Approaches to Management Analysis(List given by Heinz Weihrich, Mark V. Cannice and Harold Koontz, 13th Edition, McGraw Hill, 2010)
Empirical or Case Approach
Studies management activity through case studies. Identifies successes and failures. Develops principles from it. We can now says it is case study research approach. Ernest Dale was the pioneer of this approach.
Managerial Roles Approach
Mintzberg used this approach to describe management activity. The original study consisted of observations of five chief executives. Ten managerial roles were identified and grouped into interpersonal, informational, and decision roles.
Contingency or Situational Approach
Contingency approach develops principles that include well defined situations, and different managerial actions appropriate to each situation to get the desired result. Hence in this approach to get a desired result, multiple input variables are identified and one of them is appropriate for a specific defined situation.
Kenneth Blanchard popularised this approach.
Mathematical or Management Science Approach
Mathematical approach is more popularly known as operations research or management science. Theory in this approach is specified through mathematical formulas and functions. Optimization is the special contribution of this approach.
Decision Theory Approach
Focuses on the making of mana decisions and decision-making process. It also focuses on persons and groups making decisions.
Concerned with process analysis and radical design based on new technology developments.
Systems approach defines systems with boundaries within an environment and also subsystems within the system.
Sociotechnical Systems Approach
Based on the premise that technical system has a great effect on social system (personal attitudes and group behavior)
Cooperative Social Systems Approach
Examines both interpersonal and group behavioral aspects leading to cooperation in systems.
Group Behavior Approach
This approach is based sociology and social psychology. Primarily studies group behavior. Organizational behavior is a part of this approach.
Interpersonal Behavior Approach
Focuses on interpersonal behavior especially leadership and motivation. It is based more on individual psychology.
McKinsey's 7-S Framework
7-S framework explains management in terms of 1. Strategy 2. Structure 3. Systems 4. Style 5. Staff 6. Shared values and 7. Skills
Total Quality Management Approach
Focuses on providing products or services that are fit for use and thus satisfy customers.
Deming, Juran and Crosby are the leading advocates of this approach.
Management Process or Operational Approach
This approach distinguishes between managerial and non-managerial knowledge. Explains management around the functions of management. These functions are specified differently by different authors. Koontz specified them as planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling.
Henri Fayol is the father of this approach
14 April 2014
Scientific Management Approach needs to be added to the above list. It is a significant omission by Koontz et al.
Scientific Management Approach
Scientific management approach is based on experiments either laboratory type or field type and developing principles based on the data collected from experiments to organize work either of equipment or men and man-machine combinations
A New Approach now needs to be added
Scientific management applied in Toyota Motors resulted in the development of lean management approach. It is basically a further development in the tradition of scientific management and its emphasis on efficiency.