January 19, 2018

Industrial Management - Evolution of The Subject



Today I came across the reference that the first textbook on management was a book by J. Duncan published in 1911.

Google search revealed that the book is available on Archive.org.

https://archive.org/stream/cu31924002748543/cu31924002748543_djvu.txt

From the contents one can see that even now, the topics identified at that point in time are being used in Industrial Management books now.

CONTENTS



PART I.— THE ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT

CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEMS

PAGES

Introduction — Factors Affecting Prosperity of Plant — Economic Environment — Manufacturing and Distributive Policy — Organization and Management — Problems of Business Management: (1) Location of Plant; (2) Integration and Concentration of Business ; (3) Specialization; (4) Building; (5) Power; (6) Management; (7) Selling 3-4

CHAPTER II

GENERAL THEORY OF INDUSTRIAL LOCATION

Survey of Concentration and Localization of Industries — Reasons for Localization — Census Classification : (1) Materials; (2) Market; (3) Water Power; (4) Climate; (5) Labor Supply ; (6) Free Capital ; (7) Early Start- Four Primary Reasons for Localization : (1) Market ; (2) Raw Materials ; (3) Labor ; (4) Power — Importance of Latter Factors 5-23

CHAPTER III

THEORY OF PLANT LOCATION

Factors Other than the Ideal Industrial District Affecting Success of Plant — Location, Layout, Equipment — Location with Respect to Selling, Buying, Manufacturing — Importance of Nearness to Labor Population, Repair Shops, Banking and Credit — Considerations Affecting Building of Plant : (1) Special Needs of Industry ; (2) Space for Expansion; (3) Low Rent and Taxes; (4)
Freedom from Restrictive Ordinances; (5) Adequate Fire-Fighting Facilities 24r-38

CHAPTER IV

THE IDEAL SITUATION

Country, City, and Suburban Plant Situations — Advantages and Disadvantages — Location of Plants Suited to Each Kind of Situation — Extra Inducements Offered: (1)
Free Land; (2) Free Building; (3) Exemption from
Taxation; (4) Stock Subscription; (5) Cash Bonus; (6)
Miscellaneous Favors — General Rules for Location in
Any Situation 39-48

CHAPTER V

BUSINESS CONCENTRATION AND INTEGRATION

Classes of Consolidations: (1) Integration of Process from
Raw Material to Finished Product ; (2) Integration and
Concentration of Factories ; (3) Integration and Con-
centration of Distributing Houses ; (4) Integration by
By-Product Utilization ; (5) Integration and Concentra-
tion by Control of Patents and Market Ownership —
Illustrations of Each Form of Consolidation Showing
Types of Integration and Concentration Used — Deter-
mination of the Advisable Type of Consolidation. . 49-70



CHAPTER VI

BUSINESS SPECIALIZATION

Growth of Specialization — Reasons : (1) Reduction of Prelim-
inary Cost ; (2) Use of Specialized Equipment ; (3) Sim-
plification of Managerial Problems ; (4) Greater Value
of Small Savings — Illustrations of Methods of Saving —
The Interchangeable Part — Limitations to Specializa-
tion 71-80



PART II.— THE EQUIPMENT OF THE PLANT
CHAPTER VII

CONTINUOUS INDUSTRIES, SYNTHETICAL



Determination of the Type of Plant — Two Kinds of Manu-
facturing : (1) Continuous ; (2) Assembling — Classes of
Continuous Industries : (1) Synthetical ; (2) Analytical
— ^A Continuous Synthetical Industry of Non-By-Product
Type — Effect upon Plant Structure — A Continuous In-
dustry of By-Product Type — ^Effect upon Plant Struc-
ture 81-100

CHAPTER VIII

CONTINUOUS INDUSTRIES, ANALYTICAL

Utilization of Cheap Conveying Apparatus by Analytical In-
dustries — Two Types of Analytical Industries, Non-By-
Product and By-Product — Non-By-Product Industry,
Sugar Refining — Characteristics of a Sugar-Refining
Building — Utilization of Gravity — Conveying Apparatus
in Flour Milling — By-Product Analytical Industry, Meat
Packing — Steps of the Process — Ideal Layout for a
Packing House. . 101-114

CHAPTER IX

ASSEMBLING INDUSTRIES

Two Groups of Assembling Industries: (1) Direct Pro-
ducing; (2) Indirect Producing — Characteristics of As-
sembling Industries— Two Questions in Assembling
Plant Layout: (1) The Arrangement of Departments;
(2) The Building of the Plant— Direct Producing In-
dustry: Shoe Manufacturing— Ideal Layout— Indirect
Industry : Ship Building— Type of Machinery and Equip-
ment Needed — Ideal Layout for a Machine Shop and
Foundry— Ideal Layout for a Ship Building Establish-
ment 115-134





CHAPTER X

FIRE PRECAUTION, AND ITS EFFECT ON LAYOUT AND STRUCTURE



The Ideal Plant— Large Changes in Plant Layouts Neces-
sitated by Fire Precautions : (1) In Oil Refineries ; (2)
In Gas Works— Causes of Fire: (1) Common Hazards;
(2) Special Hazards— Fire Protective Devices : (1) Pre-
ventives of Fire; (a) Slow-Burning and Fire-Proof
Structures; (2) Fire Extinguishers: (a) Automatic
Sprinklers, (b) Fire Hose, (c) Fire Buckets, (d) Chem-
ical Extinguishers, (e) Hand Buckets ; (3) Fire Alarms :
(a) The Watchman and the Time-Recorder, (b) Ther-
mostats — Outside Fire Protection: (1) Water Curtains;
(2) Fire Hydrants ; (3) Fire Alarms ; (4) Fire Engines
— Safety Devices for the Protection of Life: (1) Fire
Escapes ; (2) Fire Drills 135-152



CHAPTER XI

THE BUILDING AND THE WORKERS

Five Essentials to Comfort: (1) Light; (2) Heat; (3) Ven-
tilation ; (4) Space ; (5) Conveniences — Lighting : (1)
Skylight ; (2) Windows ; (3) Saw-Tooth Lights ; (4) Arti-
ficial Light; (5) Elimination of Shadows — Heating: (1)
Hot Air ; (2) Hot Water ; (3) Steam ; (4) Combination
of Hot Air and Steam — Humidifiers — Schemes for Ven-
tilation — Importance of Sufiicient*. Space — Toilet and
Wash Rooms. . 153-162

CHAPTER XII

THE POWER PROBLEM

Water Power — Advantages of Purchased Power — Other
Forms of Power — Direct Combustion and Indirect Com-
bustion Engines — ^The Gas Engine — Two Types of
Steam Engine : (1) Turbine ; (2) Reciprocating — Econ-
omies in a Steel Plant: (1) Making Water Suitable for
Steam ; (2) Increasing Boiler Efficiency ; (3) Increasing
Engine Efficiency — Comparison of Boiler Compounds
with Water Softeners— Economizers and Superheaters —
The Automatic Stoker— The Condenser— Kinds of Power
Transmission: (1) Steam; (2) Belt; (3) Rope Drive;
(4) Electrical ; (5) Air Pressure 163-180



PART III.— ORGANIZATION AND MANAGEMENT
CHAPTER XIII

THE THREE TYPES OP ORGANIZATION

Duties of the Ideal Manager — Three Types of Management :
(1) Military; (2) Functional; (3) Departmental— Ad-
vantages and Disadvantages of Each Type. . . 181-195

CHAPTER XIV

THE LABOR FORCE

Three Kinds of Laborers : (1) Men ; (2) Women ; (3) Chil-
dren — Male and Female Labor Compared — Children as
Employees — Classes of Labor from Standpoint of Edu-
cation and Training — Apprenticeship Systems — Baldwin
Locomotive Works — Westinghouse Manufacturing Co. —
Advantage in Training Apprentices 196-213

CHAPTER XV

THE PAYMENT "OF THE WORKMAN

Obtaining the Maximum Product — Systems of Wage Pay-
ment: (1) Time; (2) Piece; (3) Gain Sharing; (4)
Premium ; (5) Halsey and Rowan Modifications ; (6)
Differential Piece Rate; (7) Emerson; (8) Bonus — Dan-
ger of Cheap Labor 214-232

CHAPTER XVI

RECORD OF THE WORKERS

Necessity of Accurate Records — Work of the Labor Bureau :
(1) Selection of Employees ; (2) Record of Their Status
—Necessity of Considering an Employee's Health, Age,
Education, and Experience — Sources of Information —
The Form Letter — Qualifications of a Good Employee:

(1) Regular Attendance ; (2) Diligence ; (3) Efficiency—
Time-Recording Systems : (1) Inboard, Outboard Check ;

(2) Drop Box Check ; (3) Call Number ; (4) Distribution
Check ; (5) Recording Clock— Proof of Each System's
Accuracy— Record of Spoiled Work 233-261

CHAPTER XVII

RECORD OF RAW MATERIALS

Direct and Indirect Materials — Care of Raw Materials : (1)
Prevention of Waste and Losses on Direct Material ; (2)
Prevention of Undue Expenditures for Indirect Material
— Consideration in Development of the Greatest Econ-
omy: (1) Market; (2) Quality; (3) Quantity; (4)
Delivery ; (5) Housing ; (6) Waste ; (7) Losses — Depart-
ments: (1) Purchasing; (2) Testing; (3) Receiving and
Store-room — The Perpetual Inventory — Arrangement of
Stock — Prevention of Waste and Loss — Requisition
Scheme— The Budget System 262-280

CHAPTER XVIII

RECORD OF FINISHED AND UNFINISHED GOODS

Necessity for Record of Unfinished Goods — Two Kinds of
Manufacturing: (1) For General Stock; (2) For Specific
Contract — ^Accurate Records of Partly Finished Goods —
The Production Order — The Summary Cost Sheet — Rela-
tion to the Production Order 281-293

CHAPTER XIX

RECORD OF EQUIPMENT

Divisions of Equipment : (1) Tools ; (2) Patterns ; (3) Draw-
ings and Plans ; (4) Power Machinery — Arrangement
arid Classification of Tools — Record of Patterns — Record
of Drawings — Dewey Decimal System — Record of Ma-
chines — Types of Recording Instruments — A Machine
Inventory for Fire Purposes 294-316

Index 317

CHAPTER I  discusses the factors  to be discussed in industrial management



The prosperity of an enterprise depends in general upon four factors :

1. The economic environment.

2. The equipment of the plant.

3. The organization and management of the plant.

4. The selling department.

The economic environment provides convenient situations which make possible the cheap production and profitable disposal of the good.


The equipment of the plant provides shelter for the employees and the tools, and also supplies mechanical means by which the raw materials can be changed into salable products.

On the organization and management of the plant depend the owners' ability to utilize to the best advantage their raw materials and the time of the men they employ.

The selling department makes an outlet for the goods.

The successful running of a concern resolves itself into ten problems :

1. Where shall the plant be located?

2. To what extent shall the business be integrated and concentrated?

3. To what extent shall the enterprise be specialized?

4. How shall the plant be built?

5. What form of power shall be employed to run the plant?

6. What shall be the basis of its internal organization?

7. How shall the labor force be handled?

8. How shall the raw materials be treated?

9. How shall we determine the efficiency of our equipment?

10. How shall the goods be distributed to the consumer?

This volume will confine itself to the discussion of the industrial problems, hence it will consider only the first nine of the above questions.

The tenth is so important that it can be adequately handled only by making it the special
topic of another treatise.

We may say that the author considers the first three factors and related questions as forming industrial management. The fourth factor, sales is left for business management.




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