December 24, 2019

Evolution of Marketing Management




Following (and citing) Frederick Winslow Taylor’s (1903, 1911) influential work on scientific
management, which discussed efficiently organizing manufacturing tasks for mass production, Shaw (1914, 1916) described the problem of efficiently organizing marketing functions for mass distribution.

“The first era, from 1900 to 1957, dealt with the emergence of the marketing discipline,  when the traditional schools of thought emerged.” The “modern era” was said to have begun after publication of Wroe Alderson’s (1957) revolutionary book, which resulted in “a proliferation of schools of marketing thought”.

Edward D. Jones of Michigan State University in 1902, James S. Hagerty at The Ohio State University in 1902-03, and George M. Fisk at the University of Illinois in 1903-04, up to Ralph Starr Butler’s “Principles of Marketing” type course at the University of Wisconsin in 1910-11; that Butler published a textbook titled Marketing Methods in 1914, when his chronology ends.

Butler’s, 1914 book would have started his “pioneering period”, a publication that Maynard credited as the first textbook with the term “marketing” in its title.

Kotler and Keller (2003) is one of the few marketing writers to describe both Ansoff
and Porter’s approaches to corporate strategy; however, he treats growth (Ansoff, 1965;
Porter, 1985) and generic (Kotler and Keller, 2003) strategies independently and makes
no attempt at reconciling the incongruities between them.

Early marketing strategy concepts

Before marketing strategy developed as an off-shoot of marketing management in the
1970s, even before marketing management emerged as a school of thought in the 1960s
to replace the traditional approaches to marketing (Bartels, 1988; Sheth et al., 1988;
Shaw and Jones, 2005), a few isolated concepts were developed in the 1950s literature
that form the core of modern marketing strategy. These seminal concepts include:
Borden’s (1957, 1964) expression of the “marketing mix,” Smith’s (1956) development of
“product differentiation” and “market segmentation” as alternative marketing
strategies, Dean’s (1951) conception of “skimming” and “penetration” as alternative
pricing (that he extended to the whole marketing mix) strategies, and Forrester’s (1959)
description of the “product life cycle (PLC).”

With Levitt’s (1965) classic HBR article: “Exploit the product life cycle,” the PLC
entered the rapid growth stage of its own life cycle. Subsequently, numerous literature
reviews and meta-analyses have appeared summarizing the extant PLC literature and
analyzing its strengths and weaknesses (e.g. Buzzell, 1966; Dhalla and Yuspeh, 1976;
Polli and Cook, 1969; Smallwood, 1973); with one of the most comprehensive analyses
in a book by Wasson (1974) and a special section in the Journal of Marketing guest
edited by Day (1981). The PLC has both supporters and critics.








Edward David Jones
First  Professor of Marketing
Taught first university course in marketing. 1902
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=7t3GBQAAQBAJ&pg=PT30#v=onepage&q&f=false


History of sales methodologies
https://www.membrain.com/blog/a-brief-history-of-modern-sales-methodologies-for-sales-leaders


History of Marketing
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_marketing


Hans Domizlaff, 1939, Brand Technology, 22 laws of advertising
http://wikipedia.qwika.com/de2en/Hans_Domizlaff


The Rise of Marketing and Market Research
H. Berghoff, P. Scranton, U. Spiekermann
Springer, 29-Oct-2012 - History - 312 pages
This volume serves up a combination of broad questions, theoretical approaches, and manifold case studies to explore how people have sought to understand markets and thereby reduce risk, whether they have approached this challenge with a practical view based on their own business acumen or used the tools of scholarship.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=UYBAAaJi50IC


Rowntree and the Marketing Revolution, 1862-1969
Robert Fitzgerald
Cambridge University Press, 2006 - Business & Economics - 768 pages
Rowntree and the Marketing Revolution, 1862-1969 is a major study in the history of marketing in economic development, in addition to being a history of a well-known international company. Marketing history remains a neglected field of study, yet Rowntree's commercial success has been the direct result of applied marketing methods and major advances in product development, branding and advertising. It is surprising that marketing and mass consumption has been so neglected; yet Rowntree was a marketing pioneer. The company had in addition a prominent role in questioning managerial organization, business culture, industrial relations, restrictive practices, and multinational business. This book offers a comprehensive account of a company and its industry, but pursues themes and seeks to answer areas of debate, illuminating the ways in which marketing contributed to the growth of an enterprise.
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=EqIQbwHYn-AC


Old School: 5 Killer Examples of Content Marketing in History
by Shayla Ebsen on 04/01/2013
https://mediashower.com/blog/old-school-5-killer-examples-of-content-marketing-in-history/

1904: Jell-O recipe book

1907
J.L. Stearns of Elmore Country was marketing here yesterday.
https://www.newspapers.com/clip/30672437/j_l_stearns_marketing_1907saved/


ECONOMIC ADVERTISING
Vol. 1, No. 1,  September, 1908
https://archive.org/details/marketing1909toro/page/n4

Advertising - An Essay in 1909
https://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2019/07/advertising-essay-in-1909.html


1910
Scientific Management in Marketing
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=_q-NSAm-vqgC&pg=PA41#v=onepage&q&f=false


1914
Definition of Marketing by Butler
https://books.google.co.in/books?id=IAs4_LSzUJMC&pg=PA15#v=onepage&q&f=false

1916
Western Australia Wheat Marketing Act
https://www.legislation.wa.gov.au/legislation/statutes.nsf/law_a143870.html

1918
Marketing Methods (1918) by Ralph Starr Butler

1920
The elements of marketing,
Author: Paul Terry Cherington
Publisher: New York, The Macmillan Company, 1920
https://archive.org/details/elementsofmarket00cheriala/page/n6



Brand Management 1931

The story of  brand management began on May 13, 1931, with an internal memorandum from Neil McElroy (1904-1972),  who had come to P&G in 1925 right after his graduation from Harvard College. While working on the advertising campaign for Camay soap, in a now-famous memo, he argued that more concentrated attention should be paid to Camay, and by extension to other P&G brands as well. In addition to having a person in charge of each brand, there should be a substantial team of people devoted to thinking about every aspect of marketing it. This dedicated group should attend to one brand and it alone. The new unit should include a brand assistant, several "check-up people," and others with very specific tasks.

The concern of these managers would be the brand, which would be marketed as if it were a separate business. In this way the qualities of every brand would be distinguished from those of every other. In ad campaigns, Camay and Ivory would be targeted to different consumer markets, and therefore would become less competitive with each other. Over the years, "product differentiation," as business people came to call it, would develop into a key element of marketing.

McElroy's memo made good sense to P&G management, and its proposals were approved up the corporate hierarchy and endorsed with enthusiasm by President Deupree.

Thus was born the modern system of brand management.
https://hbswk.hbs.edu/archive/american-business-1920-2000-how-it-worked-pg-changing-the-face-of-consumer-marketing

Kotler 1967

Philip Kotler published his first edition of "Marketing Management" in 1967.

First Edition

Kotler's big idea in 1967 was that companies ought to be driven by customers and markets, rather than by the intuition of marketing executives. He went on to bring analytical thinking into the marketing field to add to the rich description of markets.

Kotler's stated that  marketing needed more logical processes for making decisions and he based his textbook on ideas synthesized from economics, behavioral science, management theory and mathematics.

Kotler had been trained as an economist at the University of Chicago and MIT. As a result, he introduced mathematical models to help companies allocate marketing resources, including setting the size and goals of the sales force. The companies need a process for making decisions about how many salespeople to hire, how much to spend on advertising, how much to spend on sale promotion which was not available. Kotler filled the gap.

Kotler's original goal was to write a textbook to use in his own classes but  he was delighted and surprised to see his become a big success.

Kotler joined the Kellogg School faculty in 1962 and is now the  Distinguished Professor of International Marketing.
https://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2015/01/philip-kotler-prefaces-to-marketing.html


Updated on  25 December 2019,  5 August 2019, 20 July 2019



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