June 30, 2017

June - Management Knowledge Revision


First Week  1 to 5 June 2015

Opportunities or Areas for Innovation
Market Development for New Products, Processes and System

Organizing for Innovation
Research and Development Management

Industrial Engineering

Industrial Engineering assists managers in achieving the second important performance dimension of management - Efficiency. Effectiveness is the first dimension. Industrial engineering has its primary focus engineering activities, processes and organizations. The principles and practices developed in this subject have application in non-engineering areas. Managers have to be aware of basics of industrial engineering and recent developments. Even service sector organizations have engineering activities like construction and maintenance of buildings, operation and maintenance of transport facilities, information technology operations etc.

Detailed Presentation on Industrial Engineering PrinciplesPresented by Narayana Rao at IISE 2017 Annual Conference at Pittsburgh on 23 May 2017.



Industrial Engineering Introduction
Component Areas of IE: Human Effort engineering and System Efficiency Engineering

Pioneering Efforts of Taylor, Gilbreth and Emerson
Principles of Motion Economy

Motion Study - Human Effort Engineering
Ergonomics - Introduction

Work Measurement
Predetermined Motion Time Systems (PMTS)

2 week - 8 to 12 June 2015

Methods Efficiency Engineering
Product Design Efficiency Engineering

Plant Layout - Efficiency
Value Engineering - Introduction

Statistical Quality Control – Industrial Engineering
Inspection Methods Efficiency Engineering

Operations Research - An Efficiency Improvement Tool for Industrial Engineers
Engineering Economics is an Efficiency Improvement Tool for Industrial Engineers

Industrial Engineering and Scientific Management in Japan
Shigeo Shingo - The Japanese Industrial Engineer

3rd Week  15 to 19 June 2015

System Engineering Process and Its Management
Systems Improvement Process

Systems Installation - Installing Proposed Methods
Productivity, Safety, Comfort, and Operator Health Management

Organizing for Industrial Engineering: Historical Evolution of Thinking
Current Research in IE

Managing Change in Improvement Projects - Comfort Zone to Comfort Zone
Supply Chain Cost Reduction

Total Improvement Management
Total Industrial Engineering - H. Yamashina

4 Week - 22 to 26 June 2015


Introduction to Economics - Basic Economic Concepts and Theories
Elements of Supply and Demand - Review Notes

Theory of Aggregate Supply and Demand
Business Cycles

Macroeconomic Objectives
Money and Monetary Policy

Fiscal and Debt Policies of the Government
Theory Demand, Supply and Equilibrium in Market

June Month Birthdays - Management Scholars and Professors

To July - Management Knowledge Revision

One Year MBA Knowledge Revision Plan

January  - February  - March  - April  - May   -   June

July  - August     - September  - October  - November  - December

Updated 4 June 2017, 26 May 2016

June 23, 2017

Leadership - Subject Update


June 2017

The 10 (and a Half) Commandments of Leadership

10 Questions Great Bosses ask periodically

The Dynamics of 8 Different Styles of Leadership
April 11, 2017 - by  Paul E. Fein

Four Behaviors That Define Successful Leaders
Elena Lytkina Botelho

May 2017

45 Questions Every Leader Should Answer

By Frank Sonnenberg

Good Bosses Switch Between Two Leadership Styles

Jon Maner
Jon Maner is a professor of management and organizations at Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University.
DECEMBER 05, 2016, HBR Article

The two styles are termed Dominance and Prestige. They could have been termed Single Person Dominance (Lone Boxer) and Team Decision Making (Foot Ball Team).






Leadership Freak - A popular blog on leadership      https://leadershipfreak.blog/

What Great Managers Do Daily

Ryan Fuller & Nina Shikaloff
DECEMBER 14, 2016

Decoding Leadership: What really matters

Our most recent research, however, suggests that a small subset of leadership skills closely correlates with leadership success, particularly among frontline leaders. Using our own practical experience and searching the relevant academic literature, we came up with a comprehensive list of 20 distinct leadership traits. We did a survey and  found  that leaders in organizations with high-quality leadership teams typically displayed 4 of the 20 possible types of behavior; these 4, indeed, explained 89 percent of the variance between strong and weak organizations in terms of leadership effectiveness .

• Solving problems effectively: The process that precedes decision making is problem solving, when information is gathered, analyzed, and considered.

• Operating with a strong results orientation: Leadership is about not only developing and communicating a vision and setting objectives but also following through to achieve results. Leaders with a strong results orientation tend to emphasize the importance of efficiency and productivity and to prioritize the highest-value work.

• Seeking different perspectives: This trait is conspicuous in managers who monitor trends affecting organizations, grasp changes in the environment, encourage employees to contribute ideas that could improve performance, accurately differentiate between important and unimportant issues, and give the appropriate weight to stakeholder concerns. Leaders who do well on this dimension typically base their decisions on sound analysis and avoid the many biases to which decisions are prone.


The Art of Giving and Receiving Advice.

By: Garvin, David A.; Margolis, Joshua D. Harvard Business Review. Jan/Feb2015, Vol. 93 Issue 1/2, p60-71.

Seeking and giving advice are central to effective leadership and decision making, and they require emotional intelligence, self-awareness, restraint, diplomacy, and patience on both sides. In this article, the authors argue that they are practical skills one  can learn and apply to great effect. The most common obstacles to effectively seeking and giving advice are  thinking one already has the answers, defining the problem poorly, and overstepping boundaries.  They  offer practical guidelines for getting past them.

Five stages of advising are identified: (1) finding the right fit; (2) developing a shared understanding; (3) crafting alternatives; (4) converging on a decision; and (5) putting advice into action. Each stage includes suggestions for seekers and for advisers.

The Authenticity Paradox. 

By: Ibarra, Herminia. Harvard Business Review. Jan/Feb2015, Vol. 93 Issue 1/2, p52-59.

INSEAD professor Herminia Ibarra argues, a simplistic understanding of what authenticity means can limit leaders' growth and impact.  In this article, Ibarra explains how leaders can develop an "adaptively authentic" style.  It's OK to change tactics from one day to the next, she says by figuring  out what's right for the challenges and circumstances we face.



The Skills Leaders Need at Every Level

by Jack Zenger and Joseph Folkman
HBR Blog Post
16 Skills are listed in order of importance. Top 7 are said to be important.

1. Inspires and motivates others.
2. Displays high integrity and honesty
3. Solves problems and analyzes issues
4. Drives for results
5. Communicates powerfully and prolifically
6. Collaborates and promotes teamwork
7. Builds relationships

Leadership Development Beyond Competencies: Moving to a Holistic Approach
Marian N. Ruderman, Cathleen Klerkin, and Carol Connelly
Center for Creative Leadership - White Paper

Book review of Jane Dutton and Gretchen Spreitzer, How to Be a Positive Leader: Small Actions, Big Impact.



How to be a better boss?

Ask a person whether he wants to recommend his boss to his friends as the ideal boss to work under.

Knowledge@Wharton article
Social Technology and the Changing Context of Leadership
Social technology is changing the way leaders do conversations with their group members especially in large organizations. The article presents ideas on this issue

Sloan Management Review Article Spring, March 2012

How to Become a Better Leader

The article describes Big 5 Personality factors and use of them in developing oneself as a better leader.

Leadership Basic Articles

Organizational Behavior Articles

Theories of Leadership 
Cognitive Resources Theory of Leadership
Leadership Styles, Roles, Activities, Skills and Development

Principles of Management Articles

Updated  24 June 2017,  6 June 2017,  29 May 2017,  22 February 2017, 6 December 2016, 12 October 2016, 10 December 2015

June 17, 2017

Global Logistics Business Market in 2022 - $12.25 trillion

A new report published by Allied Market Research, titled, Logistics Market by Mode of Transport, and End-user Industry: Global Opportunity Analysis and Industry Forecast, 2014 - 2022, projects that the global logistics market is anticipated to reach $12,256 billion by 2022 with a CAGR of 3.48% from 2016 to 2022.

Among end-user, manufacturing segment dominated the global market in 2014, accounting for about 26% share in the total revenue of logistics market. Transport of raw material to manufacturers for the production is a growth factor for world logistics market by manufacturing industry.

Retail, Trade and Transport, Utilities, Health care etc are other segments.



June 14, 2017

Current Research in Industrial Engineering (IE)


Principles of Industrial Engineering

Prof. Narayana Rao published the paper "Principles of Industrial Engineering" in the proceedings of IISE 2017 Annual Conference and presented the paper in the conference on 23 May 2017.

You can download the full paper.

Presentation Video

Presentation in the IISE 2017 Pittsburgh, USA Annual Conference


All the conference papers are available in pre-publication format in the site

The papers are available under the time slots indicated and the topic indicated. Download papers of your interest.

IISE 2017 Annual Conference Themes and Time Slots


... (21 May 8 - 9.20 am;)


... Quality - Reliability (21 May 8 - 9.20 am;)
Advanced Analytics for Supply Chain (21 May 2 - 3.20 pm;)

...clustering and classification (23 May 2 - 3.20 pm;
...Data Analytics (21 May 5 to 6 pm;
...graph analytics (22 May  2 - 3.20 pm;

....Healthcare (22 May 8 - 9.20 am;  22 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm; 22 May 5 to 6 pm; 23 May 8 - 9.20 am;
...health care patient centered (23 May 8 - 9.20 am;

...operations engineering (22 May 12.30  - 1.50 pm;
...predictive analytics - supply chain (22 May  2 - 3.20 pm;
...quality and reliability (23 May 5 to 6 pm;

... Sustainability (21 May 8 - 9.20 am;
...Transportation and automotive applications (23 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;

...Data driven modeling for  complex systems (22 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
... DD improving society (23 May 8 - 9.20 am;

...Data science ((21 May 5 to 6 pm;

Applied Industrial Engineering

Additive manufacturing processes

...(21 May 11 - 12.20 pm;  21 May  2 - 3.20 pm; 22 May 11.00  - 12.20 am; 22 May  2 - 3.20 pm;)
... quality (21 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;


...(21 May 2 - 3.20 pm; 21 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;)


...(21 May 2 - 3.20 pm;
... advanced models power distribution (21 May 2 - 3.20 pm;
...data driven  (22 May  2 - 3.20 pm; 22 May 5 to 6 pm;
...modeling for energy efficiency in buildings (22 May 11.00  - 12.20 am;
...modeling and simulation (23 May 12.30 to 1.50;
... Renewable energy systems (21 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
...modeling microgrids (22 May 8 - 9.20 am;
...optimization models in power systems (22 May 12.30  - 1.50 pm;
...relaibility and quality (23 May 11 - 12.20 pm;
... and sustainability (22 May  2 - 3.20 pm; 22 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;

Internet of Things

...Sensors  Human-systems  (21 May  2 - 3.20 pm;

Curriculum Development

...Assessment (23 May 12.30 to 1.50;
...(21 May 12.30 to 1.50;
...Course development (21 May 11 - 12.20 pm; 22 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
...Engineering education innovations (21 May 5 to 6 pm;
...Innovative pedagogy (21 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm; 22 May 8 - 9.20 am;
...Small effect, big impact


... Means and Methods (21 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
...Smart and sustainable (23 May 8 - 9.20 am;
...sustainable and resilience (23 May 8 - 9.20 am;

Data Mining

...applications (23 May 2 - 3.20 pm;
.... health care (21 May 8 - 9.20 am; 23 May 8 - 9.20 am;
...social networks (23 May 2 - 3.20 pm;

Decision Support Systems

...Advances decision analysis (21 May 8 - 9.20 am;
...distributed decision making (22 May 8 - 9.20 am;
... Facility maintenance ((21 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;

Design - Product Industrial Engineering

... (22 May 5 to 6 pm; 23 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
... and manufacturing (22 May  2 - 3.20 pm;
... manufacturability and cost modeling (22 May  2 - 3.20 pm;
... Reliability (21 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;

Design of Experiments

...Optimal design (21 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;

...emergency response planning (22 May 12.30  - 1.50 pm;

Engineering Economy  

...(21 May 12.30 to 1.50;
...Energy and Defense (22 May 5 to 6 pm;
... Environment (21 May 2 - 3.20 pm;
...and pricing (23 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
...Research (22 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;

Health Care

... (21 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm; 21 May 5 to 6 pm;
...appointment scheduling (22 May 12.30  - 1.50 pm;
...assessing quality (22 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
...capacity models (22 May 12.30  - 1.50 pm;
... Data driven decisions (21 May 12.30 to 1.50;
...emergency and response management (21 May 5 to 6 pm;
...Data analytics (21 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
--- Process improvement(21 May 8 - 9.20 am; 21 May 11 - 12.20 pm;

... Advanced applications (21 May 5 to 6 pm;

... Delivery and transportation (23 May 5 to 6 pm;
... Diseases, treatments, interventions (21 May 11 - 12.20 pm;
...Disease management - OR applications (23 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
...IIE transactions paper (22 May  2 - 3.20 pm;

...Management (21 May 8 - 9.20 am; 21 May 11 - 12.20 pm;
...Managing supplies and processes (23 May 2 - 3.20 pm;
...Medical decision making (22 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm; 22 May 5 to 6 pm;

... Models Innovative healthcare (21 May 5 to 6 pm;
...modeling and scheduling (23 May 11 - 12.20 pm;
...nursing planning and scheduling (22 May 5 to 6 pm;
...Lean ((21 May 5 to 6 pm;  23 May 12.30 to 1.50; 23 May 2 - 3.20 pm; 23 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
...Operations (22 May 12.30  - 1.50 pm; 22 May  2 - 3.20 pm;
...operating room planning and scheduling (23 May 8 - 9.20 am;
...Optimization (23 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
...safety (23 May 2 - 3.20 pm;
...scheduling and planning (22 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
...simulation (22 May 8 - 9.20 am; 23 May 2 - 3.20 pm;
... Systems modeling (21 May 8 - 9.20 am; 21 May 8 - 9.20 am; 21 May  2 - 3.20 pm;
... Systems simulation (Logistics (21 May 8 - 9.20 am; 21 May  2 - 3.20 pm;
...vaccine distribution and management (23 May 11 - 12.20 pm;
...work flow modeling (23 May 2 - 3.20 pm;

Health and Safety

...Interventions for Health and Safety (21 May 8 - 9.20 am

Human Factors and Ergonomics

... Applications (22 May 5 to 6 pm;
... HF in health care (21 May 12.30 to 1.50; 21 May  2 - 3.20 pm;    21 May  2 - 3.20 pm; 21 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
...Macroergonomics, team, leadership (23 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;

.... Occupation ergonomics (21 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm; 21 May 5 to 6 pm;

Industrial Engineers Career

...What managers want in IEs (21 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;


...applications (22 May  2 - 3.20 pm;
...service industry (22 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
...2.0 (23 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;


....(21 May 8 - 9.20 am;
... best papers - logistics (22 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm; 22 May 5 to 6 pm;

...Humanitarian (21 May 12.30 to 1.50

...public sector (22 May 8 - 9.20 am;
...Supply Chain Logistics (21 May 8 - 9.20 am;
...Humanitarian (21 May 2 - 3.20 pm;

...Retail (22 May 5 to 6 pm;
...Scheduling and Planning transport (21 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
...spare parts (23 May 8 - 9.20 am;
...Transportation optimization (21 May 11 - 12.20 pm;
...Vehicle recharging and refueling (21 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
... Vehicle Routing (21 May 8 - 9.20 am


... Resilience in Complexity (21 May 5 to 6 pm;

Management of Industrial Engineering Department and Function

...Administration issues (23 May 2 - 3.20 pm;
...lean leadership (22 May  2 - 3.20 pm;
...becoming resilient leader (23 May 8 - 9.20 am;
...managing like an engineer (23 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
...secrets modern business success (23 May 2 - 3.20 pm;
...operating in national and global context (23 May 8 - 9.20 am;
...research based leadership (23 May 2 - 3.20 pm;


... (21 May 11 - 12.20 pm;
... Data Driven Smart (21 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm; (21 May 5 to 6 pm;
...education (22 May 5 to 6 pm;
...management and decision making (23 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
...processes (22 May 8 - 9.20 am;
...sustainability (22 May 12.30  - 1.50 pm; 23 May 12.30 to 1.50; 23 May 2 - 3.20 pm;
...virtually guided (23 May 11 - 12.20 pm;


... Condition based (22 May  2 - 3.20 pm
...preventive (22 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
...optimization (23 May 12.30 to 1.50;

Modeling and Simulation

...  (21 May 8 - 9.20 am; 22 May 12.30  - 1.50 pm;
...agent based (23 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
...airports (22 May 8 - 9.20 am;
...biomass supply chains (23 May 11 - 12.20 pm;
... decision analysis (21 May 11 - 12.20 pm;
... degradation (21 May 5 to 6 pm
... emergency response (23 May 8 - 9.20 am;
...human performance (22 May 8 - 9.20 am;
...lean construction (22 May  2 - 3.20 pm
...in industry (22 May 5 to 6 pm;
...network modeling (22 May 11.00  - 12.20 am;
... Optimization ( 21 May  2 - 3.20 pm;
... Reliability (21 May 8 - 9.20 am;
... Service ((21 May 5 to 6 pm;
...Systems dynamics (23 May 5 to 6 pm;

Network Operation
...network applications (23 May 2 - 3.20 pm;
...security (22 May 8 - 9.20 am;

Novel applications (23 May 5 to 6 pm;


...Advances in linear and integer programming theory (22 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm; 22 May 5 to 6 pm;
...Food industry (23 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
...in homeland security (22 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
...manufacturing and education (23 May 8 - 9.20 am;
... Novel techniques (21 May 5 to 6 pm;
...Queing theory (22 May 5 to 6 pm;
...and similation (22 May 5 to 6 pm;
...statistics and probability (23 May 8 - 9.20 am;

Performance Management

... (21 May  2 - 3.20 pm; 21 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm; (21 May 5 to 6 pm;

Process Improvement - Process Industrial Engineering

...Agriculture and food processing (22 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
... Analyzing Data ( 21 May  2 - 3.20 pm;
...systems (22 May 12.30  - 1.50 pm;
...Facility design applications (23 May 8 - 9.20 am; 23 May 12.30 to 1.50;
...Facility Layout (22 May 5 to 6 pm;
...Facility planning (22 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
...process design and planning (23 May 2 - 3.20 pm; 23 May 5 to 6 pm;
...safety (23 May 2 - 3.20 pm;

Process Monitoring

...using High dimensional data (21 May 11 - 12.20 pm;
...fault diagnosis (22 May 8 - 9.20 am;
...statistical (22 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;

Production Planning and Scheduling

... batch and lot sizing (22 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;

... cost and schedule (23 May 12.30 to 1.50;

... Manufacturing (21 May 8 - 9.20 am; 22 May  2 - 3.20 pm;
...Models (23 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;

... Flow shop scheduling (21 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
...scheduling production (22 May 5 to 6 pm; 23 May 2 - 3.20 pm;
...sequencing and scheduling applications (23 May 11 - 12.20 pm;

Productivity Management

...(22 May 11.00  - 12.20 am; 22 May  2 - 3.20 pm; 23 May 12.30 to 1.50; )
Links to download papers given in:

Professional Engineering Course Licensure - IE

... (21 May  2 - 3.20 pm;

Quality Control - Reliability

... (22 May 11.00  - 12.20 am;
best papers (22 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
...energy systems (22 May  2 - 3.20 pm;
...growth (23 May 8 - 9.20 am;

Quantitative Methods

... (21 May  2 - 3.20 pm;
...Routing (22 May 8 - 9.20 am;

Order Picking
...(21 May 5 to 6 pm;

Professional Development
...(22 May  2 - 3.20 pm;


... Resource planning (21 May 5 to 6 pm;

Six Sigma

...(21 May 5 to 6 pm;

Socio-Technical Systems

... (21 May  2 - 3.20 pm;

Software engineering (23 May 5 to 6 pm;

...(22 May 8 - 9.20 am;

Supply Chain

... Energy (21 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
...environment (22 May 12.30  - 1.50 pm;
...disruption management (22 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
...game theory (23 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
...global (23 May 2 - 3.20 pm;
...green (22 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
...Innovation (21 May 5 to 6 pm;
...inventory management (23 May 2 - 3.20 pm;
...network design (22 May 8 - 9.20 am;
...production planning and scheduling (23 May 12.30 to 1.50;
... renewable energy (21 May 5 to 6 pm;
...risk management
...services (22 May 11.00  - 12.20 am;
... Supplier selection (21 May 8 - 9.20 am;
...Transportation topics (22 May 11.00  - 12.20 am;
...Unmanned aerial vehicles (22 May 11.00  - 12.20 am;


...infrastructure (22 May 12.30  - 1.50 pm;
..Maturity Assessment (21 May  2 - 3.20 pm;
... Organizational ((21 May 11 - 12.20 pm;
... Food distribution (21 May 5 to 6 pm;
...public policy making (22 May 8 - 9.20 am;
...systems management (23 May 5 to 6 pm;
...transport (22 May 5 to 6 pm;
... water (23 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;

Systems Engineering

... (23 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
... Aerospace (21 May 12.30 to 1.50;
...best papers (22 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
... Crime prevention and control (22 May  2 - 3.20 pm;
..evaculation planning, resilience (23 May 8 - 9.20 am;
... Military (21 May 11 - 12.20 pm;
...supply chain and transportation (22 May 5 to 6 pm;
... Systems Decision Making (21 May 8 - 9.20 am;
...systems design (23 May 8 - 9.20 am; 23 May 12.30 to 1.50;
...systems and optimization and analytics (23 May 12.30 to 1.50;
... Resilience and sustainability (21 May 12.30 to 1.50;
...Resilience (22 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;
...Risk analysis (23 May 2 - 3.20 pm;


...(21 May 3.30 to 4.50 pm;

Work Systems

...assessment of mental workload (23 May 12.30 to 1.50;
...design (21 May 5 to 6 pm;
...industry, labor and service systems (23 May 8 - 9.20 am; 23 May 12.30 to 1.50;
...measurment (22 May  2 - 3.20 pm;
...modeling (21 May 11 - 12.20 pm;


Research Reported in Industrial Engineer Magazine

1. Economies of Scale and Economies of Numbers (What is going to be economical - Scaling up a plant or multiple small plants which are flexible?)
2. Warehouse Order Picking Efficiency.

Interesting question and answers

What are the recent trends in Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering?


Industrial Engineering Information Systems (IT Systems)

Industrial Engineering - Information Technology Systems - Productivity Improvement and Cost Reduction Processes

Lean Software Development and IT Enabled Services

Energy Industrial Engineering

Industrial Engineering For Efficient Energy Use
Energy Use Efficiency - IE for Energy Resource

Updated 3 July 2014, 14 Dec 2011

Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan - One Year Plan

January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December

Updated 16 June 2017, 3 July 2014

June 7, 2017

Statistical Quality Control – Industrial Engineering

SQC is an Efficiency Improvement Technique

SQC is brought into industrial engineering practice as an efficiency improvement technique.

In a narrow sense, some companies refer to their product inspection activity as quality control. In such companies inspection is the sole quality assurance activity. In many companies, now, a more elaborate quality assurance process is installed. In these organizations, quality control encompasses not only inspection but also quality planning, process controls, incoming material control, analysis and correction action in respect of defects, and quality reporting. An appropriate definition for quality control is “quality control is a system for verification and maintenance of a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, the use of proper equipment, continuing inspection, and corrective action where required.”

Is industrial engineering department responsible for quality control? Some scholars in the IE discipline think so. But according to me, IE curriculums had only “Statistical quality control (SQC)” as a subject. Statistical quality control alone does not cover the entire scope of quality engineering and quality management.

Why only SQC? Because Statistical quality control is an efficient improvement innovation for quality engineering. Statistical quality control text books generally provide the explanation on the following lines (Halpern[1]).

Inspection of finished production on a 100% basis is a technique, which, with proper controls, theoretically should be one of the surest ways to eliminate defective products from being supplied to the next stage in production or ultimately to the customer. In practice, the 100% inspection is not as fool proof as may be expected. Experience has shown that the monotony and repetition inherent in 100% inspection tends to create boredom and fatigue with the result that not all defective units are eliminated. Thus in inspection activity, a behavioral dimension is brought in.

Statistical quality control technique of acceptance sampling, is relatively inexpensive as it inspects only a small percentage of items from a production lot or shipping lot, less time consuming, not fatiguing for inspectors, and it is based on well-established principles of probability theory.

The underlying idea is that SQC provides as good a quality assurance as 100% inspection provides and the cost involved in very low compared to 100% inspection.

Industrial engineers as efficiency designers understood the productivity potential of SQC, accepted SQC and promoted its use in practice. For introducing SQC, industrial engineers need not become functional quality system designers. The functional quality specialists still decide what characteristics of the product or item is to be inspected and how it is to be inspected. Industrial engineers design acceptance plans and install the SQC systems and demonstrate its utility and maintain the system. Thus industrial engineers collaborate with the quality specialists and play their role in the design of quality control system. But as the SQC evolved over 75 years period, quality engineers and managers now are capable of developing SQC systems and the role of IEs is now minimal. But productivity improvement of inspection and quality processes is still the task of IEs and this issue is covered in a separate note.

Poka Yoke is contributed by Industrial Engineer, Shigeo Shingo to quality engineering area.

Types of sampling plans



MIL-STD-105D is for inspection by attributes. This means the inspected item is classified as either acceptable or defective. It has the following features:

1. Plans

MIL-STD-105D provides two types of plans which protect lot quality.

i). AQL plans

ii). LTPD plans

2. Level of inspection

Three general inspection levels. I, II, and III.

For small sample sizes, four levels, S1, S2, S3, and S$.

3. Inspection severity

i) Normal

ii) Tightened inspection

iii) Reduced inspection

4. Sampling types

Three basic sampling methods: simple, double and multiple

MIL:-STD-414 is for inspection by variable.


Sigmund Halpern, The Assurance Sciences, Prentice Hall, 1978

Originally posted in

Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan - One Year Plan

January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December

Updated 9 June 2017, 14 December 2011

Inspection Methods Efficiency Engineering

Statistical quality control methods are promoted by industrial engineering profession as a means of increasing the efficiency of inspection methods.

Method studies were employed to improve the efficiency of inspectors. We have examples of method studies in inspection departments in texts of industrial engineering. Even F.W. Taylor did method studies in inspection departments. (Scientific Management, page 86)

The inspectors were working for ten and half hours every day with a half day Saturday holiday.

Initially the inspectors (all girls) were told that the work day can be made 10 hours and they can do the same work as they are doing now in ten hours and they will be paid the same wage for the day. The girls agreed with the change.

Mr. Thompson recognized that persons of low personal coefficient were required for inspection job.

It is necessary in almost all cases to take definite steps to insure against any falling off in quality before moving in any way towards an increase in quantity. An accurate daily record was kept for each inspector for quantity and quality.

Time study was done. It was observed that after one half hours of work they become nervous. So rest break of 10 minutes was arranged after one and quarter hour.

Differential system was put into practice.

Measurement of output was done each hour and a teacher was sent to correct shortcomings in methods.

35 girls did the work that was previously done by 120 girls. Accuracy of work was two-thirds greater at the higher productivity than at lower productivity. The inspectors received 80 to 100% more wages on average.

Poka Yoke is the recent contribution of industrial engineers in the inspection methods efficiency engineering.

Industrial engineers design number of jigs to make inspection faster and comfortable.

Article Part of the Industrial Engineering Course Articles
Introduction to Industrial Engineering - Course at NITIE

Related Articles

Statistical Quality Control – Industrial Engineering

Productivity Improving Inspection Solutions and Methods

GE Sensing and Inspection Technologies - Productivity through inspection solutions

Increase Productivity with X-ray Inspection

New Pipe Weld Inspection Solution from GE Increases Productivity and Reduces Inspection Constraints

High Speed Inspection Systems from Olympus

Complete inspection solution for increased productivity in paper manufacturing

Software for mechanical integrity inspection activities

Inspection Productivity improves with ALL NEW work holding and fixture plates!
As QC Inspectors you may be measured on contributions you make to improve your inspection process. Be the first to introduce this brand new line of inspection work holding designed with “lean” principles in mind.

Remote Visual Inspection — A Technical Solution to Improve Inspector Safety and Productivity

GE’s Pipe Weld Inspection Solution Now Offers Greater Productivity and Scope

As a leading provider of innovative heat exchanger inspection solutions for a wide variety of industries, AcousticEye is changing the way the world inspects and monitors its heat exchanger tubes. Our products utilize cutting-edge technologies to deliver value, enhance productivity and ensure safety for our global customer base.

Rudolph Technologies Launches High-Productivity AXi 940 Inspection Module

Originally posted at
Published on the blog in 2011
Updated 22 July 2013

Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan - One Year Plan

January - February - March - April - May - June

July - August - September - October - November - December

Updated 9 June 2017, 23 July 2013

The Socio Economic Approach to Management (SEAM)

Job Enrichment leads to Organization's Enrichment. It leads to Society's Enrichment.
Make your associates more Valuable. Your organization becomes more Valuable. Your Society and Nation becomes more Valuable.

The primary source for this article is the literature review by Chato B. Hazelberger in his Phd Thesis "Looking for the Evidence of TFW Virus." [School of Education UST, Minnesota, 2014].

In the 1970’s the Socio Economic Approach to Management (SEAM) was created in France as a systematic approach to management. Henri Savall and a group of researchers sought to integrate classical scientific management theories with the human relations school (Savall, 2010). The goal was to recognize and integrate the human factor, which according to the SEAM founders was overemphasized by the neoclassical human relations school and underappreciated by the traditional proponents of scientific management. What emerged was SEAM, which found its home at ISEOR. In 1973 ISEOR was created to manage SEAM consulting, and later doctoral work in SEAM (Savall, 2010).

SEAM is carried out by a team of consultants, who are referred to as intervener researchers. This title reflects the consultant’s role as both a consultant in the change process, and in continuing the research work of ISEOR.

Key to SEAM is the concept of hidden costs (Savall, 2008). Hidden costs are economic inefficiencies that come from dysfunctions. Dysfunctions can be explained as the gap between what is planned or directed and what actually occurs in the organization. By getting rid of the dysfunctions, an organization can release untapped potential allowing greater growth, new ideas, and cost savings.

SEAM classifies looks for dysfunctions in any of six categories: working conditions, work organization, time management, communication-coordination-cooperation, integrated training and strategic implementation. By finding dysfunctions in these areas and revealing their costs, SEAM finds additional revenue that can be returned to the bottom line, create potential for individual growth which will benefit the organization, and provide a better working environment.

From the beginning, SEAM was concerned about not just making organizations more effective, but also in studying the causes of the six dysfunctions. Early on, Savall (2013) suggested there was a flaw in the classic economic models. The classic models left out the human component. In searching for why this human element had been left out, the team at ISEOR identified that it was due to an overreliance on scientific management. They saw this particularly in the elements of scientific management as put forth by Frederick Taylor, Henri Fayol and Max Weber. ISEOR observed scientific management had an ideological flaw.

Acknowledging that scientific management had an ideology was important to understanding the TFW virus. Ideology “... describes the system of beliefs, values, and practices that reflects and reproduces existing social structures, systems and relations (Brookfield, 2005, p. 68).” An ideology is put forth as the true system of belief within the dominant group and is propagated as the one true way. Savall and his contemporaries at ISEOR observed that what was at the core of the scientific management was an ideology. That ideology was based on the work Taylor, Fayol, Weber.

When the Academy of Management was asked to update their list of the top 10 outstanding contributors to American business management thought and practice Taylor was named number one, Weber two, and Fayol five (Heames 2009).

The concept that setting goals is a management task is found in Fayol’s work and that element of strategic planning is found also in Porter and Kotter.

 Savall first put forth the metaphor of the virus in 1973 (Cristallini, 2012). He used the metaphor of a virus for three reasons:
• The virus was ideological in nature, contaminating decision making and analysis at a foundational level
• The virus caused changes in organizational structures and behavior
• The virus was continually transmitted within and to other organizations through training, practice, and management education

In his article “The role of governance in the fight against the global pandemic of the techno-economic virus,” Cristallini (2011) wrote extensively about the TFW virus as the root cause for the hidden costs and dysfunctions that ISEOR finds in organizations. He asserted that organizations are carrying this hidden virus. It is going undiagnosed, and current organizational change efforts are treating symptoms of the virus rather than the core problems of the organization which is the presence of the virus.

 Cristallini (2012) made the case that the proponents of the TFW virus view individuals as untrustworthy, and not intelligent or responsible. The individual is not free. In contrast to this, SEAM sees the individual as creative, and able to grow, change, and be trusted to do what helpful to the organization given the chance.

The virus promotes the view of individuals as untrustworthy with the health of the organization and even the protection of their own interests. This baseline belief about the individual leads to the conclusion that individuals must be controlled in order to do what is in their best interest and the best interest of the organization. The effect of this view of individuals is manifested in the symptoms of the TFW virus.

Manifestations of the Virus.

(Cristallini, 2011):
• Depersonalization and Submission
• An aristocratic view of the organization
• Apathy
• Separation

Cristillani (2011) argued two concepts promoted by the founders of the TFW Virus are depersonalization and submission. Cristallini (2011) explained depersonalization as the individual giving way to the needs of the organization. “Submission assumes that the individual complies with the requirements, because it accepts the principle of subordination, it is docile and waives his freedom and his aspirations” (p. 3). Depersonalization at its core is looking at the worker as a machine. The individual is unimportant; another resource to be used that is replaceable and interchangeable with any other worker (or possibly a machine).

Cristallini used the word massification to explain the concepts of depersonalization and submission. One image that Cristallini (2011) gave for massification was herding cattle. In the workplace that exhibits evidence of the virus there is a herder, and then there are the workers, who are the cattle who must be pushed along. No cow is different, and the job of management is simply to get the cattle to move in the right direction.

As defined by Cristallini (2011), submission occurs when individual aspirations and preferences give way to organizational good. More than just existing as a second consideration, individual aspirations and preferences must be in some ways suppressed in order to achieve organizational goals. Massification is also the result of the technocratic nature of organizations where the virus is present. Organizations are governed by rules and systems that are inflexible. Organizational rules, procedures, and standards, replace dialogue between understanding and intelligent individuals, unable to handle the unexpected and complexity because of their structure.

 “The TFW virus is profoundly marked by an aristocratic view of organizational life” (Conbere, Heorhiadi & Cristallini, 2014, p. 4) Cristallini (2011) argued that the separation of menial and noble tasks within an organization is evidence of the virus. Since some tasks are considered more important, the people who have the more important tasks are considered more important. This leads to artificial hierarchies. Time and energy are spent on the management of the hierarchy rather than on tasks related to the mission of the organization.

Apathy, or a lack of interest in work, results from a lack of hope. Conbere, Heorhiadi & Cristallini, (2014) used a similar concept in the term “blindness,” noting, “Our blindness prevents us from seeing, and thus we become unable to hope that it is possible to implement organizations which are flexible, cooperative and more livable” (p. 8). Socioeconomic approach tries to develop more livable organizations.

 In his original work Cristallini (2011) explained apathy partly as non-cooperation, “The virus has the effect of encouraging individuals and groups to withdraw their known world and not to open outwards” (p. 6). This non-cooperation is the workers way of disengaging essentially because the organization does not incent workers to cooperate. Apathy is a key to the virus because apathy means people are resigned to whatever happens, who do not feel that they can or even should affect change in the organization (Cristallini, 2011).

Another way the virus manifests itself is in separations or divisions in the workplace, marked by borders, walls and fences. One reason for these walls is hyperspecialization or the separation of functions based on faulty logic. Cristallini (2011) saw a linkage between the separation of tasks and an increase in egotism and selfishness. He said the virus is observed when group effort is not recognized; instead individual tasks in very specialized areas are encouraged and promoted. People are not rewarded for teamwork and cooperation, but rather excellence in their own small task. Therefore the focus is not on making the whole better, but rather on making oneself look better. This non-cooperation is evidence of the virus as well, as hyperspecialization is rewarded over teamwork and the effect on others is not considered. The virus encourages the building of walls between areas of the organization.


Becoming Agile: How the SEAM Approach to Management Builds Adaptability

Christopher G. Worley, Veronique Zardet, Marc Bonnet, Amandine Savall
John Wiley & Sons, 15-Sep-2015 - Business & Economics - 192 pages

Becoming Agile: How the SEAM Approach to Management Builds Adaptability illustrates the process of becoming an agile organization. Reflecting the principles presented in The Agility Factor, readers are taken on a real-world journey of transformation and change. This short-format case study of the French company Brioche Pasquier highlights how one organization successfully implemented the principles of agility using the socio-economic approach to management, detailing each step of the process and describing how every decision brought the goal closer within reach. Readers get inside the heads of decision makers to gain insight into how tough decisions were made, how new, important, and flexible management tools were implemented, and how the necessary changes ultimately benefitted both the organization and the people who made it work. From overarching policy to day-to-day procedure, the story provides a clear example of how an agile organization is developed, giving readers a foundation upon which to implement similar changes in their own organization.

 This case study allows readers to learn from an organization that got through the inertia and put the principles of agility into action, with incredible results.

Understand how the principles of agility can be implemented using a specific intervention strategy
Tailor those principles to suit any organization
Calculate and convert the "hidden costs" of traditional organizational design into flexible, value added activities
Formulate and execute an actionable agility strategy
Big changes require a deep understanding of the problem at hand, and a viable plan for steering the organization in a better direction. By seeing how it's been done before, organizations can take a proven approach and tailor it to their specific needs. For those tasked with formulating the agility strategy, Becoming Agile: How the SEAM Approach to Management Builds Adaptability provides invaluable insight.


Mastering Hidden Costs and Socio-economic Performance

Henri Savall, VĂ©ronique Zardet
IAP, 2008 - Business & Economics - 346 pages

 As research and theory building in management consulting have grown rapidly during the past several years, the series is dedicated to capturing the latest thinking from applied scholars and scholarly practitioners in this field.  This volume is a translation and modest updating of Henri Savall and Veronique Zardet's original work on mastering "hidden costs," initially published in French in 1987.


Socio-economic Interventions in Organizations: The Intervener-researcher and the SEAM Approach to Organizational Analysis

Anthony F. Buono, Henri Savall
IAP, 2007 - Business & Economics - 441 pages

The volume begins with a chapter by Henri Savall, founder and director of the ISEOR Institute and creator of the SEAM methodology, that presents an overview of the development of the socio-economic approach to management, and its guiding frameworks and methodology. The chapter's detailed explanation of the underlying thinking, tools, and techniques of socio-economic management serves as the primer for the remainder of the volume. The book is then divided into three sections. The first part presents illustrations of SEAM interventions in different types of organizations, including industrial and service companies, and not-for-profit organizations, including cultural institutions and sports clubs. The next section looks at cross-cultural applications and assessments of SEAM experiments in Africa, Asia, Mexico, and the United States, with a concluding chapter on intervening in multinational corporations in general. The volume concludes with a section that examines different issues and challenges in SEAM intervention, ranging from the impact on and role of middle managers in the SEAM process, intervening in small organizations, SEAM's facilitative role in operationalizing and institutionalizing information technology, conceptualizing, and implementing organizational change, facilitating merger and acquisition integration, and the application of socio-economic management in sales and marketing. The book also contains a combined glossary and chapter index that provides a definition of key terms and concepts in the SEAM methodology and where they appear in the volume. These key terms are highlighted in bold italics throughout the volume, illustrating their application in different contexts.


Work and People: An Economic Evaluation of Job-enrichment

Henri Savall
Originally published in 1974 in French - based on phd thesis of Savall
IAP, 2010 - Business & Economics - 268 pages

This is a reprint of Henri Savall's classic Work and People, originally published in French in 1974.

Savall's insights into the complexity of organizational life were groundbreaking, articulating the need to examine both economic and social factors as part of the same analysis, assessing technical and behavioral patterns through the lens of an integrated framework. As he has argued, there is a double-loop interaction between "the quality of functioning and economic performance," and underestimating this socio-economic "tension" leads inevitably to reduced performance and losses, which he refers to as "hidden costs." This approach, referred to as the socio-economic approach to management (SEAM), has significant potential for our thinking about organizational diagnosis and intervention. As Savall emphasizes, the North American tendency to cast people as human "resources" misses the essential point that human beings cannot be considered as simply another resource at the organization's disposal. People are free to give or withhold their energy as they desire, depending on the quality of formal and informal contracts and interactions they have with their organizations. As such, the SEAM approach focuses on human "potential," underscoring the need for managers and their organizations to create the conditions under which people will want to maximize their talents on behalf of the organization. Work and People focuses on the ramifications of this reality, as dysfunctions - the difference between planned and emergent activities and functions - can quickly lead to a series of costs that are "hidden" from an organization's formal information systems (e.g., income statements, balance sheets, budgets). As his insightful work underscores, as organizations begin to accumulate dysfunction upon dysfunction, they inadvertently undermine their performance and create excessive operating costs, with lower productivity and less efficiency than they could achieve. As readers will discover, the frameworks, tools and ways of thinking about organizations, people and management in this volume - in essence the background to the socio-economic approach to organizational diagnosis and intervention - continue to hold great promise for our attempts to create truly integrative approaches to management and organizational improvement efforts.

Updated 9 June 2017,  27 May 2017

June 6, 2017

Plant Layout - Efficiency

In 2011, when I wrote this article, there are no articles with titles of layout efficiency. Today, as I search on Google, there are good number of articles with the title layout efficiency. That means the emphasis that I put on efficiency as the important focus of industrial engineering is being recognized by many.

Efficiency Measures of a Layout

Minimum Floor space: Efficient layout engineering can minimize floor space for a specified production output.

Minimum Materials Handling: Efficient layout results in minimum amount and cost of materials handling.

More Efficient Utilization of Machinery and Labor: An efficient layout eliminates general production delays, occasioned by congested aisles, cramped storage areas, crowding of machine layout, and improper materials handling devices, all of which lead to a slowing down of the production process as a whole and in general reduction in the output of goods from a given quantity of production machinery and labor.

Maximum flexibility of production facilities consistent with low cost of production: Production facilities and layout can be designed to attain flexibility and adaptability to meet changing economic and technological conditions.

Reference: John A. Shubin and Huxley Madeheim, Plant Layout: Developing and Improving Manufacturing Plants, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, 1965.


Plant Layout Optimization


Clever layout enhances bottling efficiency, 2002

Plant Layout Analysis

The Dynamics of Plant Layouts
Management Science, January 1986. (Interesting paper)

An Interesting Book in NITIE library
John A. Shubib, Ph.d and Huxley Madeheim, Plant Layout: Developing and Improving Manufacturing Plants, Prentice Hall, 1963. (658.23/742)

Review Notes on Plant Layout Design by Operations Managers

PPT of Salah R. Agha, Professor Industrial Engineering, Islamic University of Gaza on Facilities Planning and Materials Handling

Indicates role of IEs.

Facilities Planning

James A. Tompkins, John A. White, Yavuz A. Bozer, J. M .A. Tanchoco
John Wiley & Sons, 19-Jan-2010 - Technology & Engineering - 864 pages

When it comes to facilities planning, engineers turn to this book to explore the most current practices. The new edition continues to guide them through each step in the planning process. The updated material includes more discussions on economics, the supply chain, and ports of entry. It takes a more global perspective while incorporating new case studies to show how the information is applied in the field. Many of the chapters have been streamlined as well to focus on the most relevant topics. All of this will help engineers approach facilities planning with creativity and precision.


Originally posted in Knol number 2800

Updated: 8 June 2017,  7.12.2014, 2 August 2012, 26.11.2011

MBA Core Management Knowledge - One Year Revision Schedule

Industrial Engineering Knowledge Revision Plan - One Year Plan

January - February - March - April - May - June

Planning in the Marketing Process

Marketing Management Revision Article Series

The marketing process consists of analyzing marketing opportunities, developing the marketing strategies, planning marketing programs, and managing the marketing effort. (Kotler)

Developing a marketing plan  (interesting information is in the article)

Planned Revision schedule for marketing chapters is in February and March

Updated on 8 June 2017, 3 December 2011

Principles of Management - Subject Update

Basic Chapter Summaries of Principles of Management Based on Koontz and O'Donnell's Book

June 2017

Change Management - How to manage the eight ‘change personalities’ at work?

Making Decisions in Meetings

May 2017

How to Retain Employees Through 'Servant' Leadership

April 2017

By studying and writing on Principles of Management, I became the original author of Principles of Industrial Engineering, a Management Subject with foundation in engineering.

Basic and Detailed Principles of Industrial Engineering


March 2017

Leaders have to manage the current activity to change it to make it better


March 2016

Seven Quality management principles (QMPs) 

by ISO  - Read them compulsorily if you have not read so far.

One of the definitions of a “principle” is that it is a basic belief, theory or rule that has a major influence on the way in which something is done. “Quality management principles” are a set
of fundamental beliefs, norms, rules and values that are accepted as true and can be used as a basis for quality management.

The QMPs can be used as a foundation to guide an organization’s performance improvement. They were developed and updated by international experts of ISO/TC 176, which is responsible for
developing and maintaining ISO’s quality management standards.

The seven quality management principles

QMP 1 – Customer focus
QMP 2 – Leadership
QMP 3 – Engagement of people
QMP 4 – Process approach
QMP 5 – Improvement
QMP 6 – Evidence-based decision making
QMP 7 – Relationship management

These principles are not listed in priority order.  All are important and the relative importance
of each principle will vary from organization to organization and can be expected to change over time in the same organization.

Seven Principles of Supply Chain Management

Principle 1: Segment customers based on the ser­vice needs of distinct groups and adapt the supply chain to serve these segments profitably.

Principle 2: Customize the logistics network to the service requirements and profitability of customer segments.

Principle 3: Listen to market signals and align demand planning accordingly across the supply chain, ensuring consistent forecasts and optimal resource allocation

Principle 4: Differentiate product closer to the customer and speed conversion across the supply chain

Principle 5: Manage sources of supply strategically to reduce the total cost of owning materials and services

Principle 6: Develop a supply chain-wide technology strategy that supports multiple levels of decision making and gives a clear view of the flow of products, services, and information

Principle 7: Adopt channel-spanning performance measures to gauge collective success in reaching the end-user effectively and efficiently

Seven Principles of Change Management

Senders and Receivers
Authority for Change
Value Systems
Incremental vs. Radical Change
The Right Answer Is Not Enough
Change Is a Process

The APICS Principles of Operations Management consists of five classroom-based, instructor-led courses.

         The Principles of Inventory Management

         The Principles of Operations Planning

         The Principles of Manufacturing Management

         The Principles of Distribution and Logistics

         The Principles of Managing Operations

A HBR article on Negotiation

Free Open Access Book



Source: In the World of Scientific Discoveries / V Mire Nauchnykh Otkrytiy . 2014, Vol. 60 Issue 11.11, p4244-4261. 18p.
Author(s): Danakin, N. S.; Shutenko, A. I.; Ospishchev, P. I.

Developing a Theory and Philosophy of Management
Chapter 1 of Pearson Book

November 2015

Innovation Excellence requires Ambidextrous Management

September 2015
New and Updated articles in area

Systems Approach in Management - Very detailed treatment is now posted

Execution is an important function of management

Planning and Execution - Theory and Practice

Resourcing is an important activity for all managers to accomplish set goals


May 2015

Negotiation: What Makes the Right Business Deal

Get the Boss to Buy In.

By: Ashford, Susan J.; Detert, James. Harvard Business Review. Jan/Feb2015, Vol. 93 Issue 1/2, p72-79.

Middle managers  gather valuable intelligence from direct contact with customers, suppliers, and colleagues; they can often see when the market is ripe for a certain offering, for instance, or spot signs that a partnership won't work. But in a top-down culture, they may not voice their ideas and concerns -- and even when they do, they often struggle to persuade the people at the top.

The authors suggest that middle managers should tailor their pitch to the goals, values, and knowledge of decision makers; frame the issue to show how it supports a strategic goal; manage emotions (their own and their audience's); get the timing right by, say, attending to a boss's preoccupations or watching larger trends; involve others, both in and out of their networks; and  adhere to organizational norms, such as how leaders prefer to receive information.


By: IHRIG, MARTIN; MACMILLAN, IAN. Harvard Business Review. Jan/Feb2015, Vol. 93 Issue 1/2, p80-87. 8p. 2 Color Photographs, 2 Diagrams.

Large-scale, sustainable growth is  possible when people take insights from one knowledge domain and apply them in another -- when deep technical expertise in one business unit is applied in a different business unit, for example, or when a best-in-class marketing group pulls a product development unit into the 21st century by sharing market insights gleaned from customer data.

The authors describe how to map your organization's strategic knowledge.  When knowledge assets are placed in a grid along two dimensions -- unstructured (tacit) versus structured (explicit) and undiffused (restricted) versus diffused (shared) -- it becomes easier to manage them for future competitive advantage.

Playbook - AMA NET

Interesting Source for Management Articles

Managing Power Dynamics in International Negotiations
About The Author: Yadvinder S. Rana is Professor of Cultural Management at the Catholic University in Milan, Italy, lecturer on intercultural negotiation and influence in leading international business schools, and founder of Neglob, a management consultancy firm that assists companies in international negotiations and global teams performance improvement. For more information about Rana and his new book, The 4Ps Framework: Advanced Negotiation and Influence Strategies for Global Effectiveness, please visit www.neglob.com.

The New Rules of Motivation: Unleash Employee Reciprocity
About The Author: Rodd Wagner is the New York Times bestselling author of the new book Widgets: The 12 New Rules for Managing Your Employees As If They’re Real People (McGraw-Hill, April 2015).

Only 10% are great managers.
Around 35% OK.

Principles of Management - Subject Update - 2014

Updated   7 June 2017,  7 May 2017,  8 April 2017,   12 March 2017, 26 Mar 2016, 16 Feb 2016, 11 Dec 2015

June 5, 2017

Digital Transformation of Business and Industrial Organizations - Subject Update


Davos 2017 - Preparing for the Fourth Industrial Revolution

World Economic Forum


Published on 19 Jan 2017
What is needed from the public and private sectors to ensure that the Fourth Industrial Revolution benefits all of humanity?

- Mukesh D. Ambani, Chairman and Managing Director, Reliance Industries, India
- Mary Barra, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, General Motors Company, USA
- Marc R. Benioff, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Salesforce, USA; Young Global Leader Alumnus
- Shu Yinbiao, Chairman, State Grid Corporation of China, People's Republic of China
- Vishal Sikka, Chief Executive Officer, Infosys, USA

Chaired by
- Ngaire Woods, Dean, Blavatnik School of Government, University of Oxford, United Kingdom

Davos 2017 - Press Conference: The Digital Transformation of Industries


World Economic Forum,  Published on 19 Jan 2017

The World Economic Forum launched the multi-year Digital Transformation of Industries Project in 2015 in partnership with Accenture. The project looks at how digital technologies like machine learning, cloud computing, and the internet of things are changing existing industries and creating entirely new ones. It makes recommendations to incumbents on how they can thrive in the new digital environment.

There are now hundreds of startups attacking traditional markets as a result of the democratization of technology, increased access to funds and a rising entrepreneurial culture. Start-ups are achieving scale far quicker than analogue companies ever did. Average Fortune 500 companies took 20 years to reach a market cap of $1 billion, Google managed it in eight years, and the likes of Uber, Snapchat and Xiaomi in three years or less. 88% of Fortune 500 companies from 1955 – 2015 no longer exist. Digital disruption has been a major driver of this, consequently Fortune 500 companies must use their considerable resources to fight off the attacks of leaner challengers and remain relevant in a digital age.

- Bruce Weinelt, Head of Digital Transformation, World Economic Forum
- Peter Lacy, Global Managing Director, Strategy and Sustainability, Accenture
- Stephanie Linnartz, Global Chief Commercial Officer, Marriott International Inc.
- Jean Philbert Nsengimana, Minister of Youth and Information Communication Technology,        Ministry of Youth and Information and Communication Technology of Rwanda

Moderated by
- Alem Tedeneke, Media Specialist, World Economic Forum LLC


3 Industries That Will Be Transformed By AI, Machine Learning And Big Data In The Next Decade
Bernard Marr
SEP 27, 2016
Healthcare - Finance - Insurance


Digital Transformation Playbook

Prof. David Rogers, Columbia Business School

June 2016, Columbia Business School


Updated on 7 June 2017, 14 April 2017