July 21, 2018

The Functions of Executive - Chester Barnard - Important Points and Summary

Most cooperation fails in the attempt, or dies in infancy, or is short-lived.

Failure to cooperate, failure of cooperation, failure of organization, disorganization, disintegration, destruction of organization-and reorganization-characteristics facts of human history.

More specific explanations (for organizations' failure) refer to faults of structure- "defective constitutions"- or to bad functioning, lack of solidarity or spirit, poor leadership or management.

A part of the effort to determine individual effort takes the form of altering the conditions of behavior, including a conditioning of the individual by training, by the inculcation of attitudes, by the construction of incentives. This constitutes a large part of the executive process, and is for the most part carried out on the basis of experience and intuition.  (p.15)

Persons choose whether or not they will enter into a specific cooperative system. This choice will be made on the basis of (1) purposes, desires, impulses of the moment, and (2) the alternatives external to the individual recognized by him as available. Organization results from the modification of the action of the individual through control of or influence upon one of these categories. Deliberate conscious and specialized control of them is the essence of the executive functions.  (p.17)

The concrete processes (wherein one individual or two or more individuals in cooperation exert effort) involved are in industries "technologies," in the professions "techniques," in organizations "practices," and "institutions," in religions "rituals," and in private conduct "adoptable behavior," "savoir faire," "selection of appropriate means to end." (p.22)

Chapter XV

The Executive Functions

I. The Maintenance of Organization Communication
II. The Securing of Essential Service from Individuals
III. The Formulation of Purpose and Objectives

Top Management Challenge Areas A to Z: 2017 Blogging Challenge Articles 

Updated on 22 July 2018
First published on 5 July 2018

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