December 8, 2011

Vroom’s VIE Model of Motivation

Vroom’s VIE model is built around the concepts of valence, instrumentality, and expectancy.


Vroom’s model uses cognitive variables, variables which are used by persons in their thought process according to their perception or thinking of a situation. Vroom’s VIE model is built around the concepts of valence, instrumentality, and expectancy.

Valence according to Vroom is the strength of an individual’s preference for a particular outcome. This comes out of the value of the outcome for the individual. Valence is the anticipated value of the outcome. The valence will be positive, when the person prefers attaining the outcome to not attaining it. When the person is indifferent, valence will be zero for an outcome.

Instrumentality is a concept that refers to action that will give rise to an outcome desired by a person. If a person wants to eat a particular dish, he has to cook it. Cooking is the instrumental act that a person has to do to eat the dish. In an organization context, the person has to do certain tasks adequately to get the salary which he desires.

Expectancy relates the tasks a person has to do to get the output of the instrumental act with successful outcome at the instrumental act level. Is he or she confident that they can cook the dish properly? Is the person confident that he can do the tasks properly and complete the work assigned to him to the satisfaction of the customer or superior and get the reward desired.

According to the model, the strength of motivation to perform a certain act will depend on the algebraic sum of the products of the valences for the outcomes times the expectancies.

How managers can use this model?

They have to find out the rewards the persons under them want. They have to create a link between the business outputs and the personal rewards the employees strongly desires. Then they have to ensure that the employee has the basic capabilities to perform the tasks required to achieve the business outcomes or goals. They have to act as coaches to develop the employee.


Vroom, V.H., Work and Motivation, Wiley New York, 1964

Luthans, Fred, Organizational Behavior, McGraw-Hill, Boston, 2005, 10th Edition

Contents of Vroom’s Book

Work and motivation

By Victor H. Vroom

Published by Wiley, 1964

331 pages


Introduction and Historical Perspective


law of effect, hedonism, industrial psychology

The Motivational Bases of Work


Reactive inhibition, valence, nomic

Occupational Choice


valence, self concept, need for achievement

The Determinants of Job Satisfaction


job satisfaction, equity theory, human relations movement

Job Satisfaction and Job Behavior


job satisfaction, International Harvester, negative relationship

The Role of Motivation in Work Performance


level of performance, levels of motivation, motivation

more »

Some Motivational Determinants of Effective


social facilitation, overlearned, level of performance

Concluding Observations on Method and Theory


monotonically increasing, psychologist



Psychology, Ohio State University, social facilitation



Heron, Harlow, Sears

Recent Print by Wiley

Work and Motivation

By Victor H. Vroom

Published by John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 1994

ISBN 0787900303, 9780787900304

397 pages

Web References

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