14th Edition, Management: A Global, Innovative, and Entrepreneurial PerspectiveHeinz Weihrich, Mark V. Cannice, and Harold Koontz
Major Principles or Guides for Leading
1. Principles of Harmony of ObjectivesThe more managers can harmonize the personal goals of individuals with the goals of the enterprise, the more effective and efficient the enterprise will be.
2. Principles of MotivationSince motivation is not a simple matter of cause and effect, the more managers carefully assess a reward structure, look upon it from a situational and contingency point of view, and integrate it into the entire system of managing, the more effective a motivational program will be.
3. Principle of LeadershipSince people tend to follow who,in their view, offer them a means of satisfying their personal goals, the more managers understand what motivates their subordinates and how these motivators operate, and the more they reflect this understanding in carrying out their managerial actions, the more effective they are likely to be as leaders.
For effective communication, the following principles have to be applied.
4. Principle of Communication ClarityCommunication tends to be clear when it is expressed in a language and transmitted in a way that can be understood by the receiver.
5. Principle of Communication IntegrityThe greater the integrity and consistency of written, oral or nonverbal messages, as well as of the moral behavior of the sender, the greater the acceptance of the message by the sender.
6. Principle of Supplemental Use of Informal OrganizationCommunication tends to be more effective when managers utilize the informal organization to supplement the communication channels of the formal organization
Articles on the Function of Leading
Human Factors and Motivation
Leadership - Koontz and O'Donnell - Review Notes
Supervision - Introduction - Public Administration Point of View
Committes and Group Decision Making - Review Notes
Communication - Koontz and O'Donnell - Review Notes
Summary of Principles - Directing - Leading
Related to the Purpose of Directing
Principle of harmony of objectivesEffective directing depends on the extent to which individual objectives in cooperative activity are harmonized with group objectives.
Principles Applicable to Process of directing
Principle of unity of commandThe more completely an individual has a reporting relationship to a single superior, the less the problem of conflict in instructions and the greater the feeling of personal responsibility for results.
Principle of direct supervisionEffective direction requires that management supplement objective methods of supervision with direct personal contact.
Principle of supervisory techniquesSince people, tasks, and organizational environment vary, techniques of supervision will be most effective if appropriately varied.
Principles of Delegation
Principle of functional delegationThe more a position or department has clear definitions of results expected, activities to be undertaken, organization authority delegated, and authority and informational relationships with other positions, the more adequately individuals responsible can contribute toward accomplishing enterprise objectives.
Principle of delegation by results expectedThe authority delegated to an individual managers should be adequate to assure his ability to accomplish the results expected of him.
Principle of absoluteness of responsibilityNo superior can escape, through delegation, responsibility for the activities of subordinates, for it is he who delegated authority and assigned duties.
Principle of parity of authority and responsibilityThe authority delegated has to be consistent with the responsibility assigned to a subordinate.
Harold Koontz and Cyril O’Donnell, Principles of Management: An Analysis of Managerial Functions, 4th Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1968
Harold Koontz and Cyril O’Donnell, Principles of Management: An Analysis of Managerial Functions, 2nd Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1959
Updated 22 July 2016, 11 December 2011