March 11, 2015

Management of Research and Development - Jain, Triandis and Weick - Book Information and Summary


Published by John Wiley and Sons 2010

Ravi K Jain
Harry C. Triandis
Cunthia Wagner Weick

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
1 R&D Organizations and Research Categories
1.1 How Information can be Used,
1.2 A Perspective on R&D Management
1.3 What is Research and Development?
1.4 Research Categories,
1.5 What to Research,
1.6 Emphasis on Basic Versus Applied Research,
1.7 What is Unique About Managing R&D Organizations?
1.8 Summary,
1.9 Questions for Class Discussion,

2 Elements Needed for an R&D Organization 20
2.1 People, 20
2.2 Specialization, 22
2.3 Staffing, 23
2.4 Ideas, 24
2.5 Defects in Human Information Processing, 28
2.6 Fads in Science, 30
2.7 Communication Networks, 31
2.8 The Innovation Process, 34
2.9 Funds, 34
2.10 A Culture for R&D Organizations, 36
2.11 Not-Invented-Here Syndrome, 38
2.12 Fit of Person and Job, 40
2.13 Creative Tensions: Managing Antithesis and Ambiguity, 41
2.14 Develop a Climate of Participation, 44
2.15 Summary, 45
2.16 Questions for Class Discussion, 46

3 Creating a Productive and Effective R&D Organization 47
3.1 Organization Effectiveness, 47
3.2 Who are the Inventors and Innovators?, 52
3.3 Odd Characteristics of Inventors and Innovators, 58
3.4 Researcher’s Relationship with Management and Peers, 59
3.5 Formation of Teams, 60
3.6 Generating New Ideas, 64
3.7 Emphases on Aspects of Organizational Culture, 68
3.8 Ethos of A Scientific Community, 69
3.9 Summary, 71
3.10 Questions for Class Discussion, 71

4 Job Design and Organizational Effectiveness 72
4.1 Job Attributes, 73
4.2 Physical Location and Communication, 74
4.3 Career Paths, 76
4.4 Dual and Triple Hierarchies, 78
4.5 Centralization and Decentralization, 80
4.6 Keeping the Researcher at the Innovation Stage, 81
4.7 Job Design and Conflict, 83
4.8 Summary, 86
4.9 Questions for Class Discussion, 87

5 Influencing People 88
5.1 Attitude, Attitude Change, 89
5.2 Findings from Attitude Research, 90
5.3 Behavioral Science Division Case, 92
5.4 Case Analysis, 94
5.5 Communication Alternatives and Outcomes, 95
5.6 Summary, 101
5.7 Questions for Class Discussion, 102

6 Motivation in R&D Organizations 103
6.1 A Model of Human Behavior, 104
6.2 Changing the Reward System to Support Technical
Careers, 112
6.3 Structuring the Organization for Optimal
Communication, 113
6.4 Rewards and Motivation, 114
6.5 Reward System Discussion, 116
6.6 Sense of Control and Community, 119
6.7 A Federal R&D Laboratory Case, 121
6.8 Summary, 122
6.9 Questions for Class Discussion, 122

7 Dealing with Diversity in R&D Organizations 123
7.1 Assimilation and Multiculturalism, 124
7.2 Understanding Culture, 126
7.3 Cultural Differences, 128
7.4 What Happens When People from Different Cultures Work
Together?, 129
7.5 Cultural Distance, 130
7.6 Cultural Intelligence and Related Concepts, 130
7.7 A Model for Diversity in Groups, 132
7.8 The Status of Minorities in Work Groups, 135
7.9 Dealing with People from Different Disciplines,
Organizational Levels, and Functions, 136
7.10 Intercultural Training, 136
7.11 Summary, 139
7.12 Questions for Class Discussion, 139

8 Leadership in R&D Organizations 140
8.1 Identifying Your Leadership Style, 142
8.2 Theories of Leadership and Leadership Styles, 151
8.3 Leadership in R&D Organizations, 154
8.4 R&D Leadership: A Process of Mutual Influence, 157
8.5 A Leadership-Style Case, 158
8.6 Leadership in a Creative Research Environment, 160
8.7 Summary, 161
8.8 Questions for Class Discussion, 163

9 Managing Conflict in R&D Organizations 164
9.1 Conflict Within Individuals, 164
9.2 Conflict Between Individuals, 169
9.3 Conflict Between Groups, 171
9.4 Intercultural Conflict, 177
9.5 Personal Styles of Conflict Resolution, 179
9.6 Unique Issues of Conflict in R&D Organizations, 181
9.7 Ethics, 183
9.8 Summary, 183
9.9 Questions for Class Discussion, 184

10 Performance Appraisal—Employee Contribution—In R&D
Organizations 185
10.1 Some Negative Connotations of Performance Appraisal, 185
10.2 Difficulties with Employee Appraisal, 187
10.3 Performance Appraisal and the Management System, 189
10.4 Performance Appraisal and Organizational Stages, 190
10.5 Performance Appraisal and Organization Productivity, 190
10.6 Goals of Engineers Versus Scientists, 191
10.7 Performance Appraisal and Monetary Rewards, 192
10.8 Performance Appraisal in Practice, 194
10.9 A University Department Case, 195
10.10 Implementation Strategy with Emphasis on Employee
Contribution, 196
10.11 Summary, 203
10.12 Questions for Class Discussion, 203
10.13 Appendix: Argonne National Laboratory Performance
Review Information, 20

11 Technology Transfer 213
11.1 Technology Transfer Hypotheses, 214
11.2 Stages of Technology Transfer, 214
11.3 Approaches and Factors Affecting Technology Transfer, 216
11.4 Role of the User, 218
11.5 Characteristics of Innovation and its Diffusion, 220
11.6 Role of People, 222
11.7 Boundary Spanning, 223
11.8 Organizational Issues in Technology Transfer, 226
11.9 The Agricultural Extension Model, 227
11.10 NASA Technology Transfer Programs, 228
11.11 IBM Technology Transfer Cases, 229
11.12 Technology Transfer Strategy, 231
11.13 Summary, 236
11.14 Questions for Class Discussion, 237

12 Models for Implementing Incremental and Radical
Innovation 238
12.1 Defining Innovation, 239
12.2 Strategic Choices in Technological Innovation, 242
12.3 Making Technological Innovation Operational, 244
12.4 The Market, Marketers, and Market Research in
Technological Innovation, 249
12.5 Leading Innovative Organizations, 253
12.6 Summary, 254
12.7 Questions for Class Discussion, 256

13 Organizational Change in R&D Settings 257
13.1 Why Organizational Change?, 258
13.2 Steps in Organizational Change, 259
13.3 Problems and Action Steps, 259
13.4 Individual Change, 262
13.5 Group Change: Team Building, 264
13.6 Organizational Change, 267
13.7 Evaluating Organizational Change, 268
13.8 Case Study in Organizational Change, 270
13.9 Summary, 273
13.10 Questions for Class Discussion, 273

14 Managing the Network of Technological Innovation 274
14.1 Overall Trends Within and Between Sectors, 274
14.2 Trends in Research, Development, And Innovation in the
Commercial Realm, 276
14.3 Trends in Research, Development and Innovation in the
Federal Government, 279
14.4 Trends in Research, Development, and Innovation in
Universities, 286
14.5 Open Innovation, Regional Economic Development, and the
Global Innovation Network, 290
14.6 Summary, 294
14.7 Questions For Class Discussion, 295

15 Universities and Basic Research 296
15.1 Basis for University Research Activities, 297
15.2 Federal Support of University Research: An Entitlement or a
Means to Achieve National Goals?, 298
15.3 Basic Research: Who Needs It?, 301
15.4 University–Industry Linkage, 309
15.5 Rethinking Investment in Basic Research, 311
15.6 Summary and Concluding Comments, 312
15.7 Questions for Class Discussion, 313

16 R&D Organizations and Strategy 315
16.1 What is Strategy?, 316
16.2 Strategy Levels and Perspectives, 319
16.3 Strategy Formulation and Implementation, 319
16.4 Strategy Evaluation, 321
16.5 Strategy and Innovation, 322
16.6 Technology and Strategy, 324
16.7 Applying a Strategy Process, 325
16.8 Summary, 330
16.9 Questions for Class Discussion, 330
17 Research, Development, and Science Policy 331
17.1 Relationship Between Science and Technology, 334
17.2 Technical Innovation and Economic Development, 336
17.3 Analysis of Investment in Basic Research, 339
17.4 R&D Expenditure, 340
17.5 R&D Productivity, 347
17.6 Global Perspectives on Innovation, 352
17.7 R&D Expenditure and Science Policy, 357
17.8 Summary, 362
17.9 Questions for Class Discussion, 363


Ways to improve the productivity of R&D organizations and foster excellence in R&D organizations.

 Of the approximately 595,000 doctoral scientists and engineers employed in the United States as of 2003, approximately 372,000 work in R&D. Of the 372,000, it is estimated that about 60,000 work in management of R&D. In the  remaining doctoral scientists and engineers (223,000), substantial number teach (184,000). Some are involved in professional services and consulting. Consulting engineers and scientists undertake creative activities that are, in many ways, responsible for closing the loop between research and development and application.


Studies have clearly shown that where supervisors were rated highest in technical skills the research groups were most innovative. And where supervisors did not possess excellent technical skills (but had high-level administrative skills), the research groups were least innovative (Farris, 1982, p. 340). These findings point to a fundamental need for a supervisor in an R&D organization who possesses
excellent technical skills. Consequently, scientist have to be provided inputs in managing R&D organizations and they are to be made managers.

The National Science Foundation (NSF) classifies and defines research as follows
:
Basic Research. Basic research has as its objective “a more complete knowledge or understanding of the subject under study, without specific  applications in mind.” To take into account industrial goals, NSF modifies this definition for the industry sector to indicate that basic research advances scientific knowledge “but does not have specific immediate commercial objectives, although it may be in fields of present or potential commercial interest.”

Applied Research. Applied research is directed toward gaining “knowledge or understanding to determine the means by which a specific, recognized need may be met.” In industry, applied research includes investigations directed “to discovering new scientific knowledge that has specific commercial objectives with respect to products, processes, or services.”

Development. Development is the “systematic use of the knowledge or understanding gained from research, directed toward the production of useful materials, devices, systems or methods, including design and development of prototypes and processes.”

A two-tier model for identifying “what to research
The model includes an economic index model and a portfolio model.

Economic Index Model
Research needs is to improve the operation or manufacturing efficiency of the organization or the enterprise. The emphasis is on building a “better products and processes” to reduce the cost of doing
things. Inputs for such needs come from looking at competitive products and operation

Portfolio Model
Normative needs are those of the user (a user being the primary or follow-on beneficiary of the research product). Comparative needs relate to research needs derived from reviewing comparable organizations, competitive product lines, and related enterprises. Forecasted research needs focus on
trend analysis in terms of consumer or organization needs derived from new requirements, changed consumer behavior, new technological developments, new regulations (e.g., environmental, health, and safety regulations), and new operational requirements.







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