Planning Design IterationsDarian W. Unger, Steven D. Eppinger
Given uncertainties and interdependencies, iteration is inevitable and must be managed effectively. Iteration is defined broadly to include almost any kind of work that involves correction, feedback or
The two tasks are interdependent if each requires information about the other. Many design processes have hundreds or thousands of such cyclically dependent tasks. These feedback cycles, or iterations, have been successfully modeled by the design structure matrix, a system analysis and project management tool useful in mapping iterations, as shown by Eppinger. Interdependent tasks that require feedback are complex and introduce the potential of burdensome and expensive rework if poorly managed.
Effective iteration provides feedback with each round, thus increasing the likelihood of success in the next round.
The scope of iteration can be a telling component of a company’s PD process. Narrow iteration is intraphase, exemplified by several rounds of interdependent detailed design tasks. Comprehensive
iteration is cross-phase, exemplified by processes that do not just cycle around a specific part, but rather over a range of process stages from concept to
Iterating over different parts of the PD process can have a wide range of effects. For example, building several prototypes may mitigate technical risk by determining if the product performs to the level of quality promised by design. It may also address risk by providing information on whether the product will satisfy customer needs. An early cross-phase iteration to determine if a potential architecture is reasonable may help managers estimate schedules accurately but will not necessarily mitigate market risk.
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
International Journal of Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial, Mechatronic and Manufacturing Engineering Vol:7, No:1, 2013
Managing Iterations in Product Design and DevelopmentK. Aravindhan, Trishit Bandyopadhyay, Mahesh Mehendale, and Supriya Kumar De
Identification of what will work and what will not work happens as the design evolves with multiple iterations carried out before the expected specifications are met. Terms like “iterative” and “creative” apply to PD.
Iterative rework taxonomy introduced by Richard et al.  provides further classification – evolutionary, avoidable retrospective and avoidable corrective types of rework. The evolutionary rework typically occurs when the developers could not have known about or foreseen the changes that happen in user requirements, market requirement and design constraints. Retrospective rework occurs because developers knew the needs but did not accommodate them for reasons such as lack of time, time to market pressure. Avoidablere work is primarily the rework involved in fixing defects due to incomplete development.
Ulrich and Eppinger  define iteration as repeating an already completed task to incorporate new information. Iterations are inherent in design and development since it is many a times a heuristic reasoning process.
STRATEGY TO MANAGE DESIGN ITERATION - INTRODUCTION TO DECISION POINTS
Entire product development involves many decisions and each decision can either make an improvement towards the final product or can be a step back due to it resulting in re-work and re-design. The decisions determine whether the progress has been made towards achieving the goals or there is a need to rework or iterate the earlier completed work items. Extending the decision point concept to product development flow and using this concept to identify iteration probability is a novel idea introduced by the authors. Planned decision points are for example reviews, testing, early prototyping etc. Pre-planned decision points indicate the existence of planning for iteration
in a product development or possible events in the development flow when iteration may occur. The entire product development can be visualised as a network of decision points to provide insight into identifying the iteration probability of the product development flow.
Multi Body Simulation
Multi Body Simulation or MMS is, a precursor activity, used to accurately simulate the motion of an assembly component relative to others. It incorporates the effects of motion parameters within components of an assembly. While estimating the motion and relevant physical parameters, it can also combine the mates in the assembly, and consequently motion constraints, material properties, mass, and component contacts.
Whilst carrying out the Structural Performance of a large assembly, MMS gives the relevant loading constraints in terms of reactions, displacements, trace paths, and many others. This helps to arrive at faster structural performances of the components.
Other CAE Capabilities Per need, following specific activities are used during product development stages. These helps establish a path for the design driven product development.
Preliminary Engineering Program (PEP): provides baseline specifications of components for Conceptual Design.
Multi Disciplinary Optimization (MDO): Couples product performance thru' various analyses and achieves desired objective
Knowledge Driven Program (KDP): Provides a program based on the statistical mapping of various effects of Design Drivers on the sizing and shaping of product configuration. Relevant CAE activities are extensively used to eliminate its further use, thereby faster validation coupled with time and cost saving.
@ESEC Engineering Simulation Excellence Centre or ESEC@LUMIUM comprise of a dedicated team of CAE Experts seeking the near perfect performance of the product. Team works in collaboration with the design team at various stages, which helps manage risks involved in various phases of the product design and development
With sound theoretical knowledge; baseline specifications of product, its features & guidelines for engineering concepts are established. Customized design driven approaches, considering various disciplines are used to achieve a comprehensive solution. This also helps reducing number of design iterations and lead time. Different product configurations are explored before proceeding towards final analyses. ESEC has the design driven and multi domain expertise that assists in precise definition of boundary condition for analyses. Product is iteratively Simulated, Rectified, Validated and Optimized. Thus, ESEC substantially provides support to Design Teams in critical decision making.
ESEC's CAE practices help reduce product development time and costs while improving product quality, performance and durability.
Top Management Challenges
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