross-functional resource allocation as well as processes espoused by organizations like the Project Management Institute (PMI) through their Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) methodology to project management. Resource management is a key element to activity resource estimating and project human resource management. Both are essential components of a comprehensive project management plan to execute and monitor a project successfully
Resourcing and Resouce Planning Departments
Office of Resource Planning, Universit of Regina

A new concept being developed as enterprise architecting clearly brings out the need for organizing material and human organizations and provides a process for developing the both organization. From this organization output, resource requirements will be clearly specified and during the resourcing function, manager has to acquire the resources specified in the organization structure.

Harvard Business Essentials on Resource

In the book, Coaching and Mentoring: How to Develop Top Talent and Achieve Stronger Performance, published by Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation, in 2004

Page 2

A Manager's Job is to get results through people and other resources.

Industrial Engineering

Resourcing and resource allocation is Manager's job. Resource efficiency (using resources efficiently) is the concern of Industrial engineers

PPT of Salah R. Agha, Professor Industrial Engineering, Islamic University of Gaza on Facilities Planning and Materials Handling

Indicates role of IEs.

Resource Management Excellence: The Art of Excelling in Resource and Assets Management

H. James Harrington
Paton Professional, 2007 - Capital - 302 pages

Facilities Planning

James A. Tompkins, John A. White, Yavuz A. Bozer, J. M .A. Tanchoco
John Wiley & Sons, 19-Jan-2010 - Technology & Engineering - 864 pages

When it comes to facilities planning, engineers turn to this book to explore the most current practices. The new edition continues to guide them through each step in the planning process. The updated material includes more discussions on economics, the supply chain, and ports of entry. It takes a more global perspective while incorporating new case studies to show how the information is applied in the field. Many of the chapters have been streamlined as well to focus on the most relevant topics. All of this will help engineers approach facilities planning with creativity and precision.

Resourcing Activity is well described in Project Management Literature.

Resourcing - An Important Activity in Project Management

Resource and Capacity Management - Bibliography

Related topics

The Nature and Purpose of Planning
The Nature of Organizing
Resourcing - A Function of Management
Leading - Introduction
Planning and Execution - Theory and Practice
The System and Process of Controlling

Updated  24 December 2019,  9 June 2019,   5 February 2019,  10 August 2018,  3 July 2017,   26 July 2016,  1 Feb 2016, 17 Sep 2015, 25 Feb 2014
Updated 17.3.2012
Original knol - resourcing-a-function-of-management    2utb2lsm2k7a/ 2345

Details of the Knol

Resourcing - A Function of Management

Narayana Rao

All Rights Reserved

Version 14

Last edited: 02 Mar 2010

Exported: 26 Nov 2011

Original Knol Number 2345

December 22, 2019

Improvised Choreography Model of Management - Management Model Appropriate for Turbulent Frontline Activities

In dance, choreography is the act of designing dance.  A choreographer is one who creates dances.
In general, choreography is used to design dances that are intended to be performed as concert dance.

The art of choreography involves the specification of human movement and form in terms of space, shape, time and energy.

Dances are designed by applying one or both of these fundamental choreographic methods:

Improvisation, in which a choreographer  might specify a sequence of movements that are to be executed in an improvised manner over the course of a musical phrase. Improvisational scores typically offer wide latitude for personal interpretation by the dancer.

Planned choreography, in which a choreographer dictates motion and form in detail, leaving little or no opportunity for the dancer to exercise personal interpretation.  (Wikepedia -

Important points of the research paper
Dancing in the dark: creativity, knowledge creation and (emergent) organizational change
Fabrizio Maimone and Marta Sinclair
Journal of Organizational Change Management
Vol. 27 No. 2, 2014 pp. 344-361

39 citations according to google scholar

Purpose –  to define the key elements at individual and collective level that may contribute to the development of organizational spaces that favour a climate for creativity and knowledge creation as precondition of “emergent change”; and to contribute to the development of a multi-perspective approach to creativity and knowledge creation in twenty-first century organizations.

 It uses the metaphor of dance to explore the relationship between emergent change and knowledge creation and sharing, and identifies the main factors that may impact this relationship.

These factors are critical for change management in modern organizations. The authors propose guidelines and provide examples how to manage work spaces and facilitate the organizational work. .

This paper provides a systematic, multi-perspective approach to the understanding and management of social, cultural and individual characteristics of bottom-up organizational change, focusing on its fundamental aspects of creativity and knowledge creation.

This paper proposes a conceptual framework for driving change in organizations operating in today’s chaotic environment.

The study is focused on the bottom-up and emergent side of organizational change. All days in every organization people discover new ideas and new ways to solve problems, do things, collaborate, communicate, negotiate, etc. and sometimes these new ways are distributed through the internal borders of the organization and transformed into shared routines and practices. This kind of organizational change is set in the context of knowledge creation and sharing within the so-called ba (space of knowledge). It is particularly critical for organizations operating in the turbulent scenarios of the twenty-first century that need to enhance their flexibility in order to become more adaptable to external changes and proactive toward technological and market transformations.

The hidden dimensions of this process: creativity, emotional climate, intuition and organizational diversity, and the critical role of organizational space are explored. The authors  argue that the metaphor of dance is apt to describe the complex and paradoxical nature of emergent organizational change. The metaphor of dance describes effectively the dynamics of emergent change observable in complex organizations coping with a turbulent environment.

Every time a group (or an individual) needs to solve new problems, or to cope with the unexpected, they have to explore, improvise the current practice and create collectively new strategies and tools. The dance metaphor describes the processes of adaptation and continuous improvement that are enacted every day in many organizations, to fit standardized procedures and shared routines into organizational variety and emergent change.

The implicit idea is that organizations and their environment are supposed to evolve faster than policies, processes and procedures. The complex organization has to maintain  coherence but change to adapt to the environment. Such organizations need to balance creativity and routines, fluidity and definition, diversity and identity.

Since modern organizations are supposed to be a mixture of patterned behaviors and day-by-day emerging change, they need to reconcile routines with spontaneous and unplanned change and this involves horizontal processes of knowledge creation (knowledge creation by participants instead of the manager). People discover and try every day new ways to adapt prescribed procedures and practices to an environment characterized by continuous evolution. In fact, they interpret endlessly a choreography, composed of a set of goals, processes and procedures established by the management, in order to dance harmoniously with other organizational members and act the plot of organizational routines. This choreography is based on a mix of structure and improvization, management and autonomy, heteronymous and self-organizing processes.

As we know, all dancers need to adapt the choreography to their style and abilities, to specific conditions of the stage and to different characteristics of the market that changes continuously. As a result, they are supposed to reinterpret the choreography on a daily basis. And sometimes one dancer creates new steps, sometimes a group of dancers create a new partition of the choreography. The dance thus becomes a mix of planning and improvization that depends on the people but also on the place where it is performed. When the choreographer decides to change the script, the dancers need to learn and reinterpret a new choreography. Then a new adaptation and change process may occur. We can achieve a better choreography, and therefore a better dance, if the dancers are allowed to participate in the rendition of the choreography: if people are involved and may contribute to the project of change.

The key concepts that may enhance change-related creativity and knowledge creation

The key concepts of emergent change that may enhance change-related creativity and knowledge creation in twenty-first century organizations examined are:

. the concept of “chaordic” emergent change;
. the main characteristics of organizational flexibility;
. the dynamic structure of (social) organizational space and its relationship with organizational change;
. the critical role played by creativity and knowledge creation as enablers of emergent change;
. the main affective and cultural catalysts that might foster emergent change: intuition, emotional and organizational climate and organizational diversity; and
. practical implications of the proposed approach.

Emergent organizational change

Modern organizations could be described as complex systems in continuous search of equilibrium between order and chaos. They function in a non-linear fashion through interdependence, self-organizing processes, continuous change, paradoxes and ambiguity.  Complex organizational systems are characterized by the so-called “emergence”, e.g. by “the arising of new, unexpected structures,
patterns, properties, or processes in a self-organizing system” .

According to the authors, scope and freedom of continuous stream of minor adjustments encourages improvization, continuous adaptation and learning. This process occurs also when change is not totally spontaneous but is driven by specific interventions of change management. According to Orlikowski (1996), change programs “work” only if they are fine-tuned and adjusted by organizational actors in specific contexts. Tsoukas and Chia (2002) defined this kind of change as “organizational becoming.”

The theoretical perspectives presented above may be integrated, adopting the chaordic change theory. Most successful innovative companies operating in the high-tech sector adopt chaordic organizational models, in order to facilitate innovation and continuous change. This requires not only improvization but also “rhythmically choreographed transitions”. This perspective could be applied also to other types of organizations that need to cope with a very turbulent and hypercompetitive scenario. “Chaordic change” may arise from chaos as a result of the inter-play between managerial strategies and spontaneous change . Change is not only the product of engineered effort, nor solely the result of completely free improvization of organizational players, but a complex process that happens somewhere on the edge between order and chaos.

The relationship between emergent change and organizational flexibility

According to Ashby’s (1964) Law of Requisite Variety, modern organizations need to increase the level of internal variety to cope with the complexity of environment.

A flexible organizational has to  conserve its identity, mission and purpose but has to change in certain directions or features to  discover new opportunities and solutions that are in line with its mission and also to sustain the organization. Organizational flexibility requires both adaptability and dominance because it is important to maintain the system’s identity but at the same time it is necessary to assure that it evolves with the external environment.

We argue that the metaphor of dance could help explain the dynamics making organizations more flexible and adaptable.  Using our metaphor, managers have to teach workers how to manage their freedom of interpreting the dance, producing harmony from diversity. To show them how to be good dancers, managers as well should perform their ballet in harmony with their peers and superiors. Otherwise each manager could potentially create his own dystonic choreography.

Volberda and Lewin (2003) propose, to foster their flexibility, organizations need to develop a leadership style based on delegation and people’s commitment at every level of the structure. According to the authors, managers should become the stewards of the change process and focus their managerial role on value management, creating the necessary framework to guide and enabling decision making on every level of the hierarchy. This approach implies that management commits to guiding the evolution of behaviors that emerge in the course of interaction of independent agents and invests in implementing process controls whenever possible instead of relying on outcome controls”. We argue that to improve their level of flexibility and adaptability, organizations need to facilitate the shift from the management of behaviors that emerge in the course of interaction of “independent” agents, to the management of behaviors that emerge in the course of interaction of “inter-dependent” agents. For this reason, adopting again our metaphor of dance, organizational agents need to learn to dance together, in order to find a balance between chaos and order, identity and fragmentation. Therefore, we assume that managers need to pay attention not only to individual behavior, but also to behavior at inter-individual, group, personal network, unit and branch level. If the dance is only individual, it could produce misalignments that favor organizational fragmentation and schizophrenia. This might affect unfavorably the balance between adaptation and maintenance of identity traits, which is critical for organizational survival in the long run.

Organizational space: the place where the emergent change begins

Organizations should improve their communication system, in terms of strategies, policies, tools and communication spaces, and develop people’s communication skills, in order to catalyze organizing processes and provide a smart interface for the proactive management of complexity. It will  assure the necessary level of coordination and coherence of the organizational system.

Organizational space is a typical emergent phenomenon of organizational complexity,  related to the process of organizing. Its configuration changes organically in response to the ongoing enactment of relationships among all involved players/dancers, within and across the organization. Organizational space does not necessarily correspond to a physical space. It is rather a topological configuration produced by social interactions, an inter-subjective dimension that could transcend the limits of physical boundaries and organizational structures (Wai-chung Yeung, 2005). In this sense, it is relational and discursively constructed.  The concept of organizational spaces is derived from the theory of social space Lefebvre (1991). Space can be viewed as a product of social relations that affect and change the environment . One organization may produce several organizational spaces and ICT, especially Enterprise 2.0 collaboration tools, that extend the dominium of organizational spaces beyond the organizational boundaries (Maimone, 2007). An apt management of organizational spaces may thus help solve the apparent paradox between control and autonomy,  as it would assure the maintenance of organizational identity and schemata. Using the dance metaphor, organizational space could be seen as the space of performance, a product of the interaction of the stage, the dancers, the audience.

Organizations need to facilitate the development of intra- and inter-organizational networks, provide a meta-narration and construct an inclusive and dynamic identity, in order to build a bridge among different organizational spaces. Leadership, climate management, competence development, communication fluxes and network management could favor a managerial control based on proactive management of emergent change in flexible organizational spaces.

Creativity, knowledge creation and emergent organizational change

Since emergent change is the result of a continuous process of adaptation of existing organizational processes, routines and practices and the creation of new ones, creativity and knowledge creation can be considered its key factors.  Emergent change is based on bottom-up spontaneous behaviors and therefore, like in an improvised dance performance, it implies a creative act that may lead to the production of new knowledge. The term “new” refers to the adaptation and the active re-combination of “old” knowledge in the present choreography.

The collective power of creative individuals is shaped by organizational spaces and their social structure, which in turn emanate magnetism for creative people, similar to characterization of creative cities. This can be achieved by a leadership style that incentivizes greater autonomy, corporate entrepreneurship, critical and creative thinking, and information and knowledge sharing interaction, freedom to experiment (and to fail), organizational and supervisory encouragement, resource availability and work group support. Creativity is a learning process that needs to be practiced and encouraged. Organizations can practice creative behavior through sympathetic leadership and support systems. Hence they should incentivize the expression of new ideas and divergent thinking, nurturing unconventional problem solving and exploratory thought.

Personality, cognitive preferences and relevant knowledge play also an important role in the creative process.  Organizational environment fosters creativity if it is effectively managed. Creativity in a workplace dance needs the “right place” to be incentivized and nurtured; it does not happen by itself but is rather the outcome of hard work. Many authors argued that knowledge creation is the flip side of creativity.  Human creativity results in knowledge by discovering ‘truth,’ justifying observations, defining problems, and solving them”. Therefore creativity, at individual, group and organizational level, plays an important role in the process of knowledge creation  where change occurs through individual and environmental interactions in a space generating knowledge.  Metaphorically speaking, ba is the place where dance is created and diffused through the process of socialization  This could be a physical space  or it could be also a cyber ba, e.g. digital media. As we know, personal networks are critical for the process of knowledge sharing . These rely on communications and relational factors to share new interpretations of the choreography and/or new steps, e.g. to enable organizational dissemination of changes. Organizations can encourage this by developing communities of practice, creating Web 2.0 communication infrastructures, like corporate social networks and digital tools, such as knowledge wikies.

 Next step would be an integrated and participatory design of physical and virtual work spaces, aimed to foster collaboration, relationship building, knowledge sharing and collective intelligence within and across organizational boundaries. Sensitive leadership may also nurture trust that it is necessary to facilitate knowledge sharing and, using our dance metaphor, to choreograph the dance so its interpretation and the proposition of new steps by interacting players can yield their full potential.

The role of intuition
Intuition as a form of direct knowing (Sinclair, 2011).

Emotional climate as enabling factor

Employees’ emotional perceptions of work environment are an integral part of the context that influences also levels of creativity.

Several emotional conditions appear to be present when the organization values and encourages creativity. An important role plays psychological comfort, stemming from freedom to express one’s emotions and personality in the workplace as well as perceptions of a pleasant and safe environment. Other relevant factors are management focus on employee welfare and employees’ contentment with structural efficacy, the sense of satisfaction with relationships and communication. Such environment requires smooth social interactions and an effective emotions management . In order to achieve these results organizations have to nurture and manage emotional climate actively through selection and development of appropriate staff, and emphasis on effective communication . They also need to pay attention to physical and emotional attributes of the organizational space so that staff can remain comfortable and “true to themselves”

Practical implications

Consistent with the theoretical framework proposed above, we provide suggestions for the improvement of organizational dance. Managers should adopt a leadership style that encourages active listening and stimulating staff to challenge their bosses; use managerial communication as a tool to make people feel as part of a team and a process, and employ managerial negotiation to reconcile individual and collective interests, finding win-win solutions to balance personal, group and organizational goals with a shared identity.

Organizational space is a social space, both physical and virtual, that facilitates emergent change, fosters creativity and favors processes of knowledge creation and sharing. An organizational space where players can interpret freely their dance and may propose new steps and choreographies, enacting creative processes at individual and collective level  shall drive double-loop or deutero learning  in organizations.

At the same time a mindful leader who nurtures a favorable climate and creates a dynamic organizational space for productive diversity that can be channeled into creativity and emergent change is also needed.

The proposed framework suggests that creativity is an emergent phenomenon that can be facilitated.  A flexible, adaptive, “knowledge creating” company is a dynamic complex system that is able to find over time its point of equilibrium between order and self expression, in a continuous search for excellence. A company that lets dancers improvise, finding harmony and coordination through creativity and intuitive attunement, and tries to learn from them will be more successful. This results in an organizational dance in which leaders and organizational players cooperate to cope proactively with the turbulence of societies and markets and with technological change.

A mindful leader will be able to  build a framework that facilitates free expression of differences and mediating among different identities and cultures to produce an inclusive narration that makes people feel united in diversity. Such leader will enhance conditions for the emergence of creativity and adopt a participative and bottom-up approach to management, enabling the organization to set up good organizational spaces for emergent change and knowledge creation.

Dance and Organization: Integrating Dance Theory and Methods into the Study of Management

Brigitte Biehl
Taylor & Francis, 03-Feb-2017 - Business & Economics - 194 pages
Dance and Organisation is the first comprehensive work to integrate dance theory and methods into the study of management, which have developed an interest in the arts and the humanities. Dance represents dynamics and change and puts the moving body at the centre, which has been ignored and oppressed by traditional management theory. ‘Being’ a leader however also means to ‘move’ like one, and critical lessons can be learned from ballerinas and modern dancers. Leadership is a dialogue, as in the work of musicians, conductors and DJs who manage groups without words. Movement in organisational space, in a museum or a techno club can be understood as a choreography and site-specific performance. Movement also is practically used for leadership and employee development workshops and can be deployed as an organisational research method.

By taking a firm interdisciplinary stance in dance studies and organisational research to explore management topics, reflecting on practitioner accounts and research projects, the book seeks to make an innovative contribution to our understanding of the moving body, generating new insights on teamwork, leadership, gender in management, organisational space, training and research methods. It comprises an important contribution to the organizational behaviour and critical management studies disciplines, and looks to push the boundaries of the academic literature.

Let me entertain you?: Some reflexions on the professor as a DJ
Brigitte Biehl-Missal, BSP Business School Berlin Potsdam

Dance in New Areas: Integrating dance methods into businesses
and management for personnel and leadership development
Brigitte Biehl
Research in Dance and Physical Education
2019. Vol. 3, No. 1, 17-30

December 6, 2019

System Dynamics - Introduction - Bibliography

Causal loop diagram

GLO 410: Systems Thinking - (Campion, Spring 2016): Chapter 1: Causal Loop Diagrams
This guide for Systems Thinking provides students with links to references from the textbook Systems Concepts in Action in addition to other resources to help develop systemic thinkers.

Developing System Dynamics Models from Causal Look Diagrams

Systems Thinking - CLDs - Refresher