June 7, 2014

Enterprise Architecting - Organizing Function of Management

Enterprise Architecting: Definition

"Applying holistic thinking to design, evaluate, and select a preferred structure for a future state enterprise to realize its value proposition and desired behaviors”
Nightingale and Rhodes, 2007

Enterprise Architecting provides strategies/approaches to ensure time is spent developing and evaluating‘could be’states,and selecting the best alternative given a set of desired properties and criteria
for the future enterprise.

Enterprise Architecture Elements

People (Organization)
Eco System

Architecting the System of Systems Enterprise: Enabling Constructs and Methods from the Field of Engineering Systems
Donna H. Rhodes, Adam M. Ross, and Deborah J. Nightingale
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
IEEE SysCon 2009 —3rd Annual IEEE International Systems Conference, 2009
Vancouver, Canada, March 23–26, 2009

Beyond the Lean Revolution: Achieving Successful and Sustainable Enterprise Transformation

AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn, 2011 - Business & Economics - 256 pages

For organizations looking for full-fledged, dynamic transformation... it's time to move beyond 'lean.' Most organizations are engaged in change efforts often focused solely on eliminating waste in specific departments or 'silos.' That's the 'lean paradigm,' and while it's a good place to start, enterprise transformation goes much further.

Enterprise Transformation

It begins with the big picture: What are the strategic objectives? How is the enterprise performing against those objectives? How should it be? Who are the stakeholders and what do they value? Then it moves forward toward an audacious vision of the enterprise's future. Based on years of research and implementation, Beyond the Lean Revolution provides a roadmap for achieving sustainable, bottom-line results, delivering value to stakeholders, and reaching that future vision. Filled with illuminating examples, the book moves well beyond traditional lean thinking, showing readers how to:
Ensure senior leadership commitment
▪ Assess the enterprise's current state
▪ Analyze stakeholder values
▪ Develop a future vision
▪ Create a plan for transformation

From inception to implementation and beyond, this book provides a holistic framework for bridging the gap from mere change ... to genuine transformation.


Short Term Course at MIT
Date: June 9-11, 2014 | Tuition: $2,500 |


This course is about:

Thinking holistically about enterprise
Viewing the enterprise through multiple lenses
Applying an architectural approach
Evaluating alternative architectures
Enriching your thinking

Enterprises evolve over time, but the transformation efforts aimed at their evolution too often fail to achieve their intended outcomes. We teach a holistic approach to guide enterprise leaders in understanding their ‘as-is’ enterprise, generating and evaluating alternative concepts, and selecting a ‘to-be’ architecture concept. While some very good frameworks and approaches exist to develop detailed enterprise architectures, we move ‘upstream’ in the enterprise design lifecycle to the concept phase. Our holistic approach goes beyond a process-centric or information technology-centric perspective, critically important even when the transformation might specifically be related to process re-engineering or an information technology upgrade. Leaders need to be able to see the whole enterprise to effectively envision the path for change.

In discovery of this ‘right concept’ we explore the enterprise through ten fundamental enterprise elements and their interrelationships. This is essential to broadening the leadership conversations needed to reach a strategic enterprise future vision. The ten elements are: ecosystem, stakeholders, strategy, information, infrastructure, process, organization, knowledge, products, and services.

Learning techniques for stakeholder analysis and for ‘future-proofing’ to evaluate fitness of architectures for alternative futures enhances the strategic enterprise decisions. We examine how the principles, practices, and heuristics of systems architecting are extended and adapted for enterprise architecting. We discuss the role of leadership in creating a vivid transformation vision, as well as transformation and communication plans.

In the fast-paced world in which modern enterprises operate, a sense of urgency can lead to a rush to take action. Yet applying a formal framework and best enterprise design practices can be futile unless time is taken to adequately explore and evaluate alternatives to find an ‘optimal’ concept for going forward. Other approaches in the industry focus on “doing enterprise architecting right.” Based on a decade of research and case investigations, our approach is aimed as the necessary prerequisite activity to ensure transformation is based on “the right enterprise concept architecture.”

This course is not about: traditional IT-focused enterprise architecture, EA Frameworks (Zachman, TOGAF, DODAF, etc.), Clinger-Cohen Act, enterprise documents and databases, or designing IT systems.


Fundamentals  Fundamentals: Core concepts, understandings, and tools (15%)
Latest Developments  Latest Developments: Recent advances, and future trends (30%)
Industry Applications  Industry Applications: Linking theory and real world (40%)
Other  Other: Designing, evaluating, and transforming enterprises (15%)
Delivery Methods

Fundamentals  Lecture: Delivery of material in a lecture format (75%)
Latest Developments  Discussion or Groupwork: Participatory learning (25%)

Fundamentals  Introductory: Appropriate for a general audience (60%)
Latest Developments  Specialized: Assumes experience in practice area or field (40%)


The participants of this course will be able to:

Understand the motivation for and increasing importance of designing and transforming enterprises to meet contemporary challenges.
Appreciate the emerging field of holistic enterprise architecting as distinguished from transformation based on a single perspective.
Understand how strategic drivers (business model, strategic focus, enterprise performance objectives, etc.) and desired enterprise “itlities” (flexibility, scalability, agility, etc.) influence enterprise decisions.
Use ten elements (ecosystem, stakeholders, strategy, information, infrastructure, process, organization, knowledge, products, and services), and their interrelationships, to view the whole enterprise.
Understand methods that can be employed to generate, evaluate, and select an ‘optimal’ concept architecture for enterprise transformation.
Use ‘future-proofing’ to evaluate fitness of architectures for alternative futures to enhance strategic enterprise decisions.
Recognize leadership challenges, barriers, and enablers in designing and planning enterprise transformations.
Discuss strategic issues leaders face in planning and undertaking enterprise redesigns and transformation.
Acquire knowledge of the latest published literature in the field and insight into ongoing research.

This course is targeted to executives and professionals who lead and implement enterprise transformation efforts within and across an enterprise. The course will be of particular benefit to professionals who understand the value of taking a systems perspective in making strategic decisions in the face of a dynamic environment involving complex enterprise factors.

Class runs 9:00 am - 5:00 pm each day except for Wedesday when it ends at 4:00 pm.

Registration is on Monday morning from 8:30 - 8:50 am.

Instructors will host a networking dinner following the Day Two session (optional).


Dr. Donna H. Rhodes

Dr. Donna H. Rhodes is a senior lecturer in the Engineering Systems Division and principal research scientist in the Sociotechnical Systems Research Center (SSRC). She is the director of MIT’s Systems Engineering Advancement Initiative (SEAri), a research group focused on advancing the theories, methods, and practice applied to complex sociotechnical systems. Prior to joining MIT in 2003, Dr. Rhodes held senior management positions in systems engineering and enterprise practices at IBM Federal Systems, Lockheed Martin, and Lucent Technologies.

Dr. Rhodes conducts research on innovative approaches and methods for architecting and design of complex systems and enterprises, including predictive indicators of performance, empirical studies of engineering systems thinking and practice, and designing for uncertain futures. Her research is driven by the desire to more predicatively architect socio-technical systems to address significant societal needs in a dynamic world. She is involved in research across multiple sectors including defense, aerospace, transportation, energy, and commercial products.

Dr. Rhodes received her Ph.D. in Systems Science from the T.J. Watson School of Engineering at Binghamton University. She serves on industry and government advisory boards focused on advancement of systems practice and education, as well as on study panels for issues of national and international importance. She engages with government and industry leaders through collaborative research, consulting engagements and executive courses. She has been very involved in the evolution of the systems engineering field, including development of several university graduate programs. Dr. Rhodes is a past president and fellow of the International Council on Systems Engineering, and a recipient of INCOSE’s Founders Award and several distinguished service awards. She serves on the INCOSE Systems Engineering journal editorial board.

Professor Deborah J. Nightingale 

Professor Deborah Nightingale has broad-based experience with academia, the private sector,and the government. Professor Nightingale joined the MIT faculty in 1997 and holds a dual appointment in the Engineering Systems Division and the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics at MIT. She serves as the Director of the Sociotechnical Systems Research Center (SSRC) and was the Co-Director of the Lean Advancement Initiative, a joint industry, government, and MIT consortium. Her research interests are centered on complex enterprise integration, enterprise architecting, and organizational transformation. Her current focus on health systems is exemplified by her role as PI on several research projects, including an enterprise systems analysis of the DoD system of care for post-traumatic stress, several systems studies for the Veterans Administration, and multiple projects in the civilian sector. In addition, Professor Nightingale has led several executive transformation engagements in both industry and government.

Prior to joining MIT, Professor Nightingale headed up Strategic Planning and Global Business Development for AlliedSignal Engines. While at AlliedSignal she also held a number of executive leadership positions in operations, engineering, and program management, participating in enterprise-wide operations from concept development to customer support. Prior to joining AlliedSignal, she worked at Wright-Patterson AFB where she served as program manager for computer simulation modeling research, design, and development in support of advanced man-machine design concepts.

Professor Nightingale has a Ph.D. from The Ohio State University in Industrial and Systems Engineering. In addition, she holds M.S. and B.S. degrees in Computer and Information Science from The Ohio State University and University of Dayton, respectively. She is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, Past-President and Fellow of the Institute of Industrial Engineers, and Co-Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Enterprise Transformation. She is a co-author of the books Lean Enterprise Value: Insights from MIT’s Lean Aerospace Initiative and Beyond the Lean Revolution: Achieving Successful and Sustainable Enterprise Transformation. Professor Nightingale serves on a number of boards and national committees, where she interacts extensively with industry, government, and academic leaders.

This course takes place on the MIT campus in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Journal of Enterprise Architecture


Published Papers in the Journal

The PRISM Architecture Framework – was it the very first Enterprise Architecture Framework?
By Roberto Rivera

A Plain English Introduction to Enterprise Architecture

Peter Murchland

Producing Enterprise Architecture Content that Counts

Sally Bean

Using the Component Factory Business Model to Deliver Technology Re-use

Jeff Scott

Enterprise Architecture: A Courageous Venture

Chris Potts

Core Knowledge for Enterprise Architecture

Eskil Swende

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