May 22, 2022

Quality Engineering and Management (Product and Process) - Quotes from Juran's Quality Handbook

This is my #AtoZchallenge  Roadtrip Post. It is an important topic and by reading the handbook and collecting excerpts, I learnt this important subject of quality in more depth. Juran is one of the three celebrated quality management gurus. The others two are Crosby and Deming.


 #AtoZchallenge bloggers can indicate their Roadtrip Post in the file included in A to Z Challenge Site post. http://www.a-to-zchallenge.com/2022/05/the-2022-post-to-z-challenge-road-trip.html  You will get support from A to Z Challenge Bloggers for more views and comments. Visit the post and enter your blog details.


Levels of  Industrial Engineering (Productivity Improvement) in an Enterprise -  Enterprise Level to Engineering Element Level Industrial Engineering

Process Quality Improvement is more popularly understood as Productivity Improvement - J.M. Juran

Process quality improvement by a specialist foreman termed inspector was recommended by F.W. Taylor as part of functional supervision plan.

There are three principal dimensions for measuring process quality: effectiveness, efficiency, and
adaptability. The process is effective if the output meets customer needs. It is efficient when it is
effective at the least cost. The process is adaptable when it remains effective and efficient in the face
of the many changes that occur over time.


Industrial Engineering Strategy - Enterprise Level Industrial Engineering

https://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2014/11/industrial-engineering-strategy.html


Facilities Industrial Engineering

https://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2020/05/facilities-industrial-engineering.html


Process Industrial Engineering - Process Machine Effort Industrial Engineering - Process Human Effort Industrial Engineering.

https://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2021/11/process-industrial-engineering-process.html


Operation Industrial Engineering.

https://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2013/11/approach-to-operation-analysis-as-step.html


Element Level Analysis in Industrial Engineering

Taylor's Industrial Engineering System - First Proposal 1895 - Productivity Improvement of Each Element of the Process



Engineers and Engineering supervisors have to contribute to Quality engineering in their organizations.



Quotes from Quality Handbook, 5 Edition,  Dr. J.M. Juran

In the preface to the Fourth Edition of this handbook, Dr. Juran commented on the events of the four decades between signing the contract for the First Edition of this handbook (1945) and the publication of the Fourth Edition (1988).

The main impetus for the growing importance of quality in the past decade has been the realization of the critical role quality plays as the key to competitive success in the increasingly globalized business environment. Upper managers now understand much more clearly the importance of quality—convinced by the threat of the consequences of product failure, by the rapid shift of power to the buyers and by the demands of global competition in costs, performance, and service.


5th Edition special features

1. We have changed the name from Juran’s Quality Control Handbook, to Juran’s Quality Handbook. The new name signals the change in emphasis from quality control, traditionally the concern of those working on the manufacturing floor, to an emphasis on the management of quality generally, a concern of managers throughout an organization.

2. We have changed the structure to reflect the new emphasis on managing quality. The Fifth Edition has 48 sections, arranged in five groups: Managerial, Functional, Industry, International, and Statistical.


Chapters 1 to 17 deal with management issues.


Page 2.2.

The Meanings of “Quality.” Of the many meanings of the word “quality,” two are of critical importance to managing for quality:

1. “Quality” means those features of products which meet customer needs and thereby provide

customer satisfaction. In this sense, the meaning of quality is oriented to income. The purpose of

such higher quality is to provide greater customer satisfaction and, one hopes, to increase income.

However, providing more and/or better quality features usually requires an investment and hence

usually involves increases in costs. Higher quality in this sense usually “costs more.”


2. “Quality” means freedom from deficiencies—freedom from errors that require doing work

over again (rework) or that result in field failures, customer dissatisfaction, customer claims, and so

on. In this sense, the meaning of quality is oriented to costs, and higher quality usually “costs less.”


In the above one can be interpreted as product quality and 2 can be interpreted as process quality.


Page 2.5

Managing for quality makes extensive use of three such managerial processes:

Quality planning

● Quality control

● Quality improvement


Page 2.12


The Factory System:  The goals of the factories were to raise productivity and reduce costs.  To reach their goals, the factories reengineered the manufacturing processes. Under the craft system, an artisan performed every one of the numerous tasks needed to produce the final product—pins, shoes, barrels, and so on. Under the factory system, the tasks within a craft were divided up among several or many factory workers. Special tools were designed to simplify each task down to a short time cycle. A worker then could, in a few hours, carry out enough cycles of his or her task to reach high productivity.

Adam Smith, in his book, The Wealth of Nations, was one of the first to publish an explanation of the striking difference between manufacture under the craft system versus the factory system. He noted that pin making had been a distinct craft, consisting of 18 separate tasks. When these tasks were divided among 10 factory workers, production rose to a per-worker equivalent of 4800 pins a day, which was orders of magnitude higher than would be achieved if each worker were to produce pins by performing all 18 tasks (Smith 1776). For other types of processes, such as spinning or weaving, power-driven machinery could outproduce hand artisans while employing semiskilled or unskilled workers to reduce labor costs. The broad economic result of the factory system was mass production at low costs. 

Page 2.13


The Taylor System of Scientific Management.  This originated in the late nineteenth century when Taylor, an American manager, wanted to increase production and productivity by improving manufacturing planning. His solution was to separate planning from execution. He brought in engineers to do the planning, leaving the shop supervisors and the work force with the narrow responsibility of carrying out the plans.

Taylor’s system was stunningly successful in raising productivity. It was widely adopted in the United States but not so widely adopted elsewhere. It had negative side effects in human relations, which most American managers chose to ignore. It also had negative effects on quality. The American managers responded by taking the inspectors out of the production departments and placing them in newly created inspection departments. In due course, these departments took on added functions to become the broad-based quality departments of today. (For elaboration, see Juran 1995, chap. 17.)

(I totally disagree with the above description by Juran.)


2.16


QUALITY TO CENTER STAGE


Except for Japan, the needed quality revolution did not start until very late in the twentieth century. To make this revolution effective throughout the world, economies will require many decades—the entire twenty-first century. Thus, while the twentieth century has been the “century of productivity,” the twenty-first century will be known as the “century of quality.”


2.17

Inventions Yet to Come. Many of the strategies adopted by the successful companies are

without precedent in industrial history. As such, they must be regarded as experimental. They did

achieve results for the role model companies, but they have yet to demonstrate that they can achieve

comparable results in a broader spectrum of industries and cultures. It is to be expected that the

efforts to make such adaptations will generate new inventions, new experiments, and new lessons

learned. There is no end in sight.


3.3

Quality Planning 


• Establish the project

• Identify the customers

• Discover the customer needs

• Develop the product

• Develop the process

• Develop the controls and transfer to operations


SECTION 4. THE QUALITY CONTROL PROCESS

J. M. Juran, A. Blanton Godfrey

4.2
 “Quality control” is a universal managerial process for conducting operations so as to provide stability—to prevent adverse change and to “maintain the status quo.”
To maintain stability, the quality control process evaluates actual performance, compares actual
performance to goals, and takes action on the difference.

The term “control of quality” emerged early in the twentieth century (Radford 1917, 1922). The
concept was to broaden the approach to achieving quality, from the then-prevailing after-the-fact
inspection, to what we now call “defect prevention.” For a few decades, the word “control” had a
broad meaning which included the concept of quality planning. Then came events which narrowed
the meaning of “quality control.” The “statistical quality control” movement gave the impression that
quality control consisted of using statistical methods. The “reliability” movement claimed that quality control applied only to quality at the time of test but not during service life.

 In Japan, the term “quality control” retains a broad meaning.
Their “total quality control” is roughly equivalent to our term “total quality management.” In 1997
the Union of Japanese Scientists and Engineers (JUSE) adopted the term total quality management
(TQM) to replace total quality control (TQC) to more closely align themselves with the more common terminology used in the rest of the world.

Quality assurance’s main purpose is to verify that control is being maintained.

A further common form of feedback loop involves office clerks or factory workers whose work
is reviewed by umpires in the form of inspectors. This design of a feedback loop is largely the
result of the Taylor system of separating planning from execution. The Taylor system emerged a century ago and contributed greatly to increasing productivity. However, the effect on quality control was negative.

(Once again I do not agree with the above statement. What Taylor did was to recommend multiple foremen organization in place of one foreman  in the military system. The system foreman and workers working under him was not initiated by Taylor. If the foreman is doing planning, Taylor suggested a foreman to take care of planning.)

Establish Standards of Performance: Product Goals and Process Goals. For each control subject it is necessary to establish a standard of performance—a quality goal (also called targets, objectives, etc.). A standard of performance is an aimed-at achievement toward which effort is expended.



The processes which produce products have two sets of quality goals:
1. To produce products which do meet customer needs. Ideally, each and every unit of product
should meet customer needs.
2. To operate in a stable and predictable manner. In the dialect of the quality specialist, each process
should be “under control.”

A study in one small company employing about 350 people found that there were over a billion
things to be controlled (Juran 1964, pp. 181–182).
There is no possibility for upper managers to control huge numbers of control subjects. Instead,
they divide up the work of control, using a plan of delegation somewhat as depicted in Figure 4.7.
This division of work establishes three areas of responsibility for control: control by nonhuman
means (automated controls), control by the work force, and control by the managerial hierarchy.

Planning for quality control of critical processes has traditionally been the responsibility of those
who plan the operating process. For noncritical processes the responsibility was usually assigned to
quality specialists from the Quality Department. Their draft plans were then submitted to the operating heads for approval.

Process Capability. One of the most important concepts in the quality planning process is
“process capability.” The prime application of this concept is during planning of the operating
processes.

Does the process conform to its quality goals? The umpire answers this question by interpreting the
observed difference between process performance and process goals. When current performance
does differ from the quality goals, the question arises: What is the cause of this difference?

Responsibility for results should, of course, be keyed to controllability. However, in the past
many managers were not aware of the extent of controllability as it prevailed at the worker level.
Studies conducted by Juran during the 1930s and 1940s showed that at the worker level the proportion of management-controllable to worker-controllable nonconformances was of the order of 80 to
20. These findings were confirmed by other studies during the 1950s and 1960s. That ratio of 80 to
20 helps to explain the failure of so many efforts to solve the companies’ quality problems solely by
motivating the work force.

(Do quality people appreciate Taylor when he said manager is responsible for 50% of the task's success)

Self-Inspection. We define “self-inspection” as a state in which decisions on the product are
delegated to the work force. The delegated decisions consist mainly of: Does product quality conform to the quality goals? What disposition is to be made of the product?
Note that self-inspection is very different from self-control, which involves decisions on the
process.
The merits of self-inspection are considerable:

SECTION 5
THE QUALITY IMPROVEMENT PROCESS
J. M. Juran

WHAT IS IMPROVEMENT?
 “Improvement” means “the organized creation of beneficial change; the attainment of
unprecedented levels of performance.” A synonym is “breakthrough.”

Two Kinds of Beneficial Change. Better quality is a form of beneficial change. It is applicable to both the kinds of quality.  

Product features: These can increase customer satisfaction. To the producing company, they are
income-oriented.

Freedom from deficiencies created in the production process: These can create customer dissatisfaction and chronic waste. To the producing company, they are cost-oriented.

Quality improvement to increase income may consist of such actions as
Product development to create new features that provide greater customer satisfaction and hence
may increase income.

Business process improvement to reduce the cycle time for providing better service to customers
Creation of “one-stop shopping” to reduce customer frustration over having to deal with multiple personnel to get service

Quality improvement to reduce deficiencies created by the production process that create chronic waste may consist of such actions as

Increase of the yield of factory processes
Reduction of the error rates in offices
Reduction of field failures



Quality improvement to increase income starts by setting new goals, such as new product features, shorter cycle times, and one-stop shopping. Meeting such new goals requires several kinds
of planning, including quality planning. 

In the case of chronic waste, the product goals are already in place; so are the processes for meeting those goals. However, the resulting products (goods and services) do not all meet the goals. Some
do and some do not. As a consequence, the approach to reducing chronic waste is different from the
quality planning roadmap. Instead, the approach consists of (1) discovering the causes—why do
some products meet the goal and others do not—and (2) applying remedies to remove the causes. 

Continuing improvement is needed for both kinds of quality, since competitive pressures apply
to each. Customer needs are a moving target. Competitive costs are also a moving target. However,
improvement for these two kinds of quality has in the past progressed at very different rates. The
chief reason is that many upper managers, perhaps most, give higher priority to increasing sales than
to reducing costs. 


Unstructured Reduction of Chronic Waste. In most companies, the urge to reduce chronic waste has been much lower than the urge to increase sales.

As a result:
The business plan has not included goals for reduction of chronic waste.
Responsibility for such quality improvement has been vague. It has been left to volunteers to initiate action.
The needed resources have not been provided, since such improvement has not been a part of the
business plan.

The quality managers have contributed to this unawareness by presenting their reports in the language of quality specialists rather than in the language of management—the language of money.

5.5
The most decisive factor in the competition for quality leadership is the rate of quality improvement.

Quality improvement should be directed at all areas that influence company performance—
business processes as well as factory processes.

5.11
Higher quality in the sense of improved product features (through product development) usually
requires capital investment. In this sense, it does cost more. However, higher quality in the sense of
lower chronic waste usually costs less—a lot less. Those who are responsible for preparing proposals for management approval should be careful to define the key words—Which kind of quality are
they talking about?

Companies that have become the quality leaders—the role models—all adopted the practice of
enlarging their business plan to include quality-oriented goals.

5.20
Deployment of Goals. Goals are merely a wish list until they are deployed—until they are
broken down into specific projects to be carried out and assigned to specific individuals or teams
who are then provided with the resources needed to take action.

5.39
The Two Journeys. The universal sequence includes a series of steps that are grouped into two journeys:

1. The diagnostic journey from symptom to cause. It includes analyzing the symptoms, theorizing
as to the causes, testing the theories, and establishing the causes.
2. The remedial journey from cause to remedy. It includes developing the remedies, testing and
proving the remedies under operating conditions, dealing with resistance to change, and establishing controls to hold the gains.

Diagnosis is based on the factual approach and requires a firm grasp of the meanings of key
words. 

5.41

FORMULATION OF THEORIES

All progress in diagnosis is made theory by theory— about causes. The theory development and testing  process consists of three steps: generating theories, arranging theories in some order, choosing theories to be tested and testing theories.

Generating Theories. Securing theories should be done systematically. Theories should be
sought from all potential contributors—line managers and supervisors, technologists, the work force,
customers, suppliers, and so on )based on the data recorded. If it based on knowledge, the extensive knowledge is to be gathered first by many participants.) Normally, the list of theories has to be  extensive, 20 or more. If only 3 or 4 theories have emerged, it usually means that the theorizing has been inadequate.

One systematic way of generating theories is called “brainstorming.” 

Another systematic approach—“nominal group technique”—is similar to brainstorming.
Participants generate their theories silently, in writing. Each then offers one theory at a time, in rotation. After all ideas have been recorded, they are discussed and then prioritized by vote.

5.49
Design of Experiments. Test of theories through experiment usually involves producing trial
samples of product under specially selected conditions. The experiment may be conducted either in
a laboratory or in the real world of offices, factories, warehouses, users’ premises, and so on.


5.55
 Choice of remedy then depends on the extent to which the proposals meet certain essential criteria. The proposed remedies should
Remove or neutralize the cause(s)
Optimize the costs

Special remedies.
Increase the factor of safety through additional structural material, use of exotic materials, design
for misuse as well as intended use, fail-safe design, and so on. Virtually all of these involve an
increase in costs.
Increase the amount and severity of test. Correlation of data on severe tests versus normal tests
then provides a prediction of failure rates.
Reduce the process variability. This applies when the defects have their origin in manufacture.
Use automated 100 percent test. This concept has been supported recently by a remarkable
growth in the technology: nondestructive test methods, automated testing devices, and computerized controls.



SECTION 6 PROCESS MANAGEMENT
James F. Riley, Jr.

Why Process Quality Management? The dynamic environment in which business is conducted today is characterized by what has been referred to as “the six c’s:” change, complexity, customer demands, competitive pressure, cost impacts, and constraints.

A business process is the logical organization of people, materials, energy, equipment, and information into work activities designed to produce a required end result (product or service).


There are three principal dimensions for measuring process quality: effectiveness, efficiency, and
adaptability. The process is effective if the output meets customer needs. It is efficient when it is
effective at the least cost. The process is adaptable when it remains effective and efficient in the face
of the many changes that occur over time. A process orientation is vital if management is to meet
customer needs and ensure organizational health.

By mid-1985, many organizations and industries were managing selected major business
processes with the same attention commonly devoted to functions, departments, and other organizational entities. Early efforts bore such names as Business Process Management, Continuous Process
Improvement, and Business Process Quality Improvement.

Much has been published on process management. AT&T (1988), Black (1985), Gibson
(1991–92), Hammer and Champy (1993), Kane (1986 and 1992), Pall (1987), Riley (1989),
Rummler (1992), Schlesiona (1988), and Zachman (1990) have all proposed similar methodological
approaches that differ from one another in minor details. The specific details of the methodology presented in this section were developed by consultants at the Juran Institute, Inc. [Gibson et al. (1990);
Riley et al. (1994)], based on years of collective experience in a variety of industries.

6.11
Process measures based on cost, cycle time, labor productivity, process yield, and the like are
measures of process efficiency.

6.13
Analyzing the Process. Process Analysis is performed for the following purposes:
● Assess the current process for its effectiveness and efficiency.
● Identify the underlying causes of any performance inadequacy.
● Identify opportunities for improvement.
● Make the improvements.

The goal for process efficiency is that all key business processes operate at minimum total
process cost and cycle time, while still meeting customer requirements.


Process effectiveness and efficiency are analyzed concurrently. Maximizing effectiveness and efficiency together means that the process produces high quality at low cost; in other words, it can provide the most value to the customer.

Process decomposition—Identification of of process elements disclosed within  business process.

6.14
The “Process Analysis Summary Report” is the culmination and key output of this process analysis
step. It includes the findings from the analysis, that is, the reasons for inadequate process performance
and potential solutions that have been proposed and recorded by owner and team as analysis progressed.

SECTION 7  QUALITY AND INCOME
J. M. Juran

Consumer Products. Numerous researchers have tried to quantify the correlation between
product quality and product price. (See, for example, Riesz 1979; also Morris and Bronson 1969.)


SECTION 8. QUALITY AND COSTS
Frank M. Gryna

The underlying theme in the section is the use of quality-related costs to support a quality improvement effort rather than as a system of reporting quality costs.

The bulk of the costs were the result of poor quality. Such costs had been buried in the standards,
but they were in fact avoidable.

While these quality costs were avoidable, there was no clear responsibility for action to reduce
them, neither was there any structured approach for doing so.

 In this handbook, the term “quality costs” means the cost of poor quality

Identify major opportunities for reduction in cost of poor quality throughout all activities in an organization. Costs of poor quality do not exist as a homogeneous mass. Instead, they occur in specific segments, each traceable to some specific cause.


Cost of poor quality = Cost of nonconformities + Cost of inefficient processes+ Cost of lost opportunities for sales revenue


Note that this framework extends the traditional concept of quality costs to reflect not only the costs of nonconformities but also process inefficiencies and the impact of quality on sales revenue. Sometimes, the term “economics of quality” is employed to describe the broader concept and differentiate it from
the traditional concept of “quality cost.”

We must emphasize the main objective in collecting this data, i.e., to energize and support quality improvement activities.

Cost of Inefficient Processes. Some of the subcategories are

Variability of product characteristics: Losses that occur even with conforming product (e.g.,
overfill of packages due to variability of filling and measuring equipment).

Unplanned downtime of equipment: 

Inventory shrinkage: Loss due to the difference between actual and recorded inventory amounts.

Variation of process characteristics from “best practice”: Losses due to cycle time and costs
of processes as compared to best practices in providing the same output. 

Best practice or method doing a task is developed by industrial engineering department or process planning department. They may use benchmarking to identify best practice internally or in external organization. See:  Process Industrial Engineering - Methods and Techniques 


Non-value-added activities: Redundant operations, sorting inspections, and other non-value-added activities. 


International Standards and Quality Costs. The issue of quality costs is addressed in
ISO 9004-1 (1994), Quality Management and Quality System Elements—Guidelines, Section 6,
“Financial Considerations of Quality Systems.”

Three approaches to data collection and reporting are identified (but others are not excluded):
1. Quality costing approach: This is the failure, appraisal, and prevention approach described above.
2. Process cost approach. This approach collects data for a process rather than a product. All process costs are divided into cost of conformity and cost of nonconformity.
3. Quality loss approach: Under this approach the costs can be estimated by using the Taguchi quality loss function.

SECTION 9
MEASUREMENT, INFORMATION,
AND DECISION MAKING
Thomas C. Redman

A critical step in obtaining needed information is measurement. To measure is “to compute, estimate, or ascertain the extent, dimensions, or capacity of, especially by a certain rule or standard”
(Webster 1979). Measurement, then, involves the collection of raw data. For many types of measurements, specialized fields have grown up and there is a considerable body of expertise in making
measurements. Chemical assays and consumer preference testing are two such areas. Data collection
may involve less formal means—searching a library, obtaining data originally gathered for other
purposes, talking to customers, and the like. For our purposes, all such data collection shall be considered measurement.

Top 10 Measurement System Principles:
1. Manage measurement as an overall system, including its relationships with other systems of the
organization.
2. Understand who makes decisions and how they make them.
3. Make decisions and measurements as close to the activities they impact as possible.
4. Select a parsimonious set of measurements and ensure it covers what goes on “between functions.”
5. Define plans for data storage and analyses/syntheses/recommendations/presentations in
advance.
6. Seek simplicity in measurement, recommendation, and presentation.
7. Define and document the measurement protocol and the data quality program.
8. Continually evolve and improve the measurement system.
9. Help decision makers learn to manage their processes and areas of responsibility instead of the
measurement system.
10. Recognize that all measurement systems have limitations.


10. COMPUTER APPLICATIONS TO QUALITY SYSTEMS

Fredric I. Orkin, Daniel Olivier

TESTING AND VALIDATION

Testing Environment. Testing must ensure that the system operates correctly in the actual environment or, where such testing is not possible, in an environment that simulates the conditions of actual use. Stress testing in the actual-use environment is very effective in identifying errors that may otherwise remain undetected until after product release. Effective techniques to assure correct operation in the user environment must include “beta”-type testing, where early product versions are provided for customer-use testing to assure that the system functionality is consistent with the actual use environment.

Quality software programs exhibit certain attributes across programming languages and applications.

Correctness: Extent to which a program satisfies its specifications and fulfills the user’s mission 
objectives
Reliability: Extent to which a program can be expected to perform its intended function with required
precision
Efficiency: Amount of computing resources and code required by a program to perform a function
Integrity: Extent to which access to software or data by unauthorized persons can be controlled
Usability: Effort required to learn how to operate, prepare input, and interpret output of a program
Maintainability: Effort required to locate and fix an error in an operational program
Testability: Effort required to test a program to ensure that it performs its intended function
Flexibility: Effort required to modify an operational program 
Portability: Effort required to transfer a program from one hardware configuration and/or software 
system environment to another
Reusability: Extent to which a program can be used in other application—related to the packaging and
scope of the functions that programs perform
Interoperability: Effort required to couple one system with another

Sources of Statistical Software. Quality Progress annually publishes commercial sources
for software. The 1996 issue lists 183 companies that supply statistical software products covering
(Struebing 1996):
● Capability studies
● Design of experiments
● Sampling
● Simulation
● Statistical methods
● Statistical process control

Many industries are increasingly accepting inspection systems that are integrated with automated manufacturing systems. “This step completes the computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM)
loop” (Reimann and Sarkis 1993).
Generally, automatic inspection will couple a transducer to a computer. Transducers can take the
form of dimensional position indicators or indicators of physical effects such as force, flow, vibration,
electrical properties, and magnetic properties. An American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 
standard for integrating the CAD and dimensional measuring instruments was published in 1990
(ANSI/CAM-I 1990).

Page 10-11

Potential Applications for Automated Inspection


Industry applications 
Equipment type  - Transducer type - Computer function

Dimensional gauging    

Automatic high-speed, noncontact video inspection, and optical comparators -    Optical, laser, video, solid-state camera -   inspection of  unaligned parts


Coordinate measurement machine - Touch probe - Geometrical tolerance programming, tolerance 
analysis, multiple probe calibration, laser calibration, contouring, operator prompting,  accept/reject decision

Computer-assisted gauging (lab) -  Touch probe, electronic, air - Supervised prompting, automatic mastering,  counting, spec comparison, diagnostic testing 

Electronic gauges and measuring systems with computer interface - Calipers, micrometers, snap gauges, bore gauges, indicator probes, height gauges, air gauges, ultrasonic gauges, magnetic gauges, etc. -   Direct digital output


In-cycle gauging on numerical  control (NC) machines -      Touch probe - On machine measurements, tool wear  compensation, temperature compensation automatic check of tool offset, work location, table and spindle relationship

Bench laser micrometer - Laser - Automatic laser scan, data handling, statistical dimension calculations, part sorting, accept/reject decision

Holography - Laser - Automatic stress, strain, displacement, image processing

Laser interferometer - Laser - Automatic temperature and humidity compensation data handling and storage, math processing

3-D theodolite, coordinate, measurement -  Optical - Interactive operator prompting, automatic angular 
 measurement, data handling

Scanning laser acoustic microscope (SLAM) -  Laser, acoustic - Beam scanning, data processing

To be edited
Electrical and electronic Temperature measurement Thermocouple, thermistor, resistance Calibration; data acquisition, analysis, and processing
instrumentation temperature detector (RTD)
Robotic-printed circuit board test Electronic Robot control, fully automatic board test
Weight and balance, filling Electronic Automatic tare, statistical processing, data recording
and packaging, inspection
Circuit analyzers Electronic Special-purpose test systems
Automatic test equipment All Special-purpose test systems with complete
functional testers real-time input, processing and output data
Cable testers Electrical Automated harness continuity and high-potential
testing
Semiconductor testers Automated test of standard and special-purpose
chips
Lab devices and equipment Chromatographs Optical Fully automatic preprogrammed sampling and data
recording
Strength of materials Probe, force, displacement, Preprogrammed cycle operation; data, chart, and
strain gauge graphic output records; multichannel recording;
on-line data processing

Hardness testing Probe Robotic, fully automatic testing and recording,
results analysis, and prediction
Analyzers All Automatic calibration, testing, and recording
Electron microscopes Electromagnetic Processing and materials analysis, preprogrammed
for failure analysis
Optical imaging Video borescope, fiber-optic inspection Optical Digital data image processing documentation
Photographic Optical Fully automatic strobe, photographic sequencing
and processing
Video microscopes Optical Video image processing data documentation
High-speed video recording Optical Automatic 200–12,000 frames per second 
stop-motion recording of machine and manual
processes; motion analysis; data processing
Environmental and Test chamber controls Temperature, humidity, altitude Preprogrammed cycle controls, time and 
functional test equipment data records
Leak detection Vacuum, gas, acoustic Automatic zeroing, built-in calibration, automatic
sequencing, tolerance checking, data processing
and display
Shock and vibration testing Accelerometer Automatic cycle control, built-in calibration, data
logging and display
Built-in equipment Electrical, electronic Preprogrammed part and system functional and
environmental cycling, recording
EMI measurement Electronic, magnetic Data processing, math analysis, recording
Materials testing equipment Surface and roughness measurement Stylus follower, air flow Operator prompting, data analysis
Coating thickness, sheeting thickness Electronic, video, ultrasonic, Calculation and math processing; display; self-beta backscatter calibration; automatic filter changing and positioning; prompting self-diagnostics; feedback;
accept/reject decision


Industry applications Equipment type Transducer type Computer function
Paper, plastic, and coated product process Laser Automatic high-speed processing, feedback 
inspection for holes, particulates, controls, data analysis, and alarms
streaks, thickness
Nondestructive test equipment Magnetic particle, eddy current Probe Self-regulation, calibration, data handling,
defect recognition
Ultrasonic flaw detection Sonic, vibration Automated quantitative analysis, curve 
matching, automated procedures, graphics data 
acquisition and storage
Scanning laser acoustic microscope Laser, acoustic Beam scanning, data processing, flow detection
(SLAM) flaw detection
X-ray, fluoroscopic Optical, electronic Automatic calibration, operator prompting, data handling, statistics, stored programming, defect 
recognition
Acoustic emission Acoustic Independent channel monitoring and display, linear,
zone location, tolerance comparison, preprogrammed
tests, graphics output, triangulation, source location
Infrared test systems Optical, video Calibration, system control
Radiographic, gamma Optical, gamma Programmable, automatic, self-diagnostic, safety 
malfunction interrupts, automatic defect recognition,
robotic part handling, automatic detection of 
missing parts
Computer-aided tomography (CAT) X-ray Data acquisition, processing, interpretation and 
imaging
Nuclear magnetic resonance Magnetic Data acquisition, processing, interpretation and 
(NMR) scanner imaging




FUTURE TRENDS
Although the future is impossible to predict precisely, one thing is certain: Computer systems will
continue to revolutionize the definition of quality practices. Some current trends include:
● Data from disparate quality tracking systems will be increasingly integrated to provide system-wide
measures.
● The cost of scrap, rework, warranties, and product liability will impart continuing importance to
monitoring of the system, the process, and the machines that assure quality of output (McKee 1983).
● Evaluation of the effectiveness of software quality systems will become an increasing responsibility of the quality professional.


SECTION 13 STRATEGIC DEPLOYMENT
Joseph A. DeFeo

In recent years, total quality management (TQM) has become a pervasive change process and a
natural candidate for inclusion in the strategic plan of many organizations.

What Is Strategic Deployment? Strategic deployment is a systematic approach to integrating customer-focused organization-wide improvement efforts with the strategic plan of an organization. More specifically, strategic deployment is a systematic process by which an organization
defines its long-term goals with respect to quality, and integrates them—on an equal basis—with
financial, human resources, marketing, and research and development goals into one cohesive business plan. The plan is then deployed throughout the entire organization. (The quality emphasis can be given the term strategic quality policy deployment).

Strategic deployment has evolved during the 1990s as an integral part of many organizational
change processes, especially total quality management. Strategic deployment is part of the foundation
that supports the broader system of managing total quality throughout an organization.

The criteria for these awards stress that customer-driven quality and operational performance excellence are key strategic business issues which need to be an
integral part of overall business planning.

 In earlier versions of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award this was referred to as the strategic quality
plan (SQP). 

Projects are the day-to-day, month-to-month activities that link quality improvement activities, re-engineering efforts, and quality planning teams to the organization’s business objectives.

Project: An activity of duration as long as 3 to 9 months that addresses a deployed goal, and
whose successful completion contributes to assurance that the strategic goals are achieved. A project most usually implies assignment of selected individuals to a team which is given the responsibility and authority to achieve the specific goal.

Deployment plan: To turn a vision into action, the vision must be broken apart and translated
into successively smaller and more specific parts—key strategies, strategic goals, etc.—to the
level of projects and even departmental actions. The detailed plan for decomposition and distribution throughout the organization is called the “deployment plan.” It includes the assignment of
roles and responsibilities and identification of resources needed to implement and achieve the
project goals.


SECTION 14 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT

A. Blanton Godfrey

Juran stated that, “Just as the twentieth century was the century of productivity, the twenty-first century will be the quality century.”

 Total quality management (TQM) is probably the most frequently used term in the United States, while total quality control (TQC) was until recently most often used in Japan, although this may be changing. “The term TQC (total quality control) has begun to be replaced in Japan by the term TQM (total quality management)” (Kondo 1995, p. vi). Kondo himself uses the equivalent term “Companywide Quality Management” in his recent book (Kondo 1995). Another term sometimes encountered is “continuous quality improvement” (CQI). In 1997, JUSE announced a formal change from the term TQC (total quality control) to TQM (total quality management) (The TQM Committee 1997a, p. 1). 

In JUSE’s view, TQM is a management approach that strives for the following in any business
environment:
● Under strong top-management leadership, establish clear mid- and long-term vision and strategies.
● Properly utilize the concepts, values, and scientific methods of TQM.
● Regard human resources and information as vital organizational infrastructures.
● Under an appropriate management system, effectively operate a quality assurance system and
other cross-functional management systems such as cost, delivery, environment, and safety.
● Supported by fundamental organizational powers, such as core technology, speed, and vitality,
ensure sound relationships with customers, employees, society, suppliers, and stockholders.
● Continuously realize corporate objectives in the form of achieving an organization’s mission,
building an organization with a respectable presence, and continuously securing profits.
In any discussion of total quality it is useful to start with the basics: the results we expect, the
three fundamental concepts, the three strong forces, the three critical processes, and the key elements
of the total quality infrastructure.

The Results of Total Quality. The almost universally accepted goals of total quality are lower costs, higher revenues, delighted customers, and empowered employees. These goals need little explanation.

The Three Fundamental Concepts. In the past few years many leading companies throughout the world have begun to revisit the fundamental concepts of quality management: customer focus, continuous improvement, and the value of every individual.

The Three Strong Forces. There are three primary drivers of performance excellence: alignment, linkage, and replication. 

The Three Critical Processes for Quality Management.
Quality Planning. Quality Control. Quality Improvement.

The Total Quality Management Infrastructure. The elements include the quality system, customer-supplier partnerships, total organization involvement, measurement and information, and education and
training.

The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Criteria. The core values and concepts described previously are embodied in seven categories:
1.0 Leadership
2.0 Strategic Planning
3.0 Customer and Market Focus
4.0 Information and Analysis
5.0 Human Resource Focus
6.0 Process Management
7.0 Business Results

SECTION 15 HUMAN RESOURCES AND QUALITY
W. R. Garwood 
Gary L. Hallen


The purpose of this section is to present concepts, structures, methods, and tools which have helped successful organizations manage human resources effectively in directing their efforts toward the pursuit of high-quality
products (including services).

Major TQM elements (as embodied in the criteria of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality
Award and other major state, national, and regional quality awards around the world) which relate
directly to human resources, and the Baldrige points associated with them are
4.1 Human resource planning and evaluation 20 of 1000
4.2 High-performance work systems 45 of 1000
4.3 Employee education, training, and 50 of 1000
development
4.4 Employee well-being and satisfaction 25 of 1000
6.3 Human resource results 35 of 1000

Employee empowerment is an advanced form of employee involvement. Empowerment is a condition in which the employee has the knowledge, skills, authority, and desire to decide and act within prescribed limits.

Empowerment = alignment x authority x capability x commitment

DESIGN PRINCIPLES OF WORK AND ORGANIZATION

Design Work for Optimum Satisfaction of Employee, Organization, and Customer. 

Successful organizations are designed to achieve high employee commitment and
organizational performance focused on satisfying, and even delighting, the customers. A proper work
design allows people to take action regarding their day-to-day responsibilities for customer satisfaction and employee satisfaction.

Design a System that Promotes High Levels of Employee Involvement at All Levels in Continuous Improvement.


TRAINING IN A TOTAL QUALITY ORGANIZATION

An attribute that successful organizations have in common is commitment to extensive training of employees.

Multiskilled workers increase the organization’s flexibility and facilitate teamwork. A multiskilled work force is a key feature of the desired organization and a key objective of the training
activity.

Training should focus on developing technical skills and social skills. Technical skills are the job-related skills to do the technical tasks of the job. Social skills are the skills of personal interaction and
administration which, together, enable team members to work collaboratively to manage their business.

Examples of Positive Reinforcement. Successful teams celebrate their success. The
sports world is filled with examples of how positive reinforcement drives continuous improvement:
A football player who scores is immediately congratulated by fellow players; a baseball player who
hits a home run is congratulated by fellow base runners who await him at home plate;

Lester Thurow (1992) states in his book Head to Head: “The skills of the workforce are going to be
the key competitive weapon in the twenty-first century. Brainpower will create new technologies, but
skilled labor will be the arms and legs that allow one to employ—to be the low-cost masters of—the
new product and process technologies that are being generated.”

Those organizations that get the highest performance from employees who can work together effectively with the technology of their systems are projected to be long-term maximizers.
This is not easy to implement. If it were easy, every good company would be working to make
itself a high-performing organization.






---------------------------------


Industrial Engineering, Productivity and Quality


F.W. Taylor: Industrial Engineers to Guard Against Deterioration of Quality Due to Increase in Output.


One of the dangers to be guarded against, when the pay of the man or woman is made in any way to depend on the quantity of the work done, is that in the effort to increase the quantity the quality is apt to deteriorate.

It is necessary ... to take definite steps to insure against any falling off in quality before moving in any way towards an increase in quantity.

https://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2013/08/illustrations-of-success-of-scientific_9321.html



Evolution of The Quality Management Philosophy and Practice

https://nraomtr.blogspot.com/2017/03/evolution-of-quality-management.html




Updated frequently

Pub 23.5.2022, 6.5.2022,  20.4.2022










7 comments:

  1. Taylor's Industrial Engineering - Process/Operation Element Level Productivity Improvement & Production Rate Determination
    #IndustrialEngineering
    http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2021/09/taylors-industrial-engineering.html

    ReplyDelete
  2. Are you doing it? Machine productivity improvement.
    Taylor's Industrial Engineering - Machine Utilization Economy.
    Principles and Practices for Improving Machine Productivity - F.W. Taylor
    #IndustrialEngineering #Productivity #CostReduction #MachineUtilization
    http://nraoiekc.blogspot.com/2017/06/machine-utilization-economy-principle.html

    ReplyDelete
  3. There is A LOT of information here!

    I can't imagine things like "craft" pin-making -- while I understand the one-person-completes-18-steps concept on an intellectual level, it's so far removed from how things work on a mass production scale that it feels like an impossibly foreign concept!

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Yes. But still in many countries, home based production is going on with one artisan producing the complete product like a saree or a shirt by tailor.

      Delete
  4. thank you for sharing blog like this, keep doing this. jbims mba eligibility

    ReplyDelete
  5. Wow, that's a lot. Congratulations on packing so much into a blog post.
    Stopping by from the A to Z ROAD TRIP!
    "Happiness is not something you postpone for the future; it is something you design for the present." - Jim Rohn

    I recently completed the Bout of Books readathon and the latest WEP flash fiction.
    Fun fact: August is the only name of a month that's also a popular name among 👶 baby boys.

    J Lenni Dorner (he/him 👨🏽 or 🧑🏽 they/them) ~ Reference& Speculative Fiction Author, OperationAwesome6 Debut Author Interviewer, and Co-host of the #AtoZchallenge

    ReplyDelete