May 13, 2019

Activity-Based Costing and Activity-Based Budgeting Review Notes

Narayana Rao K.V.S.S. on Cover Page of Business Today 
October 22 - November 6, 1997

In traditional costing, direct material, direct labor and direct expenses are identified with the jobs and all other expenses are accumulated under the head “overheads” and are charged to the jobs on the basis of one or two measurements such as direct labor cost or direct material cost of the jobs.

Proponents of activity based costing first brought out the fact that product costs derived by using traditional costing techniques are giving wrong information. The actual product cost of certain jobs is high but traditional costing system is reporting a low cost for them. If the selling price is determined on the basis of such wrong low cost, at the end of the year, companies find that they have not earned the anticipated profits.

In activity based costing, all the costs which are classified as overheads in traditional costing system are accumulated under various activities which are carried out in the organization. From the activity cost for a period, and the number of times the activity is carried out in the period, cost for doing the activity once is ascertained. Then an account is maintained each time the activity is carried and the job responsible for performing the activity is recorded. Therefore the activity cost can be charged to the job.

Thus the job cost, now comprises of direct material cost, direct labor costs, direct expenses and costs of each of the activities consumed by the job.

Activity based costing provides a more realistic estimate of costs of products.

Normally compared to traditional costing system, ABC system provides lower cost figures for standard products and higher cost figures for nonstandard orders.

The logic of ABC systems is that more finely structured activity-cost pools with activity-specific cost-allocation bases, which are cost drivers for the cost pool, lead to more accurate cost-allocation systems

Hierarchy of Cost Pools

ABC systems commonly use a four-part cost hierarchy or hierarchy of cost pools - output unit-level costs, batch-level costs, product-sustaining costs, and facility sustaining costs - to identify cost-allocation bases that are preferably cost drivers of costs in activity cost pools.

Implementing Activity-Based Costing

1. Identify the chosen cost objects

2. Identify the direct costs of the products

3. Select the cost-allocation bases to use for allocating indirect costs

4. Identify the indirect costs associated with each cost-allocation base

5. Compute the rate per unit of each cost-allocation base used to allocate indirect costs to the products

6. Compute the indirect costs allocated to the products

7. Compute the total costs of the products by adding all direct and indirect costs assigned to them.

Use of ABC Systems

Pricing and Product-mix decisions

Cost Reduction and Process Improvement Decisions

Design Decisions

Planning and Managing Activities

Adoption of ABC systems

2005 - 22% of 215 respondents indicated that their organization had implemented ABC

Narcyz Roztocki, Sally M. Schultz, Adoption and Implementation of Activity-Based Costing: A Web Based Survey
Prof Roztocki now with State University of New York at New Paltz Business School is a Phd in Industrial Engineering from University of Pittsburgh.

Based on

Horngren et al. Cost Accounting 

Chapter 5. Activity Based Costing and Activity-Based Management, 10th Edition

Cost Accounting - Horngren et al., Book Information and Review

Originally posted in 12

Updated on 14 May 2019, 8 December 2011